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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Open AccessBrief Report Neurotensin Is a Lipid-Induced Gastrointestinal Peptide Associated with Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040526
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and
[...] Read more.
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and the development of insulin-resistance. In humans, higher plasma levels of pro-NT, which is the stable circulating precursor of NT, predict obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. In obesity, the presence of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation leads to unfavorable metabolic outcomes and is associated with the development of T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma pro-NT levels and the presence of VAT inflammation in biopsies from 40 morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. We demonstrated that higher proNT levels are significantly associated with greater macrophages infiltration, HIF-1α, WISP-1, and UNC5B expression in VAT (all p < 0.01) due to the diagnosis of T2D and NAFLD. The overall results show that, in obesity, pro-NT is a biomarker of VAT inflammation and insulin-resistance. Additionally, NT may be involved in the development of dysmetabolic conditions likely mediated by increased gut fat absorption and the presence of a proinflammatory milieu in the adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched and Hydroxyhydroquinone-Reduced Coffee on Postprandial Fat Oxidation and Antioxidative Capacity in Healthy Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040525
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here
[...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here we assessed the effects of CGA-enriched and HHQ-reduced coffee on FOX. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (age: 38 ± 8 years (mean ± SD); BMI: 22.4 ± 1.5 kg/m2) participated in this crossover study. Subjects consumed the test beverage (coffee) containing the same amount of CGA with HHQ (CGA-HHQ(+)) or without HHQ (CGA-HHQ(−)) for four weeks. Postprandial FOX and the ratio of the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) to the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) as an indicator of oxidative stress were assessed. After the four-week intervention, postprandial FOX and the postprandial BAP/d-ROMs ratio were significantly higher in the CGA-HHQ(−) group compared with the CGA-HHQ(+) group (4 ± 23 mg/min, group effect: p = 0.040; 0.27 ± 0.74, group effect: p = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, reducing the amount of HHQ facilitated the postprandial FOX effects of CGA in coffee. Our findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibition of FOX by HHQ is related to postprandial oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Design and Reproducibility of a Mini-Survey to Evaluate the Quality of Food Intake (Mini-ECCA) in a Mexican Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040524
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Evaluating food intake quality may contribute to the development of nutrition programs. In Mexico, there are no screening tools that can be administered quickly for the evaluation of this variable. The aim was to determine the reproducibility of a mini-survey designed to evaluate
[...] Read more.
Evaluating food intake quality may contribute to the development of nutrition programs. In Mexico, there are no screening tools that can be administered quickly for the evaluation of this variable. The aim was to determine the reproducibility of a mini-survey designed to evaluate the quality of food intake (Mini-ECCA) in a Mexican population. Mini-ECCA consists of 12 questions that are based on Mexican and international recommendations for food and non-alcoholic beverage intake, with the support of photographs for food quantity estimation. Each question scores as 0 (unhealthy) or 1 (healthy), and the final score undergoes a classification procedure. Through the framework of a nutritional study, 152 employees of the municipal water company in Guadalajara, Mexico (April–August 2016), were invited to participate. The survey was administered in two rounds (test and retest) with a 15-day interval between them. We calculated the Spearman correlation coefficient, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and weighted kappa for score classification agreement (SPSS versus 14 p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). The survey obtained a “good” reproducibility (ρ = 0.713, p < 0.001), and an excellent concordance (ICC = 0.841 Confidence Interval 95% 0.779, 0.885). It can thus be said that the Mini-ECCA displayed acceptable reproducibility and is suitable for the purpose of dietary assessment and guidance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ethanol Extract of Evodia rutaecarpa Attenuates Cell Growth through Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-1 Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040523
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the
[...] Read more.
The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the fruits of E. rutaecarpa against various diseases, their effects against BPH have not been reported. Here, we investigated the inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa (EEER) against BPH, and its underlying mechanisms regarding cell growth of BPH using BPH-1 cells. An in vitro 5α-reductase activity assay showed that EEER exhibited inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase. In BPH-1 cells, EEER treatment inhibited cell viability and reduced the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and phosphor-ERK1/2 proteins. Moreover, EEER also induced apoptosis, with chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Regarding its underlying mechanisms, EEER exacerbated the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner and eventually caused the cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these data demonstrated that EEER had a potent 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and that EEER treatment in BPH-1 cells inhibited cell viability via caspase-8- and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, EEER may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of BPH. Full article
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Open AccessReview Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040522
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a secondary metabolite naturally synthesized by a number of bacteria, microalgae, and yeasts. The commercial production of this pigment has traditionally been performed by chemical synthesis, but the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis appears to be the most promising source
[...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a secondary metabolite naturally synthesized by a number of bacteria, microalgae, and yeasts. The commercial production of this pigment has traditionally been performed by chemical synthesis, but the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis appears to be the most promising source for its industrial biological production. Due to its collective diverse functions in skin biology, there is mounting evidence that astaxanthin possesses various health benefits and important nutraceutical applications in the field of dermatology. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which astaxanthin might exert its benefits on skin homeostasis have been proposed, including photoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. This review summarizes the available data on the functional role of astaxanthin in skin physiology, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to astaxanthin, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stability of Antiradical Activity of Protein Extracts and Hydrolysates from Dry-Cured Pork Loins with Probiotic Strains of LAB
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040521
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to
[...] Read more.
