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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Dietary Inflammatory Index and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: The Diabetes Mellitus Survey of Mexico City
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040385
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Diet and inflammation are both associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we aimed to assess the relation between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the presence of T2DM in Mexican adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey administered
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Diet and inflammation are both associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we aimed to assess the relation between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the presence of T2DM in Mexican adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey administered in Mexico City (DMS-MC). The study involved 1174 subjects (48.5% men) between 20–69 years of age. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was employed to evaluate dietary intake and to compute DII. The DII is based on scientific evidence about the association between dietary compounds and six established inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of DII in relation to T2DM. Our results suggest that subjects in the highest quintile of the DII had higher odds of T2DM (OR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.39, 6.58; p = 0.005) compared to subjects in the lowest quintile of DII scores. Assessing possible effect modification, an association with T2DM was evident when comparing DII quintile 5 to quintile 1 for participants aged ≥ 55 years (OR = 9.77; 95% CI: 3.78, 25.50; p = 0.001). These results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with significantly higher odds of T2DM among adult Mexicans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions)
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Open AccessArticle Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis and the Effect of Vitamin K2 on Calcification Using 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance: The BASIK2 Rationale and Trial Design
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040386
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are
[...] Read more.
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression. Being a vitamin K dependent protein, supplementation with MK7 is a pharmacological option for activating MGP and intervening in the progression of CAVS. Forty-four subjects with BAV and mild–moderate CAVS will be included in the study, and baseline 18F-sodiumfluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET)/ magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) assessments will be performed. Thereafter, subjects will be randomized (1:1) to MK7 (360 mcg/day) or placebo. During an 18-month follow-up period, subjects will visit the hospital every 6 months, undergoing a second 18F-NaF PET/MR after 6 months and CT after 6 and 18 months. The primary endpoint is the change in PET/MR 18F-NaF uptake (6 months minus baseline) compared to this delta change in the placebo arm. The main secondary endpoints are changes in calcium score (CT), progression of the left ventricularremodeling response and CAVS severity (echocardiography). We will also examine the association between early calcification activity (PET) and later changes in calcium score (CT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Niacin and Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040387
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Glaucoma is a leading cause of loss of sight. High intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most critical risk factor. However, glaucoma develops even within a normal IOP range. Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is more common in Asia, whereas high tension glaucoma is more
[...] Read more.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of loss of sight. High intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most critical risk factor. However, glaucoma develops even within a normal IOP range. Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is more common in Asia, whereas high tension glaucoma is more common in Western countries. The pathogenesis of glaucoma, especially NTG, is poorly understood. We evaluated the correlation between dietary nutrient intake and glaucoma using data from subjects ≥40 years old from the ongoing, nationwide, population-based study, the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2008–2012). Dietary intake was determined using the 24 h recall method. Fiber (g/day), ash (g/day), calcium (mg/day), phosphorus (mg/day), iron (mg/day), sodium (mg/day), potassium (mg/day), β-Carotene (μg/day), retinol (μg/day), vitamin A (μg Retinol Equivalents/day), thiamine (mg/day), riboflavin (mg/day), niacin (mg/day), and vitamin C (mg/day) were included in nutrient intake data. All nutrient intake was divided into quartiles. The mean IOP did not differ according to quartiles from any nutrients (all p > 0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, income status, education level, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diabetes, hypertension, IOP, and total energy, the intake of niacin was associated with glaucoma (p = 0.013). Among subjects with IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, only niacin was related to glaucoma in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.022). Dietary nutrient intake was associated with open-angle glaucoma independent of IOP. Individuals with NTG showed lower intake of niacin among nutrients. This finding suggests the possibility that proper diet counseling may be another modifiable factor, aside from IOP, particularly among patients with NTG. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Gradients and Physical Activity Trends in an Obesogenic Dietary Pattern: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040388
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet
[...] Read more.
An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) for the first time. Data came from participants (n = 4636 children and n = 4738 adults) with 4-day food diaries in NDNS 2008–2014. Reduced rank regression was applied to 51 food groups to explain variation in energy density, fibre and fat intake. Consistency of the pattern in population subgroups (according to sex, age, occupation and income) was compared with the whole sample pattern using coefficients of congruence (COC). Pattern correlates (sociodemographic, survey year, physical activity and eating related behaviours) were explored using multiple linear regression. Food group loadings were similar to the previously identified obesogenic dietary pattern and were generalisable across all sub-groups (COC: 0.93–0.99). An obesogenic diet was associated with eating takeaways, being omnivorous, a manual household occupation and lower household income in both adults and children (p < 0.0001). Dieting for weight loss, being older, more physically active and less sedentary was associated with a less obesogenic diet among adults (p < 0.0001). Future experimental studies should investigate if changes in this obesogenic pattern could be used to monitor the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies or develop personalised interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040389
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level
[...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL) and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years) were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Meat Consumption and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from the Korean Population and a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040390
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Many studies have reported harmful effects of red meat or processed meat on chronic diseases including cancer and diabetes, but epidemiological evidence for metabolic syndrome is limited and remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the association between
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Many studies have reported harmful effects of red meat or processed meat on chronic diseases including cancer and diabetes, but epidemiological evidence for metabolic syndrome is limited and remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the association between various meat consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome. The PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through June 2017, and further included unpublished results from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2015, including 8387 Korean adults. Sixteen studies were suitable for meta-analysis, which included 19,579 cases among 76,111 participants. We used a random-effects model to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The pooled RR for metabolic syndrome of the highest versus lowest category of meat intake was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.23) for total meat, 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.74) for red meat, 1.35 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.54) for processed meat, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.97) for white meat. All of these associations did not differ significantly by study design and adjustment factors. Our findings indicated that total, red, and processed meat intake is positively associated with metabolic syndrome, and white meat intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Place of Residence, Gender and Age Influence on Food Group Choices in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040392
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Socioeconomic factors (SEF) can exert a great impact on food choices. However, limited data are available from the Spanish population. Our aim was to describe the influence of place of residence and habitat size on food group intakes. Data were obtained from the
[...] Read more.
Socioeconomic factors (SEF) can exert a great impact on food choices. However, limited data are available from the Spanish population. Our aim was to describe the influence of place of residence and habitat size on food group intakes. Data were obtained from the ANIBES study. A 3-day dietary record provided information on food and beverage consumption. Data analysis compared gender, age, Nielsen geographic areas, and habitat population size (urban, semi-urban, and rural). Place of residence did not appear to be a determinant for specific food group consumption during childhood and adolescence, as only higher intakes of non-alcoholic beverages were observed among children aged 9 to 12 years living in the East, when compared to those from the Northwest of Spain (p < 0.05). Food choices within adults (18 to 64 years) and seniors (65 to 75 years) were conditioned: sugar and sweets intake was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for adult men living in the Northwest than those from the South, and senior males from North Central areas had significantly higher consumption of eggs (p < 0.05) compared to the Northeast. Basic food group consumption was only affected during childhood and aging. Adults who inhabited rural areas consumed greater quantities of fats and oils than those from higher population densities (p < 0.01). Our results indicate that place of residence and habitat size have a limited influence on food choices, regardless of age and gender in the ANIBES study population. It is fundamental to acknowledge that other SEF variables are important and further studies are needed to monitor and assess these influences are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Commercially Available Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Subjective Appetite and Short-Term Food Intake in Girls
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040394
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: The effect of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on satiety and short-term food intake (FI) regulation in girls has received little attention. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of pre-meal consumption of commercially available SSBs on subjective appetite and
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Background: The effect of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on satiety and short-term food intake (FI) regulation in girls has received little attention. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of pre-meal consumption of commercially available SSBs on subjective appetite and short-term FI in 9–14-year-old girls. The methods we used include using a randomized crossover design in which 28 girls consumed isovolumetric amounts (350 mL) of a fruit drink (154 kcal), cola (158 kcal), 1% chocolate milk (224 kcal), or water (control; 0 kcal) on four separate mornings. Subjective appetite and thirst were measured at regular intervals via visual analogue scales (VAS) and FI was assessed at 60 min post-beverage consumption. The results show that subjective appetite and thirst decreased after all beverages, but did not differ among beverages. Short-term FI was suppressed following consumption of chocolate milk (15%; p < 0.001) and cola (11%; p = 0.02) compared to the water control. However, cumulative energy intake (beverage (kcal) + test meal (kcal)) was not affected by beverage type. In conclusion, chocolate milk and cola, but not fruit drink, suppressed FI in girls while cumulative FI did not differ among treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Sialyllactose Does Not Influence Measures of Recognition Memory or Diurnal Activity in the Young Pig
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040395
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Sialic acid (SA) is an integral component of gangliosides and signaling molecules in the brain and its dietary intake may support cognitive development. We previously reported that feeding sialyllactose, a milk oligosaccharide that contains SA, alters SA content and diffusivity in the pig
[...] Read more.
