Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1913-1936; doi:10.3390/nu5061913
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Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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Received: 18 February 2013; in revised form: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.
Keywords: calcium homeostasis; aging; chronic kidney disease; mineral and bone disorder; vascular calcification; secondary hyperparathyroidism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tejwani, V.; Qian, Q. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1913-1936.

AMA Style

Tejwani V, Qian Q. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(6):1913-1936.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tejwani, Vickram; Qian, Qi. 2013. "Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 6: 1913-1936.

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