The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of antiradical activity of protein extracts from LAB-inoculated dry-cured pork loins during long-term aging and evaluate their hydrolysates after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Analyses of hydrolysates by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were strengthened with in silico analysis. The highest antiradical activity of the protein extracts was observed after 180 days of aging. The influence of the strain used (LOCK, BAUER, or BB12) on the inactivation ability of ABTS radicals varied during long-term aging. The IC50 values indicated the higher antiradical properties of salt-soluble (SSF) compared to water-soluble fraction (WSF) of proteins. The peptides generated by in vitro digestion have MW between 700 and 4232 Da and their length ranged from 5 to 47 amino acids in a sequence where Leu, Pro, Lys, Glu, and His had the largest share. This study demonstrates that the degradation of pork muscle proteins during gastrointestinal digestion may give rise to a wide variety of peptides with antiradical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale)
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040520
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of
[...] Read more.
The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women (n = 297) were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain). Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75), which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.841, CI95% = 0.735–0.948), showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On a Molecular Basis, Investigate Association of Molecular Structure with Bioactive Compounds, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Chemical and Nutrient Profiles of Canola Seeds and Co-Products from Canola Processing: Comparison Crusher Plants within Canada and within China as well as between Canada and China
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040519
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular
[...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular structure using Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR-ATR) molecular spectroscopy technique; (b) bioactive compounds, anti-nutritional factors, and chemical composition; and (c) bioenergy values in oil seeds (canola seeds), co-products (meal or pellets) from bio-oil processing plants in Canada in comparison with China. (3) Determine the relationship between protein molecular structural features and nutrient profiles in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. Our results showed the possibility to characterize protein molecular structure using FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Processing induced changes between oil seeds and co-products were found in the chemical, bioenergy profiles and protein molecular structure. However, no strong correlation was found between the chemical and nutrient profiles of oil seeds (canola seeds) and their protein molecular structure. On the other hand, co-products were strongly correlated with protein molecular structure in the chemical profile and bioenergy values. Generally, comparisons of oil seeds (canola seeds) and co-products (meal or pellets) in Canada, in China, and between Canada and China indicated the presence of variations among different crusher plants and bio-oil processing products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Accuracy of Automatic Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat and Calorie Counting Based on Voice Descriptions of Meals in People with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040518
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of automatic macronutrient and calorie counting based on voice descriptions of meals provided by people with unstable type 1 diabetes using the developed expert system (VoiceDiab) in comparison with reference counting made by
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of automatic macronutrient and calorie counting based on voice descriptions of meals provided by people with unstable type 1 diabetes using the developed expert system (VoiceDiab) in comparison with reference counting made by a dietitian, and to evaluate the impact of insulin doses recommended by a physician on glycemic control in the study’s participants. We also compared insulin doses calculated using the algorithm implemented in the VoiceDiab system. Meal descriptions were provided by 30 hospitalized patients (mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.4%, i.e., 68 mmol/mol). In 16 subjects, the physician determined insulin boluses based on the data provided by the system, and in 14 subjects, by data provided by the dietitian. On one hand, differences introduced by patients who subjectively described their meals compared to those introduced by the system that used the average characteristics of food products, although statistically significant, were low enough not to have a significant impact on insulin doses automatically calculated by the system. On the other hand, the glycemic control of patients was comparable regardless of whether the physician was using the system-estimated or the reference content of meals to determine insulin doses. Full article
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Open AccessReview Acid Balance, Dietary Acid Load, and Bone Effects—A Controversial Subject
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040517
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body
[...] Read more.
Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body and progressively increasing degrees of metabolic acidosis, the body has multiple systems to buffer and titrate acid, including bone which contains large quantities of alkaline salts of calcium. Both in vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans suggest that bone base helps neutralize part of the dietary net acid load. This raises the question of whether decades of eating a high acid diet might contribute to the loss of bone mass in osteoporosis. If this idea is true, then additional alkali ingestion in the form of net base-producing foods or alkalinizing salts could potentially prevent this acid-related loss of bone. Presently, data exists that support both the proponents as well as the opponents of this hypothesis. Recent literature reviews have tended to support either one side or the other. Assuming that the data cited by both sides is correct, we suggest a way to reconcile the discordant findings. This overview will first discuss dietary acids and bases and the idea of changes in acid balance with increasing age, then review the evidence for and against the usefulness of alkali therapy as a treatment for osteoporosis, and finally suggest a way of reconciling these two opposing points of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
Open AccessArticle Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040516
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level.