Sialic acid (SA) is an integral component of gangliosides and signaling molecules in the brain and its dietary intake may support cognitive development. We previously reported that feeding sialyllactose, a milk oligosaccharide that contains SA, alters SA content and diffusivity in the pig brain. The present research sought to expand upon such results and describe the effects of feeding sialyllactose on recognition memory and sleep/wake activity using a translational pig model. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to a customized milk replacer containing 0 g/L or 380 g/L of sialyllactose from postnatal day (PND) 2–22. Beginning on PND 15, pigs were fitted with accelerometers to track home-cage activity and testing on the novel object recognition task began at PND 17. There were no significant effects of diet on average daily body weight gain, average daily milk intake, or the gain-to-feed ratio during the study (all p ≥ 0.11). Pigs on both diets were able to display recognition memory on the novel object recognition task (p < 0.01), but performance and exploratory behavior did not differ between groups (all p ≥ 0.11). Total activity and percent time spent sleeping were equivalent between groups during both day and night cycles (all p ≥ 0.56). Dietary sialyllactose did not alter growth performance of young pigs, and there was no evidence that providing SA via sialyllactose benefits the development of recognition memory or gross sleep-related behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Macular Xanthophylls Are Related to Intellectual Ability among Adults with Overweight and Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040396
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Excess adiposity or obesity has been inversely related to cognitive function and macular xanthophyll status. However, whether the neuroprotective effects of macular xanthophylls on cognitive function are independent of excess adiposity is unclear. We investigated the relationship between macular xanthophylls and intellectual ability
[...] Read more.
Excess adiposity or obesity has been inversely related to cognitive function and macular xanthophyll status. However, whether the neuroprotective effects of macular xanthophylls on cognitive function are independent of excess adiposity is unclear. We investigated the relationship between macular xanthophylls and intellectual ability among adults (N = 114) between 25 and 45 years with overweight and obesity (≥25 kg/m2). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry were used to assess whole body adiposity (%Fat) and macular pigment optical density (MPOD), respectively. Dietary xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were assessed using 7-day diet records. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2) was used to assess general intelligence (IQ) as well as fluid and crystallized intelligence. Bivariate correlations revealed that MPOD was inversely related to %Fat and positively associated with IQ and fluid intelligence. Although %Fat was inversely correlated to IQ and fluid intelligence, this relationship did not persist following adjustment for sex and MPOD. Further, MPOD was an independent predictor of IQ and fluid intelligence. However, no significant relationships were observed between MPOD and crystalized intelligence. These results suggest that macular xanthophylls are selectively related to fluid intelligence, regardless of degree of adiposity among adults with overweight and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of Magnesium or Calcium and Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Colorectal Cancer Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040398
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and severe side-effect in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study assessed the association between habitual dietary intake of magnesium or calcium and prevalence and severity of chronic CIPN in CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. For this
[...] Read more.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and severe side-effect in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study assessed the association between habitual dietary intake of magnesium or calcium and prevalence and severity of chronic CIPN in CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. For this prospective cohort study, 196 CRC patients were considered. Magnesium and calcium intake was determined using a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis, during and after chemotherapy. Chronic CIPN was assessed 12 months after diagnosis using the quality of life questionnaire CIPN20. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess the association between magnesium or calcium intake and the prevalence of CIPN. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between magnesium or calcium intake and severity of CIPN. CIPN was reported by 160 (82%) patients. Magnesium intake during chemotherapy was statistically significantly associated with lower prevalence of CIPN (prevalence ratio (PR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32, 0.92). Furthermore, higher dietary intake of magnesium during (β −1.08, 95% CI −1.95, −0.22) and after chemotherapy (β −0.93, 95% CI −1.81, −0.06) was associated with less severe CIPN. No associations were found for calcium intake and the prevalence and severity of CIPN. To conclude, we observed an association between higher dietary magnesium intake and lower prevalence and severity of CIPN in CRC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber and Telomere Length in 5674 U.S. Adults: An NHANES Study of Biological Aging
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040400
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between fiber intake and telomere length was evaluated using a cross-sectional design and an NHANES sample of 5674 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the impact of potential confounders on the association. Fiber consumption was measured using a 24 h
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The relationship between fiber intake and telomere length was evaluated using a cross-sectional design and an NHANES sample of 5674 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the impact of potential confounders on the association. Fiber consumption was measured using a 24 h recall and telomere length was indexed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Overall, the U.S. adults had low fiber intake (median: 6.6 g per 1000 kcal)—less than one-half the recommendation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. With age, gender, race, housing status, and misreported energy intake controlled, the relationship between fiber intake per 1000 kcal and telomere length was linear (F = 9.5, p = 0.0045). Specifically, for each 1 g increment in fiber intake per 1000 kcal, telomeres were 8.3 base pairs longer. Because each additional year of chronological age was associated with telomeres that were 15.5 base pairs shorter, results suggest that a 10 g increase in fiber intake per 1000 kcal would correspond with telomeres that are 83 base pairs longer. On average, this would equate to 5.4 fewer years of biologic aging (83 ÷ 15.5). With smoking, BMI, alcohol use, and physical activity controlled, as well as the other covariates, each 10 g increment in fiber accounted for telomeres that were 67 base pairs longer (F = 7.6, p = 0.0101), a biologic aging difference of about 4.3 years. In conclusion, significant fiber consumption accounts for longer telomeres and less biologic aging than lower levels of fiber intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Association between Maternal and Foetal Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profiles and Birth Weight
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040402
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Regular foetal development is crucial for assuring good health status in the offspring. The quality and quantity of maternal dietary fatty acids (FAs) can affect growth. The study aimed to: (1) investigate the association of maternal/foetal lipid profiles with birth weight (BW); and
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Regular foetal development is crucial for assuring good health status in the offspring. The quality and quantity of maternal dietary fatty acids (FAs) can affect growth. The study aimed to: (1) investigate the association of maternal/foetal lipid profiles with birth weight (BW); and (2) compare these profiles in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA) infants. FAs were measured in erythrocyte membranes using gas chromatography analysis in 607 mother–infant pairs (316 males, 52.1%). In the quantile regression, a significant association between BW and levels of maternal linoleic acid (LA; C18:2, n-6; coefficient: 18.66; p = 0.010), arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6; coefficient: 11.35; p = 0.007), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3; coefficient: 29.73; p = 0.007), polyunsaturated FAs (coefficient: 8.55; p = 0.001), foetal DHA (coefficient: −22.82; p = 0.037), and saturated FAs (coefficient: −65.41; p = 0.002) was found. Myristic (C14:0) and pentadecanoic acids (C15:0), both maternal (p = 0.000; p = 0.017) and foetal (p = 0.009; p = 0.002), and maternal erucic acid (C22:1, n-9; p = 0.026) were found at higher levels in SGA infants as compared to AGA ones. Conversely, maternal LA, AA, and omega 6 FAs levels were higher in AGA infants (p = 0.037; p = 0.003; p = 0.026, respectively). Maternal and foetal polyunsaturated and omega 6 FAs levels are positively related to BW, while a lipid profile rich in saturated FAs and erucic acid may influence the risk of SGA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Folinic Acid Increases Protein Arginine Methylation in Human Endothelial Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040404
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. Cellular hypomethylation has been suggested to be a key pathophysiologic mechanism, since S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), the Hcy metabolic precursor and
[...] Read more.
Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. Cellular hypomethylation has been suggested to be a key pathophysiologic mechanism, since S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), the Hcy metabolic precursor and a potent inhibitor of methyltransferase activity, accumulates in the setting of hyperhomocysteinemia. In this study, the impact of folate and methionine on intracellular AdoHcy levels and protein arginine methylation status was studied. Human endothelial cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of folinic acid (FnA), a stable precursor of folate, with or without methionine restriction. The levels of intracellular AdoHcy and AdoMet, tHcy in the cell culture medium, and protein-incorporated methylarginines were evaluated by suitable liquid chromatography techniques. FnA supplementation, with or without methionine restriction, reduced the level of tHcy and did not affect intracellular AdoMet levels. Interestingly, FnA supplementation reduced intracellular AdoHcy levels only in cells grown under methionine restriction. Furthermore, these cells also displayed increased protein arginine methylation status. These observations suggest that folic acid supplementation may enhance cellular methylation capacity under a low methionine status. Our results lead us to hypothesize that the putative benefits of folic acid supplementation in restoring endothelial homeostasis, thus preventing atherothrombotic events, should be reevaluated in subjects under a methionine restriction diet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship with Frailty in Functionally Independent Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040406
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The impact of dietary patterns rather than single foods or nutrients on health outcomes is increasingly recognized. This cross-sectional study examines the dietary patterns of 527 non-institutionalized functionally independent older people aged ≥70 years from Gipuzkoa (Spain). Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, anthropometric measures
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The impact of dietary patterns rather than single foods or nutrients on health outcomes is increasingly recognized. This cross-sectional study examines the dietary patterns of 527 non-institutionalized functionally independent older people aged ≥70 years from Gipuzkoa (Spain). Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, anthropometric measures and dietary data are collected. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis are performed to identify dietary patterns and groups of individuals. Frequency of selected food items and compliance with food recommendations are included in the MCA. A high proportion of the sample population are overweight or obese, whereas only 3.3% are at risk of malnutrition (determined with the Mini Nutritional Assessment). Frail individuals (n = 130), measured with the Timed-Up and Go test are older, have a lower educational level, are more obese, present a poorer health status (more depressive symptoms, polypharmacy and falls, among others) and worse compliance with food recommendations than robust individuals (n = 392). Three groups of individuals are identified: cluster one (n = 285), cluster two (n = 194) and cluster three (n = 48). A gradient of increasing frailty and poorer health status is observed from cluster one to cluster three. The latter also shows the poorest dietary pattern, regarding dietary recommendations. The use of an easy-to-use tool to assess diet allows detection of differences among the three clusters. There is a need to increase awareness on the implementation of nutritional screening and a subsequent dietary assessment in primary care settings to provide nutritional care to elder, and moreover, frail individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Agronomic Iodine Biofortification: A SWOT-AHP Analysis in Northern Uganda
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040407
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders’ appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a
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Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders’ appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders (n = 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Iodine and Pregnancy—A Qualitative Study Focusing on Dietary Guidance and Information
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040408
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, ~60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO (World Health Organization) recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored the perceptions, awareness, and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women
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Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, ~60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO (World Health Organization) recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored the perceptions, awareness, and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n = 48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources of iodine, and recommendations for iodine intake. Attitudes toward dairy products consumption were positive (e.g., helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn, and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with a desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Does Vitamin D Deficiency Affect the Immunogenic Responses to Influenza Vaccination? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040409
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Influenza virus infection is a major global public health problem, and the efficacy of influenza vaccination is not satisfactory. Vitamin D is involved in many immune-mediated inflammatory processes. The impact of vitamin D levels on the immunogenic response to influenza vaccination is not
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Influenza virus infection is a major global public health problem, and the efficacy of influenza vaccination is not satisfactory. Vitamin D is involved in many immune-mediated inflammatory processes. The impact of vitamin D levels on the immunogenic response to influenza vaccination is not clear. We performed a comprehensive literature search and systematic review of studies that investigated vitamin D and influenza vaccination. Data pertaining to study population, vaccine components, vitamin D levels, and immunogenic response were analyzed. Nine studies, with a combined study population of 2367 patients, were included in the systematic review. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis to investigate the influence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on the seroprotection (SP) rates and seroconversion (SC) rates following influenza vaccination. We found no significant association between vitamin D level and the immunogenic response to influenza vaccination. However, strain-specific differences may exist. We observed lower SP rates of influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) and B strain in VDD patients than patients with normal vitamin D levels (A/H3N2: 71.8% vs. 80.1%, odds ratio (OR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43–0.91, p = 0.01; B strain: 69.6% vs. 76.4%, OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.5–0.93, p = 0.01). However, the SP rates of A/H1N1 and SC rates of all three strains were not significantly different in VDD and control groups. In conclusion, no association was observed between VDD and immunogenic response to influenza vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Towards an Integrative Understanding of tRNA Aminoacylation–Diet–Host–Gut Microbiome Interactions in Neurodegeneration
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040410
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics
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Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics and certain drugs increase tryptamine content in vivo. TrpRS catalyzes tryptophan attachment to tRNAtrp at initial step of protein biosynthesis. Tryptamine that easily crosses the blood–brain barrier induces vasculopathies, neurodegeneration and cell death via TrpRS competitive inhibition. TrpRS inhibitor tryptophanol produced by gut microbiome also induces neurodegeneration. TrpRS inhibition by tryptamine and its metabolites preventing tryptophan incorporation into proteins lead to protein biosynthesis impairment. Tryptophan, a least amino acid in food and proteins that cannot be synthesized by humans competes with frequent amino acids for the transport from blood to brain. Tryptophan is a vulnerable amino acid, which can be easily lost to protein biosynthesis. Some proteins marking neurodegenerative pathology, such as tau lack tryptophan. TrpRS exists in cytoplasmic (WARS) and mitochondrial (WARS2) forms. Pathogenic gene variants of both forms cause TrpRS deficiency with consequent intellectual and motor disabilities in humans. The diminished tryptophan-dependent protein biosynthesis in AD patients is a proof of our model-based disease concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Aging and Gut-Brain Axis)
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Open AccessArticle Global Correlates of Cardiovascular Risk: A Comparison of 158 Countries
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040411
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake
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The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake (supply) of 60 food items between 1993 and 2011, obesity rates, health expenditure and life expectancy. This comparison shows that the relationship between CVD indicators (raised blood pressure, CVD mortality, raised blood glucose) and independent variables in the global context is influenced by various factors, such as short life expectancy, religiously conditioned dietary customs, the imprecision of some statistics and undernutrition. However, regardless of the statistical method used, the results always show very similar trends and identify high carbohydrate consumption (mainly in the form of cereals and wheat, in particular) as the dietary factor most consistently associated with the risk of CVDs. These findings are in line with the changing view of the causes of CVDs. Because only the statistics of raised blood glucose include people using medications and reflect true prevalence that is independent of healthcare, more objective data on the prevalence of CVDs are needed to confirm these observed trends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs. Fat Mass/Height3 as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian Children and Young People
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040412
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI) and fat mass index (FMI) have been proposed as alternative approaches for assessing body fat since BMI does not ensure an accurate screening for obesity and overweight status in children and adolescents. This study proposes thresholds of the TMI
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Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI) and fat mass index (FMI) have been proposed as alternative approaches for assessing body fat since BMI does not ensure an accurate screening for obesity and overweight status in children and adolescents. This study proposes thresholds of the TMI and FMI for the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and young people. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 4673 participants (57.1% females), who were 9–25 years of age. As part of the study, measurements of the subjects’ weight, waist circumference, serum lipid indices, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were taken. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The TMI and FMI were calculated as weight (kg)/height (m3) and fat mass (kg)/height (m3), respectively. Following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition, MetS is defined as including three or more metabolic abnormalities. Cohort-specific thresholds were established to identify Colombian children and young people at high risk of MetS. The thresholds were applied to the following groups: (i) a cohort of children where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.13 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 12.10 kg/m3; (ii) a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.48 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 11.19 kg/m3; (iii) a cohort of young adults where the women’s TMI ≥ 13.21 kg/m3 and the men’s TMI ≥ 12.19 kg/m3. The FMI reference cut-off values used for the different groups were as follows: (i) a cohort of children where the girls’ FMI ≥ 2.59 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.98 fat mass/m3; (ii) a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ FMI ≥ 3.12 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.46 fat mass/m3; (iii) a cohort of adults where the women’s FMI ≥ 3.27 kg/m3 and the men’s FMI ≥ 1.65 kg/m3. Our results showed that the FMI and TMI had a moderate discriminatory power to detect MetS in Colombian children, adolescents, and young adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040413
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later
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The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Is What Low-Income Brazilians Are Eating in Popular Restaurants Contributing to Promote Their Health?
