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Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women
Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471 Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
Spencer Gulf Rural Health School, 111 Nicolson Ave, Whyalla Norrie, South Australia 5608, Australia
CSIRO Food & Nutritional Science, Kintore Ave, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2013; in revised form: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Abstract: A number of intervention studies have reported that the prevalence of obesity may be in part inversely related to dairy food consumption while others report no association. We sought to examine relationships between energy, protein and calcium consumption from dairy foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, dairy spreads, ice-cream) and adiposity including body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and direct measures of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (% body fat and abdominal fat) in an opportunistic sample of 720 overweight/obese Australian men and women. Mean (SD) age, weight and BMI of the population were 51 ± 10 year, 94 ± 18 kg and 32.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, respectively. Reduced fat milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product (235 ± 200 g/day), followed by whole milk (63 ± 128 g/day) and yoghurt (53 ± 66 g/day). Overall dairy food consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with BMI, % body fat and WC (all p < 0.05). Dairy protein and dairy calcium (g/day) were both inversely associated with all adiposity measures (all p < 0.05). Yoghurt consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with % body fat, abdominal fat, WC and HC (all p < 0.05), while reduced fat milk consumption was inversely associated with BMI, WC, HC and % body fat (all p < 0.05). Within a sample of obese adults, consumption of dairy products, dairy protein, and calcium was associated with more favourable body composition.
Keywords: dairy products; dairy protein; body composition; abdominal fat; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Murphy, K.J.; Crichton, G.E.; Dyer, K.A.; Coates, A.M.; Pettman, T.L.; Milte, C.; Thorp, A.A.; Berry, N.M.; Buckley, J.D.; Noakes, M.; Howe, P.R.C. Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4665-4684.
Murphy KJ, Crichton GE, Dyer KA, Coates AM, Pettman TL, Milte C, Thorp AA, Berry NM, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Howe PRC. Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4665-4684.
Murphy, Karen J.; Crichton, Georgina E.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Coates, Alison M.; Pettman, Tahna L.; Milte, Catherine; Thorp, Alicia A.; Berry, Narelle M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Noakes, Manny; Howe, Peter R.C. 2013. "Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4665-4684.