[...] Read more.
Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p < 0.05) by household salt iodine category. Other significant differences were by strata and by household vulnerability to poverty in India and Ghana. In multiple variable regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001). Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.3, 2.0) times higher (India) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6) times higher (Ghana) among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001) and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015); and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029) (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4). No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle The Mediating Role of Overweight and Obesity in the Prospective Association between Overall Dietary Quality and Healthy Aging
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040515
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Our objective was to quantify to what extent the association between adherence to the French nutritional recommendations at midlife, measured by the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), and healthy aging (HA) is mediated by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods: We
[...] Read more.
Background: Our objective was to quantify to what extent the association between adherence to the French nutritional recommendations at midlife, measured by the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), and healthy aging (HA) is mediated by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods: We analyzed data from 2249 participants of the French ‘Supplementation with Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants’ (SU.VI.MAX-‘SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants’) cohort. At baseline (1994–1995), data on BMI status (<25 vs. ≥25 and <30 vs. ≥30) and diet were collected. At follow-up (2007–2009), HA status (yes/no) was evaluated via a multidimensional concept focusing on chronic disease incidence, physical and cognitive functioning, mental and social health, pain, and perceived health. Relative risks (RR) were estimated by extensively adjusted robust-error-variance Poisson regression, and counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed. Results: Our HA criteria were met by 39% of participants. We identified a positive direct relation of a greater adherence to the French nutritional recommendations, with the probability of HA (RRQuartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 1.53)), and an indirect relation mediated by BMI status (1.01 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.02)), accounting for 5% of the total relation. Conclusion: These results indicate that high dietary quality may contribute to the preservation of overall health during aging, partly via obesity prevention and partly via other mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prophylactic Neuroprotection of Total Glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba against Semen Strychni-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Reducing the Absorption of Toxic Components
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040514
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Strychnos alkaloids (SAs) are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total
[...] Read more.
Strychnos alkaloids (SAs) are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba (TGP). An SA brain damage model was firstly established. The neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of TGP were confirmed by physical and behavioral testing, biochemical assay, and histological examination. Then, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to investigate the time-course change and distribution of strychnine and brucine (two main SAs) in the brain after oral SA administration with or without TGP pretreatment. Biochemical analysis results indicated that TGP could ameliorate the oxidative stress status caused by SAs. Time-course change and distribution studies demonstrated that strychnine and brucine were rapidly absorbed into the brain, peaked early at 0.5 h, and were mainly located in the hippocampus and cerebellum. TGP showed a pre-protective effect against neurotoxicity by reducing the absorption of toxic alkaloids into the brain. These findings could provide beneficial information in facilitating future studies of Semen Strychni neurotoxicity and developing herbal medicines to alleviate neurotoxicity in the clinic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iodine Deficiency in a Study Population of Norwegian Pregnant Women—Results from the Little in Norway Study (LiN)
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040513
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150–250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status
[...] Read more.
Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150–250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status in pregnant Norwegian women. The study comprises a cross-sectional population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women (Little in Norway (LiN)). Median UIC in 954 urine samples was 85 µg/L and 78.4% of the samples (n = 748) were ≤150 µg/L. 23.2% (n = 221) of the samples were ≤50 µg/L and 5.2% (n = 50) were above the requirements of iodine intake (>250 µg/L). Frequent iodine-supplement users (n = 144) had significantly higher UIC (120 µg/L) than non-frequent users (75 µg/L). Frequent milk and dairy product consumers (4–9 portions/day) had significantly higher UIC (99 µg/L) than women consuming 0–1 portion/day (57 µg/L) or 2–3 portions/day (83 µg/L). Women living in mid-Norway (n = 255) had lowest UIC (72 µg/L). In conclusion, this study shows that the diet of the pregnant women did not necessarily secure a sufficient iodine intake. There is an urgent need for public health strategies to secure adequate iodine nutrition among pregnant women in Norway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040512
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect acid–base balance.
[...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect acid–base balance. Major determinants of net endogenous acid production are the generation of large amounts of hydrogen ions, mostly by animal-derived protein, which is counterbalanced by the metabolism of base-producing foods like fruits and vegetables. Alkali therapy of chronic metabolic acidosis can be achieved by providing an alkali-rich diet or oral administration of alkali salts. The primary goal of dietary treatment should be to increase the proportion of fruits and vegetables and to reduce the daily protein intake to 0.8–1.0 g per kg body weight. Diet modifications should begin early, i.e., even in patients with moderate kidney impairment, because usual dietary habits of many developed societies contribute an increased proportion of acid equivalents due to the high intake of protein from animal sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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