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040414
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
This study evaluates the healthfulness of the meals offered to and consumed by low-income Brazilians in Popular Restaurants (PR). It is a cross-sectional, exploratory study. The final sample includes 36 PRs, respecting the stratification criteria for each of the five Brazilian regions. To
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This study evaluates the healthfulness of the meals offered to and consumed by low-income Brazilians in Popular Restaurants (PR). It is a cross-sectional, exploratory study. The final sample includes 36 PRs, respecting the stratification criteria for each of the five Brazilian regions. To identify the quantity and quality of food consumption, consumers’ meals are evaluated. The sample calculation uses a minimum of 41 consumers in each PR. Consumption evaluation is carried out by weighing and direct observation of the meal that each consumer served to his plate. Each dish of the meals had its Technical preparation files (TPF) developed by observing the production and weighing all the ingredients. Evaluations of Energy density (ED), meal’s weight components and sodium composition are conducted. Plate’s composition is compared to “My plate” guidelines United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The final sample includes 1771 low-income Brazilians consumers. The plate of PRs consumers is adequate only for the “protein group” in comparison to “My plate”. Rice and beans compose more than 50% of the plate’s weight, as expected, since it is a Brazilian habit of consumption at lunch. Thus, grains are the major group consumed by PRs consumers. The average ED for all PRs is 1.34 kcal/g. Regarding sodium content, rice and main courses presented the highest values and are classified as high, according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Concerning sodium, PRs are putting Brazilian low-income population at risk for chronic diseases. However, in general, PRs are good choices because they promote access to cheap and quality traditional Brazilian foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040416
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant
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Background: The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood. Methods: We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014. Results: For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age (p = 0.005) and pregnant women (p = 0.002). Conclusions: It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Maternal Choline Supplementation during Normal Murine Pregnancy Alters the Placental Epigenome: Results of an Exploratory Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040417
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
The placental epigenome regulates processes that affect placental and fetal development, and could be mediating some of the reported effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental vascular development and nutrient delivery. As an extension of work previously conducted in pregnant mice, the
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The placental epigenome regulates processes that affect placental and fetal development, and could be mediating some of the reported effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental vascular development and nutrient delivery. As an extension of work previously conducted in pregnant mice, the current study sought to explore the effects of MCS on various epigenetic markers in the placenta. RNA and DNA were extracted from placentas collected on embryonic day 15.5 from pregnant mice fed a 1X or 4X choline diet, and were subjected to genome-wide sequencing procedures or mass-spectrometry-based assays to examine placental imprinted gene expression, DNA methylation patterns, and microRNA (miRNA) abundance. MCS yielded a higher (fold change = 1.63–2.25) expression of four imprinted genes (Ampd3, Tfpi2, Gatm and Aqp1) in the female placentas and a lower (fold change = 0.46–0.62) expression of three imprinted genes (Dcn, Qpct and Tnfrsf23) in the male placentas (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05 for both sexes). Methylation in the promoter regions of these genes and global placental DNA methylation were also affected (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, a lower (fold change = 0.3; Punadjusted = 2.05 × 10−4; FDR = 0.13) abundance of miR-2137 and a higher (fold change = 1.25–3.92; p < 0.05) expression of its target genes were detected in the 4X choline placentas. These data demonstrate that the placental epigenome is responsive to maternal choline intake during murine pregnancy and likely mediates some of the previously described choline-induced effects on placental and fetal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Aspects of Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Consuming a Low Dose of Alcohol with Mixers Containing Carbohydrate or Artificial Sweetener on Simulated Driving Performance
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040419
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
The Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) devised gender-based drinking recommendations to ensure blood or equivalized breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) remain <0.050%. However, these may be inappropriate for individuals consuming alcohol without carbohydrate (CHO), which results in higher BrACs. This study
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The Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) devised gender-based drinking recommendations to ensure blood or equivalized breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) remain <0.050%. However, these may be inappropriate for individuals consuming alcohol without carbohydrate (CHO), which results in higher BrACs. This study investigated the effects of ingesting alcohol with and without CHO on BrACs and simulated driving performance. Thirty-two participants (16 males; age: 23 ± 6 years) completed two randomized single-blinded trials. Participants performed a baseline drive (Drive 1), then an experimental drive (Drive 2), following alcohol consumption (males: 20 g; females: 10 g). Alcoholic beverages contained either 25 g sucrose or aspartame (AS). Driving performance was assessed using lateral control (standard deviation of lane position [SDLP] and number of lane departures) and risk-taking (number of overtaking maneuvers and maximum overtaking speed). BrAC and subjective ratings (e.g., intoxication) were also assessed. BrAC was significantly lower as Drive 2 commenced with CHO compared to AS (0.022 ± 0.008% vs. 0.030 ± 0.011%). Two males provided BrACs >0.050% with AS. Neither beverage influenced changes to simulated driving performance. Ingesting alcohol in quantities advised by the NDARC results in no detectable simulated driving impairment. However, the likelihood of exceeding the legal drink-driving BrAC is increased when alcohol is consumed with artificially-sweetened mixers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of LSGYGP from Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates on UVB-Induced MEFs by Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040420
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced
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A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). UVB irradiation significantly increased the intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities and decreased the content of collagen in MEFs. LSGYGP reduced the intercellular ROS generation in UVB-induced MEFs. Meanwhile, the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the increase of malondiaidehyde (MDA) content were inhibited by LSGYGP. LSGYGP reduced MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking simulation indicated that LSGYGP inhibited MMPs activities by docking the active sites of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, LSGYGP also affected the intercellular phosphorylation of UVB-induced the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. LSGYGP could protect collagen synthesis in MEFs under UVB irradiation by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating MMPs activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Behavioral Intervention in Adolescents Improves Bone Mass, Yet Lactose Maldigestion Is a Barrier
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040421
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Calcium intake during adolescence is important for attainment of peak bone mass. Lactose maldigestion is an autosomal recessive trait, leading to lower calcium intake. The Adequate Calcium Today study aimed to determine if a school-based targeted behavioral intervention over one year could improve
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Calcium intake during adolescence is important for attainment of peak bone mass. Lactose maldigestion is an autosomal recessive trait, leading to lower calcium intake. The Adequate Calcium Today study aimed to determine if a school-based targeted behavioral intervention over one year could improve calcium intake and bone mass in early adolescent girls. The school-randomized intervention was conducted at middle schools in six states over one school year. A total of 473 girls aged 10–13 years were recruited for outcome assessments. Bone mineral content (BMC) was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary calcium intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Baseline calcium intake and BMC were not significantly different between groups. After the intervention period, there were no differences in changes in calcium intake and BMC at any site between groups. An unanticipated outcome was a greater increase in spinal BMC among lactose digesters than lactose maldigesters in the intervention schools only (12 months) (6.9 ± 0.3 g vs. 6.0 ± 0.4 g, p = 0.03) and considering the entire study period (18 months) (9.9 ± 0.4 vs. 8.7 ± 0.5 g, p < 0.01). Overall, no significant differences between the intervention and control schools were observed. However, lactose digesters who received the intervention program increased bone mass to a greater extent than lactose maldigesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Iodine-Containing Dietary Supplements Remains Low among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES 2011–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040422
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
In the United States, the American Thyroid Association recommends that women take a dietary supplement containing 150 µg of iodine 3 months prior to conception and while pregnant and lactating to support fetal growth and neurological development. We used data from the National
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In the United States, the American Thyroid Association recommends that women take a dietary supplement containing 150 µg of iodine 3 months prior to conception and while pregnant and lactating to support fetal growth and neurological development. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014 to describe the use of dietary supplements with and without iodine in the past 30 days among 2155 non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL) women; 122 pregnant women; and 61 lactating women. Among NPNL women, 45.3% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 42.0, 48.6) used any dietary supplement and 14.8% (95% CI: 12.7, 16.8) used a dietary supplement with iodine in the past 30 days. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women were less likely to use any dietary supplement as well as one with iodine, than non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic Asian women (p < 0.05). Among pregnant women, 72.2% (95% CI: 65.8, 78.6) used any dietary supplement; however, only 17.8% (95% CI: 11.4, 24.3) used a dietary supplement with iodine. Among lactating women, 75.0% (95% CI: 63.0, 87.0) used a dietary supplement; however, only 19.0% (95% CI: 8.8, 29.2) used a dietary supplement with iodine. Among NPNL women using a supplement with iodine, median daily iodine intake was 75.0 µg. Self-reported data suggests that the use of iodine containing dietary supplements among pregnant and lactating women remains low in contrast with current recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040424
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA;
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This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15) or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17) groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance) over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post) between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001) in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL) as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Nutritional Status and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Geriatric Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040425
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are associated with nutritional risks resulting from low food intake. Little is known about the relationship between GIS and malnutrition in geriatric patients with ESRD. The main objective of this
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Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are associated with nutritional risks resulting from low food intake. Little is known about the relationship between GIS and malnutrition in geriatric patients with ESRD. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and severity of GIS in geriatric patients on dialysis therapy. Clinically-stable geriatric patients (older than 60 years old) who were dialysis outpatients were included in this cross-sectional study. The severity of GIS was assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire (GSQ, short version), with patients classified into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe. Nutritional status was evaluated with the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS), anthropometric assessment, biochemical parameters, and bioelectrical impedance. Descriptive statistics were used and differences between groups were analyzed with ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis, with a p < 0.05 considered to indicate significance. Fifty patients completed the study; the median age was 67 years old. Twenty-three patients were on hemodialysis (HD) and 27 were on peritoneal dialysis (PD). No significant differences were found according to dialysis modality, presence of diabetes, or gender. Ninety percent of patients had at least one GIS. Poorer nutritional status (evaluated by MIS) was related to a higher severity of GIS. There were no significant differences with other nutritional parameters. Our study showed a high prevalence of GIS in geriatric patients. There were no differences in observed GIS values that were attributed to dialysis modality, gender, or presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Severe GIS values were associated with poorer nutritional status determined by MIS, however, there was no association with anthropometry, biochemical values, or bioimpedance vector analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Enrichment of Probiotic Fermented Milk with Green Banana Pulp: Characterization Microbiological, Physicochemical and Sensory
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040427
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the growth kinetic of L. paracasei LBC 81 in fermented milks enriched with green banana pulp (GBP); (ii) to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of GBP on the chemical composition and the sensory
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The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the growth kinetic of L. paracasei LBC 81 in fermented milks enriched with green banana pulp (GBP); (ii) to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of GBP on the chemical composition and the sensory acceptance; and (iii) to study the viability of the probiotic and technological properties during refrigerated storage. The amount of GBP used were 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 g/100 g. The results show that the higher the concentration of GBP added, the shorter the time taken to reach pH 4.6. It was observed that the incorporation of GBP did not affect negatively the viability of L. paracasei LBC 81 during storage. The fermented milk elaborated with 6.0 g/100 g of GBP was the most accepted. The present study indicates that the enrichment of fermented milk with GBP favors the stability of the probiotic strain, L. paracasei LBC 81 during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Serum Ferritin Levels for Iron Deficiency Anemia during Oral Iron Therapy (OIT) in Japanese Hemodialysis Patients with Minor Inflammation and Benefit of Intravenous Iron Therapy for OIT-Nonresponders
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040428
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: We determined optimal serum ferritin for oral iron therapy (OIT) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA)/minor inflammation, and benefit of intravenous iron therapy (IIT) for OIT-nonresponders. Methods: Inclusion criteria were IDA (Hb <120 g/L, serum ferritin <227.4 pmol/L). Exclusion
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Background: We determined optimal serum ferritin for oral iron therapy (OIT) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA)/minor inflammation, and benefit of intravenous iron therapy (IIT) for OIT-nonresponders. Methods: Inclusion criteria were IDA (Hb <120 g/L, serum ferritin <227.4 pmol/L). Exclusion criteria were inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥ 5 mg/L), bleeding, or cancer. IIT was withheld >3 months before the study. ΔHb ≥ 20 g/L above baseline or maintaining target Hb (tHB; 120–130 g/L) was considered responsive. Fifty-one patients received OIT (ferrous fumarate, 50 mg/day) for 3 months; this continued in OIT-responders but was switched to IIT (saccharated ferric oxide, 40 mg/week) in OIT-nonresponders for 4 months. All received continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA). Hb, ferritin, hepcidin-25, and CERA dose were measured. Results: Demographics before OIT were similar between OIT-responders and OIT-nonresponders except low Hb and high triglycerides in OIT-nonresponders. Thirty-nine were OIT-responders with reduced CERA dose. Hb rose with a peak at 5 months. Ferritin and hepcidin-25 continuously increased. Hb positively correlated with ferritin in OIT-responders (r = 0.913, p = 0.03) till 5 months after OIT. The correlation equation estimated optimal ferritin of 30–40 ng/mL using tHb (120–130 g/L). Seven OIT-nonresponders were IIT-responders. Conclusions: Optimal serum ferritin for OIT is 67.4–89.9 pmol/L in HD patients with IDA/minor inflammation. IIT may be a second line of treatment for OIT-nonreponders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040429
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants
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We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6–116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Statistical Approach to Apportion Dietary Sources of Iodine Intake: Findings from Kenya, Senegal and India
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040430
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Progress of national Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategies is typically assessed by household coverage of adequately iodized salt and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot urine collections. However, household coverage does not inform on the iodized salt used in preparation of processed
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Progress of national Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategies is typically assessed by household coverage of adequately iodized salt and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot urine collections. However, household coverage does not inform on the iodized salt used in preparation of processed foods outside homes, nor does the total UIC reflect the portion of population iodine intake attributable to the USI strategy. This study used data from three population-representative surveys of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kenya, Senegal and India to develop and illustrate a new approach to apportion the population UIC levels by the principal dietary sources of iodine intake, namely native iodine, iodine in processed food salt and iodine in household salt. The technique requires measurement of urinary sodium concentrations (UNaC) in the same spot urine samples collected for iodine status assessment. Taking into account the different complex survey designs of each survey, generalized linear regression (GLR) analyses were performed in which the UIC data of WRA was set as the outcome variable that depends on their UNaC and household salt iodine (SI) data as explanatory variables. Estimates of the UIC portions that correspond to iodine intake sources were calculated with use of the intercept and regression coefficients for the UNaC and SI variables in each country’s regression equation. GLR coefficients for UNaC and SI were significant in all country-specific models. Rural location did not show a significant association in any country when controlled for other explanatory variables. The estimated UIC portion from native dietary iodine intake in each country fell below the minimum threshold for iodine sufficiency. The UIC portion arising from processed food salt in Kenya was substantially higher than in Senegal and India, while the UIC portions from household salt use varied in accordance with the mean level of household SI content in the country surveys. The UIC portions and all-salt-derived iodine intakes found in this study were illustrative of existing differences in national USI legislative frameworks and national salt supply situations between countries. The approach of apportioning the population UIC from spot urine collections may be useful for future monitoring of change in iodine nutrition from reduced salt use in processed foods and in households. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of the Satiety Effects of a Fruit Smoothie, Its Fresh Fruit Equivalent and Other Drinks
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040431
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Energy-containing liquids are claimed to have relatively low satiating power, although energy in liquids is not without effect on appetite. Using the preload test-meal method, effects on fullness and energy intake compensation were compared across four drinks (water, blackcurrant squash, milk and fruit
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Energy-containing liquids are claimed to have relatively low satiating power, although energy in liquids is not without effect on appetite. Using the preload test-meal method, effects on fullness and energy intake compensation were compared across four drinks (water, blackcurrant squash, milk and fruit smoothie) and the fresh fruit equivalent of the smoothie. Preload volumes were similar, and the energy value of each preload was 569 kJ, except for water (0 kJ). Healthy, adult participants rated the preloads for liking, enjoyment, satisfaction, familiarity and how ‘food-like’ they seemed. The preload to test-meal interval was 2 min (n = 23) or 2 h (n = 24). The effects of the preloads on fullness varied with food-likeness and the rate at which they were consumed. In contrast, energy intake compensation versus water did not differ between the energy-containing preloads, although it decreased over time (from 82% at 2 min to 12% at 2 h). In conclusion, although fullness increased with food-likeness, subsequent energy intake compensation did not differ for energy/nutrients consumed in drinks compared with a food. The results also support the proposal that food intake is influenced predominantly by the immediate, but rapidly waning, post-ingestive effects of the previous ‘meal’ (rather than by changes in energy balance). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Requirements for Computer-Supported Matching of Food Consumption Data with Food Composition Data
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040433
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper identifies the requirements for computer-supported food matching, in order to address not only national and European but also international current related needs and represents an integrated research contribution of the FP7 EuroDISH project. The available classification and coding systems and the
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This paper identifies the requirements for computer-supported food matching, in order to address not only national and European but also international current related needs and represents an integrated research contribution of the FP7 EuroDISH project. The available classification and coding systems and the specific problems of food matching are summarized and a new concept for food matching based on optimization methods and machine-based learning is proposed. To illustrate and test this concept, a study has been conducted in four European countries (i.e., Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and the UK) using different classification and coding systems. This real case study enabled us to evaluate the new food matching concept and provide further recommendations for future work. In the first stage of the study, we prepared subsets of food consumption data described and classified using different systems, that had already been manually matched with national food composition data. Once the food matching algorithm was trained using this data, testing was performed on another subset of food consumption data. Experts from different countries validated food matching between consumption and composition data by selecting best matches from the options given by the matching algorithm without seeing the result of the previously made manual match. The evaluation of study results stressed the importance of the role and quality of the food composition database as compared to the selected classification and/or coding systems and the need to continue compiling national food composition data as eating habits and national dishes still vary between countries. Although some countries managed to collect extensive sets of food consumption data, these cannot be easily matched with food composition data if either food consumption or food composition data are not properly classified and described using any classification and coding systems. The study also showed that the level of human expertise played an important role, at least in the training stage. Both sets of data require continuous development to improve their quality in dietary assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Mothers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Attitudes on Their Purchase Intention for Infant Cereal with No Added Sugar Claim
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040435
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
A higher sugar intake in infancy might result in a predisposition to a higher sugar intake in later childhood. In Taiwan, many commercial infant and toddler foods with nutrition claims have high sugar content. This study explored the influence of mothers’ knowledge and
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A higher sugar intake in infancy might result in a predisposition to a higher sugar intake in later childhood. In Taiwan, many commercial infant and toddler foods with nutrition claims have high sugar content. This study explored the influence of mothers’ knowledge and attitudes on their purchase intention for infant food with nutrition claims. This study was a cross-sectional survey. An online survey was distributed to 940 mothers who had a child aged between 4 months and 3 years; 40% of mothers tend to misunderstand that “no added sugar” (NAS) indicates no sugar or less sugar content and, thus, that NAS infant cereal is healthy. Approximately 50–70% of mothers believe that NAS infant cereal is more natural, healthier, and contains less sugar. Attitude toward the NAS claim was found to be a mediating variable between sugar-related knowledge and purchase intention. The lower the level of sugar-related knowledge was, the more positive the attitude toward NAS infant cereal and the higher the purchase intention for NAS infant cereal were. In the future, regulation of no added sugar is needed to avoid the misleading information and mothers’ sugar-related knowledge need to be improved through nutrition education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Specific Melon Concentrate Exhibits Photoprotective Effects from Antioxidant Activity in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040437
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Skin is the largest body organ and the first barrier to exogenous threats. This organ is constantly exposed to external factors such as ultraviolet radiation, which induces many adverse effects including sunburn, depigmentation, photo aging, photo immune suppression, and even skin cancer. Antioxidants
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Skin is the largest body organ and the first barrier to exogenous threats. This organ is constantly exposed to external factors such as ultraviolet radiation, which induces many adverse effects including sunburn, depigmentation, photo aging, photo immune suppression, and even skin cancer. Antioxidants seem to be good candidates in order to reduce ultraviolet-mediated damages and to prevent the health consequences of ultraviolet exposure. The present investigation aims to further characterize the potential skin photoprotective effects of a food supplementation and a topical administration of a melon concentrate alone or in combination. A clinical study assessing the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) was first set up to evaluate photoprotection. Afterward, an independent in vitro study was performed on human skin explants from a donor to evaluate the effect of the melon concentrate at different levels including on the sunburn cells formation and on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and its influence on melanin. Clinical study results demonstrate that melon concentrate application and/or supplementation increased MED. It also increased the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced sunburn cells and melanin level on irradiated skin explants. Therefore, it is suggested that melon concentrate administration (oral and/or topical) could be a useful strategy for photoprotection due to its antioxidant properties. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Mediterranean Diet and Health Outcomes in the SUN Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040439
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
The Mediterranean Dietary (MedDiet) Pattern has been linked to many beneficial health effects. This review summarizes the main findings of a prospective cohort study, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, specifically focused on MedDiet and the risk of major chronic disease. It
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The Mediterranean Dietary (MedDiet) Pattern has been linked to many beneficial health effects. This review summarizes the main findings of a prospective cohort study, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, specifically focused on MedDiet and the risk of major chronic disease. It is an open cohort in which 22,786 Spanish university graduates have participated since 1999 until February 2018. Data on diet, lifestyle and clinical diagnosis are collected at baseline and every two years. After reviewing 21 publications from the SUN cohort on the effects of the MedDiet, we conclude that this cohort has provided good evidence that a high MedDiet adherence is associated with a reduced incidence of all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal major cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, depression, cognitive decline, and nephrolithiasis. An inverse dose-response relationship was found for many of these associations. The MedDiet was also associated with lower average heart rate, a mitigation of the harmful effects of overweight/obesity on the risk of CVD, and an attenuation of the effects of obesity on type 2 diabetes. A suggestion that the MedDiet may enhance fertility was also found. Full article
Open AccessArticle Folate and B12 Levels Correlate with Histological Severity in NASH Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040440
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: The correlation between abnormal vitamin serum levels and chronic liver disease has been previously described in literature. However, the association between the severity of folate serum levels (B9), vitamin B12 and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been widely evaluated. Therefore, the aim
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Background: The correlation between abnormal vitamin serum levels and chronic liver disease has been previously described in literature. However, the association between the severity of folate serum levels (B9), vitamin B12 and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been widely evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the existence of such a correlation in a cohort of NASH patients. Methods: All patients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with biopsy-proven NASH at the EMMS hospital in Nazareth during the years 2015–2017 were enrolled in this study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters was collected. Patients with other liver diseases were excluded. Results: Eighty-three NASH patients were enrolled during the study period. The mean age was 41 ± 11 years and the majority of patients were male. Mean values of folate and B12 were 9.85 ± 10.90 ng/mL and 387.53 ± 205.50 pg/mL, respectively. Half of the patients were presented with a grade 1 steatosis (43.4%), a grade 2 fibrosis (50.6%) and a grade 3 activity score (55.4%). The fibrosis grade was significantly correlated with low folate levels on multivariate analysis (p-value < 0.01). Similarly, low B12 levels were significantly associated with a higher fibrosis grade and NASH activity (p-value < 0.001 and p-value < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between low levels of folate and vitamin B12 with the histological severity of NASH. These findings could have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for patient management and follow-up. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Improves Glucose Metabolism Complications Related to Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Fatty Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040441
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of two egg white hydrolysates on glucose metabolism complications related to Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in Zucker fatty rats (ZFR). ZFR were given 750 mg/kg/day of egg white hydrolyzed with pepsin
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of two egg white hydrolysates on glucose metabolism complications related to Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in Zucker fatty rats (ZFR). ZFR were given 750 mg/kg/day of egg white hydrolyzed with pepsin (HEW1) or with aminopeptidase (HEW2) for 12 weeks in their drinking water or just water. Zucker lean rats (ZLR), which received water, were used as a control. The presence of tactile allodynia, which is a sign of peripheral neuropathy, was assessed. Blood samples and pancreas were collected to determine the effect of the hydrolysates on glucose metabolism. The intake of HEW1 significantly lowered plasma insulin levels and improved the quantitative indexes of insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell functionality (HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and QUICKI, respectively), but non-significant changes were observed in group treated with HEW2. Compared to ZLR, ZFR showed tactile allodynia, but the consumption of both hydrolysates significantly increased mechanical sensitivity in ZFR. In conclusion, HEW1 pepsin could improve the glucose metabolism abnormalities associated with MS in obese Zucker rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition Labelling Use and Higher Adherence to Mediterranean Diet: Results from the DiSA-UMH Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040442
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 April 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify determinants of the nutrition labelling (NL) use and explore its association with the adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) in Spanish health university students. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from 1026 university
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The aim of this study was to identify determinants of the nutrition labelling (NL) use and explore its association with the adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) in Spanish health university students. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from 1026 university students aged 17–35 years enrolled in the DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría-Universidad Miguel Hernández) cohort study. Students were asked about their NL use by the following question: “Do you usually read the nutrition labelling of packaged foods?” (No, Yes). Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to MD was measured by relative Mediterranean Diet score (rMED). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were also collected. Multiple logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Fifty-eight percent of the students were NL users and were most likely to be women (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.38; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.01–1.89), be older (OR per year: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03–1.13), be physically active/very active (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.17–2.41), and spend less time watching television (OR per hour: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.95). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, our findings suggested that those university students who had higher adherence to MD used NL greatly (OR per 2 points increase: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.18–1.43) and had a larger consumption of fish (OR per 100 g/day: 1.94; 95 CI: 1.38–2.71), vegetables (OR per 100 g/day: 1.15; CI 95%: 1.08–1.12), and fruits (OR per 100 g/day: 1.22; 1.11–1.34) and a smaller intake of meats (OR per 100 g/day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–0.99). Our approach contributes to exploring the role of NL use as a suitable tool to make healthier food choices from a different wider perspective based on dietary patterns such as MD, which can also indicate an overall healthy lifestyle. Given the lack of research in Mediterranean areas, further studies focused on exploring the potential role of NL in promoting healthy dietary habits are required. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigating the Nutritional and Recovery Habits of Tennis Players
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040443
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables,
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In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables, and post-match nutrition and recovery. On match day-1, the consumption of balanced meals consisting of carbohydrate (CHO), fat and protein, with some micronutrient considerations were reported by 51% of players. On match-days, CHOs were prioritised prior to match-play with CHO dominant meals consumed by the majority of players. During matches, all players adopted a nutritional strategy, with water (94%), banana(s) (86%) and sports drinks (50%) commonly used. Carbohydrate rich nutritional aids, including sports drinks (80%) and energy gels (26%) were utilised more readily during long matches (>2 h). The day after match-play, 39% of players reported the consumption of “nothing specific”. Multiple post-match recovery strategies were adopted by 80% of players, with foam rolling (77%), ice baths (40%), protein shake intake (37%) and hot baths (26%) most used. Findings indicate highly variable eating and recovery habits in tennis players pre-, during and post-match-play, with scope for improved practices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040444
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk
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Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO) derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets. NPRBO from the rice bran of five different Thai purple rice cultivars, namely Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua (KGLP), Khao’ Gam Boung (KGB), Khao’ Gam Thor (KGT), Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw (KGPEK), and Khao’ Niaw Dam (KND), were extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The amount of γ-oryzanol (ORY), tocotrienols, and tocopherols present in NPRBOs and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO were investigated. The highest anti-inflammatory NPRBO was transformed into a dry and free-flowing powder by liquisolid techniques. Then, it was compressed into core tablets and coated with Eudragit®L100 and Eudragit® NE30D. The in vitro release study of the film-coated NPRBO tablets was performed in three-phase simulated gastrointestinal media. The cultivar KGLP was superior to the other samples in terms of the ORY, tocotrienol and tocopherol contents and anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosil® was the most suitable absorbent for transforming NPRBO into a free-flowing powder and was used to prepare the NPRBO core tablets. The in vitro KGLP-NPRBO film-coated tablet release profile showed that no ORY was released at gastric pH while 85% of ORY was released at pH 7.4 after 6 h; this would be expected to occur in the colorectal area. Therefore, this study demonstrates the potential of KGLP-NPRBO to prevent colorectal cancer via a specific colorectal dietary supplement delivery system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Ellagitannin-Rich Strawberry Extracts on Biochemical and Metabolic Disturbances in Rats Fed a Diet High in Fructose
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040445
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
The present study compares the effects of two dietary strawberry extracts rich in monomeric (ME) or dimeric (DE) ellagitannins (ETs) on gastrointestinal, blood and tissue biomarkers in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diets. Both strawberry extracts beneficially affect the antioxidant status and lipid profile
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The present study compares the effects of two dietary strawberry extracts rich in monomeric (ME) or dimeric (DE) ellagitannins (ETs) on gastrointestinal, blood and tissue biomarkers in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diets. Both strawberry extracts beneficially affect the antioxidant status and lipid profile of the liver and serum. The ME extract shows a greater ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in kidneys, more effectively decreases serum and liver triglycerides, and exerts greater anti-inflammatory effects in blood serum than the DE extract. The DE extract significantly reduces the activity of microbial enzymes in the cecum. These effects might be associated with higher cecum and urine levels of ET metabolites in rats fed with ME than in rats fed with DE. In conclusion, the diet-induced fructose-related disturbances observed in biochemical parameters are regulated by both extracts; nevertheless, the beneficial effects of the ME extract are mostly associated with systemic parameters, while those of the DE extracts are associated with local microbial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Menaquinone Content of Cheese
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040446
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) concentrations were measured in a wide range of cheeses and the effects of fat content, ripening and origin of the cheeses were investigated. Moreover, the menaquinone content of cheese was compared with that of other foods known to contain
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Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) concentrations were measured in a wide range of cheeses and the effects of fat content, ripening and origin of the cheeses were investigated. Moreover, the menaquinone content of cheese was compared with that of other foods known to contain vitamin K2. It was found that cheese and curd are the most important sources of long-chain menaquinones in the Western diet and, in general, hard cheeses are richer in menaquinones than soft cheeses. However, the actual menaquinone content varies substantially and is dependent on the type of cheese, the time of ripening, the fat content and the geographic area where the cheeses are produced. Given the fact that poor vitamin K status has been mentioned as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, while there is no clear evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of dairy fats, cheese should be considered as a recommendable component in a heart-healthy diet. Full article
Open AccessArticle Waist Circumference Is an Anthropometric Parameter That Identifies Women with Metabolically Unhealthy Phenotypes
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040447
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Metabolically healthy (MH) and metabolically unhealthy (MUH) phenotypes can be present in any subject independently of their body mass index (BMI). However, factors related to the presence of these phenotypes are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe
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Metabolically healthy (MH) and metabolically unhealthy (MUH) phenotypes can be present in any subject independently of their body mass index (BMI). However, factors related to the presence of these phenotypes are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics associated with the MH and MUH phenotypes in Mexican subjects with different BMI categories. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated after 12 h of fasting. HMW (High Molecular Weight) adiponectin and insulin levels were measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A total of 345 subjects were included, of which, 73.9% were women. The prevalence of the MH phenotype was 69.9%, 46.7%, and 19% in normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively. ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis showed that the waist circumference demonstrated a statistical significance (p < 0.01) in detecting the MUH phenotype in each BMI group only in women. Furthermore, subjects with lower HMW adiponectin levels showed a 2.1 increased risk of presenting the MUH phenotype. In conclusion, in this Mexican population, waist circumference was an anthropometric parameter that identified women with the MUH phenotype in all BMI categories and hypoadiponectinemia was a risk factor for the presence of this phenotype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Co-Ingestion of Rice Bran Soymilk or Plain Soymilk with White Bread: Effects on the Glycemic and Insulinemic Response
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040449
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
The regular consumption of soy products is associated with inverse incidence of type 2 diabetes, and there has been an increasing interest in the glycemia reducing potential of rice bran and its components. In this study, we investigated whether consuming soymilk with the
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The regular consumption of soy products is associated with inverse incidence of type 2 diabetes, and there has been an increasing interest in the glycemia reducing potential of rice bran and its components. In this study, we investigated whether consuming soymilk with the addition of rice bran (fiber) can reduce the glycemic response of a carbohydrate meal. Seventeen healthy Asian men (BMI: 18.5–29 kg/m2) participated in this randomized crossover trial. On four occasions, they consumed white bread (two times) and white bread with two different soymilks differing in protein and rice bran content. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response over a period of 3 hours. Taking the glycemic index (GI) value of white bread as a reference value of 100, the GI of white bread when co-ingested with rice bran soymilk (RBS) was 83.1 (±7.7) and sugar-free soymilk (SFS) was 77.5 (±10.1), both were lower than white bread (p < 0.05). The insulin response of both soymilk treatments was similar to white bread (p > 0.05). The glucose/insulin ratio of RBS and SFS were respectively 43.1 (±6.1) and 60.0 (±17.0) and were lower (p < 0.05) than white bread (123.5 ± 21.1) during the first 30 min. In conclusion, co-ingestion of low amounts of soy protein with a carbohydrate meal stimulated early-phase insulin secretion and thereby increased blood glucose clearance effectiveness. Furthermore, rice bran-fortified soymilk reduced the glycemic response similarly to soymilk with a greater dose of soy protein. Rice bran and its components offer therapeutic potential for glycemic and insulinemic control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040450
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
The use of garlic and garlic-based extracts has been linked to decreased incidence of cancer in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the molecular and cellular activities of a simple homemade ethanol-based garlic extract (GE). We show that GE inhibits growth of several different
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The use of garlic and garlic-based extracts has been linked to decreased incidence of cancer in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the molecular and cellular activities of a simple homemade ethanol-based garlic extract (GE). We show that GE inhibits growth of several different cancer cells in vitro, as well as cancer growth in vivo in a syngeneic orthotopic breast cancer model. Multiple myeloma cells were found to be especially sensitive to GE. The GE was fractionated using solid-phase extractions, and we identified allicin in one GE fraction; however, growth inhibitory activities were found in several additional fractions. These activities were lost during freeze or vacuum drying, suggesting that the main anti-cancer compounds in GE are volatile. The anti-cancer activity was stable for more than six months in −20 °C. We found that GE enhanced the activities of chemotherapeutics, as well as MAPK and PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, GE affected hundreds of proteins involved in cellular signalling, including changes in vital cell signalling cascades regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and the cellular redox balance. Our data indicate that the reduced proliferation of the cancer cells treated by GE is at least partly mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Vegetable Consumption and Blood Pressure, Stratified by BMI, among Chinese Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years: A National Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040451
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
The association between vegetable intake and blood pressure (BP) in adolescents is still inconsistent, and the description of the recommended daily vegetable consumption is abstract and nonfigurative. Here we aimed to investigate the association between vegetable consumption and BP and further look for
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The association between vegetable intake and blood pressure (BP) in adolescents is still inconsistent, and the description of the recommended daily vegetable consumption is abstract and nonfigurative. Here we aimed to investigate the association between vegetable consumption and BP and further look for a simple way to describe a satisfactory level of daily vegetable consumption for adolescents. We recruited 18,757 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, from seven provinces in China in 2013. A standard physical examination, including height, weight and BP was conducted. Information regarding vegetable intake was collected by questionnaire, and one serving of vegetables was defined as the size of an adult’s fist. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used for analysis after adjusting for covariates. Approximately 12.2%, 38.0%, 28.7%, and 21.1% of the adolescents reported daily vegetable consumption of <1, 1~2, 2~3, and ≥3 servings, respectively. Adolescents whose daily vegetable consumption was ≥3 servings showed a lower risk of high blood pressure (HBP) (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.58~0.94, p = 0.013) compared to those with daily vegetable consumptions of < 1 serving. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), in overweight adolescents, participants with 2~3 or ≥3 servings/day had an OR of 0.66 (95%CI: 0.45~0.97) or 0.63 (95%CI: 0.42~0.95) compared with the reference group. Daily vegetable intake of at least three servings (three adult’s fists) is associated with a lower HBP risk in adolescents, which leads to a simple message: “consuming at least three fists of vegetables every day will improve your blood pressure profile”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Testing the Predictive Validity of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 in the Multiethnic Cohort: Is the Score Associated with a Reduced Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality?
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040452
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) was created to assess conformance of dietary intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015–2020. We assessed the association between the HEI-2015 and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). White,
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The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) was created to assess conformance of dietary intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015–2020. We assessed the association between the HEI-2015 and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino adults (n > 215,000) from Hawaii and California completed a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at study enrollment. HEI-2015 scores were divided into quintiles for men and women. Radar graphs were used to demonstrate how dietary components contributed to HEI-2015 scores. Mortality was documented over 17–22 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox proportional hazards models. High HEI-2015 scores were inversely associated with risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer for men and women (p-trend <0.0001 for all models). For men, the HRs (CIs) for all-cause, CVD, and cancer comparing the highest to the lowest quintile were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82), 0.76 (0.71, 0.82), and 0.80 (0.75, 0.87), respectively. For women, the HRs were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82), 0.75 (0.70, 0.81), and 0.84 (0.78, 0.91), respectively. These results, in a multiethnic population, demonstrate that following a diet aligned with the DGAs 2015–2020 recommendations is associated with lower risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Fairness-Based Tasks for Assessing Children’s Perceptions of Food Quantities and Associations with Portion Selection
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040453
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
It is critical to develop ecologically valid experimental methods to assess consumers’ food-related behaviors. Ad libitum approaches are often used but may not be appropriate for studies with children or with products that are not typically consumed until the individual feels full. The
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It is critical to develop ecologically valid experimental methods to assess consumers’ food-related behaviors. Ad libitum approaches are often used but may not be appropriate for studies with children or with products that are not typically consumed until the individual feels full. The current study presents novel methods to assess children’s size perception and portion preference for gummy candies. In the first study, 62 children (30 boys, 32 girls) aged 6 to 9 years completed two matching tasks: one using pictures on a computer screen, and a similar task where the products were physically manipulated. Results of the two matching tasks were correlated, demonstrating that a computer-based approach could be used to predict the factors influencing children’s perception of food amount: the number, size, and shape of pieces. In the second study, a portioning measure was developed to investigate whether the factors identified in the matching tasks were confirmed in a task that more closely represented portion selection in the real world. The effects observed in the matching tasks could not be replicated in the portioning task. The size of each item had no significant impact on the portion selection, suggesting that it may be possible to reduce the size of pieces in snacks where multiple pieces are typically consumed without negatively impacting perceived quantity in children, thus offering a promising strategy to nudge children toward choosing smaller portions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Portion Size in Relation to Diet and Health)
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Open AccessArticle ω-3 and ω-6 Fatty Acids Modulate Conventional and Atypical Protein Kinase C Activities in a Brain Fatty Acid Binding Protein Dependent Manner in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040454
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. High levels of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP) are associated with increased migration/infiltration in GBM cells, with a high ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) driving
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. High levels of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP) are associated with increased migration/infiltration in GBM cells, with a high ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) driving B-FABP-mediated migration. Since several protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are overexpressed in GBM and linked to migration, we explored a possible relationship between B-FABP and levels/activity of different PKCs, as a function of AA and DHA supplementation. We report that ectopic expression of B-FABP in U87 cells alters the levels of several PKCs, particularly PKCζ. Upon analysis of PKCζ RNA levels in a panel of GBM cell lines and patient-derived GBM neurospheres, we observed a trend towards moderate positive correlation (r = 0.624, p = 0.054) between B-FABP and PKCζ RNA levels. Analysis of PKC activity in U87 GBM cells revealed decreased typical PKC activity (23.4%) in B-FABP-expressing cells compared with nonexpressing cells, with no difference in novel and atypical PKC activities. AA and DHA modulated both conventional and atypical PKC activities in a B-FABP-dependent manner, but had no effect on novel PKC activity. These results suggest that conventional and atypical PKCs are potential downstream effectors of B-FABP/fatty acid-mediated alterations in GBM growth properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Low Glycaemic Index Diet in Pregnancy Induces DNA Methylation Variation in Blood of Newborns: Results from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040455
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
The epigenetic profile of the developing fetus is sensitive to environmental influence. Maternal diet has been shown to influence DNA methylation patterns in offspring, but research in humans is limited. We investigated the impact of a low glycaemic index dietary intervention during pregnancy
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The epigenetic profile of the developing fetus is sensitive to environmental influence. Maternal diet has been shown to influence DNA methylation patterns in offspring, but research in humans is limited. We investigated the impact of a low glycaemic index dietary intervention during pregnancy on offspring DNA methylation patterns using a genome-wide methylation approach. Sixty neonates were selected from the ROLO (Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet to prevent macrosomia) study: 30 neonates from the low glycaemic index intervention arm and 30 from the control, whose mothers received no specific dietary advice. DNA methylation was investigated in 771,484 CpG sites in free DNA from cord blood serum. Principal component analysis and linear regression were carried out comparing the intervention and control groups. Gene clustering and pathway analysis were also explored. Widespread variation was identified in the newborns exposed to the dietary intervention, accounting for 11% of the total level of DNA methylation variation within the dataset. No association was found with maternal early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), infant sex, or birthweight. Pathway analysis identified common influences of the intervention on gene clusters plausibly linked to pathways targeted by the intervention, including cardiac and immune functioning. Analysis in 60 additional samples from the ROLO study failed to replicate the original findings. Using a modest-sized discovery sample, we identified preliminary evidence of differential methylation in progeny of mothers exposed to a dietary intervention during pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Proteomic Profiles of Adipose and Liver Tissues from an Animal Model of Metabolic Syndrome Fed Purple Vegetables
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040456
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder that predisposes an individual to Cardiovascular Diseases and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proteomics and bioinformatics have proven to be an effective tool to study complex diseases and mechanisms of action of nutrients. We previously showed that
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Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder that predisposes an individual to Cardiovascular Diseases and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proteomics and bioinformatics have proven to be an effective tool to study complex diseases and mechanisms of action of nutrients. We previously showed that substitution of the majority of carbohydrate in a high fat diet by purple potatoes (PP) or purple carrots (PC) improved insulin sensitivity and hypertension in an animal model of MetS (obese Zucker rats) compared to a control sucrose-rich diet. In the current study, we used TMT 10plex mass tag combined with LC-MS/MS technique to study proteomic modulation in the liver (n = 3 samples/diet) and adipose tissue (n = 3 samples/diet) of high fat diet-fed rats with or without substituting sucrose for purple vegetables, followed by functional enrichment analysis, in an attempt to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes seen with purple vegetable feeding. Protein folding, lipid metabolism and cholesterol efflux were identified as the main modulated biological themes in adipose tissue, whereas lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress were the main modulated themes in liver. We propose that enhanced protein folding, increased cholesterol efflux and higher free fatty acid (FFA) re-esterification are mechanisms by which PP and PC positively modulate MetS pathologies in adipose tissue, whereas, decreased de novo lipogenesis, oxidative stress and FFA uptake, are responsible for the beneficial effects in liver. In conclusion, we provide molecular evidence for the reported metabolic health benefits of purple carrots and potatoes and validate that these vegetables are good choices to replace other simple carbohydrate sources for better metabolic health. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040457
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet
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Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status), and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown) adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June–August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Lutein and Zeaxanthin Are Positively Associated with Visual–Spatial Functioning in Older Adults: An fMRI Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040458
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two xanthophyll carotenoids that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous work has demonstrated their importance for eye health and preventing diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. An emerging literature base has also demonstrated the importance of L
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Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two xanthophyll carotenoids that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous work has demonstrated their importance for eye health and preventing diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. An emerging literature base has also demonstrated the importance of L and Z in cognition, neural structure, and neural efficiency. The present study aimed to better understand the mechanisms by which L and Z relate to cognition, in particular, visual–spatial processing and decision-making in older adults. We hypothesized that markers of higher levels of L and Z would be associated with better neural efficiency during a visual–spatial processing task. L and Z were assessed via standard measurement of blood serum and retinal concentrations. Visual–spatial processing and decision-making were assessed via a judgment of line orientation task (JLO) completed during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. The results demonstrated that individuals with higher concentrations of L and Z showed a decreased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during task performance (i.e., “neural efficiency”) in key areas associated with visual–spatial perception, processing, decision-making, and motor coordination, including the lateral occipital cortex, occipital pole, superior and middle temporal gyri, superior parietal lobule, superior and middle frontal gyri, and pre- and post-central gyri. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the relationship of L and Z to visual–spatial processing at a neural level using in vivo methodology. Our findings suggest that L and Z may impact brain health and cognition in older adults by enhancing neurobiological efficiency in a variety of regions that support visual perception and decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of 100% Pure Fruit Juice and Dietary Quality in French Adults: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey in the Context of the WHO Recommended Limitation of Free Sugars
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040459
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Sugar-containing beverages are often seen as a negative influence on diet quality and body weight control. The present study examines the consumption of 100% fruit juice (FJ) based on a seven-day dietary survey in a representative sample of French adults (n =
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Sugar-containing beverages are often seen as a negative influence on diet quality and body weight control. The present study examines the consumption of 100% fruit juice (FJ) based on a seven-day dietary survey in a representative sample of French adults (n = 1607). About a half of the participants (44%) consumed FJ, most often at breakfast time (60%). Average intake in FJ consumers was 115.6 ± 4.0 mL/day (46.3 ± 1.7 kcal/day). Prevalence of consumption increased with education and income and decreased with age, but no association was observed with body mass index (BMI), physical activity, or smoking. In consumers, FJ brought 2% daily energy and contributed larger proportions of vitamins (B1 7%, B2 3%, B5 5%, B6 6%, B9 10%, C 32%, E 9%, beta-carotene 5%), minerals (magnesium 4%, potassium 7%), and free sugars (19%). FJ consumers ingested more whole fruits, vegetables, and many other foods than non-consumers did. Free sugars represented 11.2% of the daily energy in FJ consumers versus 8.6% in non-consumers. This cross-sectional survey reveals that FJ contributes to diet quality without association with excess body weight. These observations should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. They support the view that contribution to diet quality should be specifically recognized in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended decrease of free sugar intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040460
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was
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Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM1 levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM1, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X2 = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products (X2 = 19.36, p < 0.01) had significant associations with urinary AFM1 but both food groups were having a phi and Cramer’s V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups’ consumption and AFM1 level in urine was weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
Open AccessArticle Nutritionally Optimized, Culturally Acceptable, Cost-Minimized Diets for Low Income Ghanaian Families Using Linear Programming
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040461
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate
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The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate nutritionally optimized diets (food baskets (FBs)) for a low-income Ghanaian family of four that fulfilled energy and nutrient recommendations in both rural and urban settings. Calculations included implementing cultural acceptability for families living in extreme and moderate poverty (food budget under USD 1.9 and 3.1 per day respectively). Energy-appropriate FBs minimized for cost, following Food Balance Sheets (FBS), lacked key micronutrients such as iodine, vitamin B12 and iron for the mothers. Nutritionally adequate FBs were achieved in all settings when optimizing for a diet cheaper than USD 3.1. However, when delimiting cost to USD 1.9 in rural areas, wild foods had to be included in order to meet nutritional adequacy. Optimization suggested to reduce roots, tubers and fruits and to increase cereals, vegetables and oil-bearing crops compared with FBS. LP is a useful tool to design culturally acceptable diets at minimum cost for low-income Ghanaian families to help advise national authorities how to overcome the double burden of malnutrition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Intragastric Administration of Tryptophan on the Blood Glucose Response to a Nutrient Drink and Energy Intake, in Lean and Obese Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040463
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
Tryptophan stimulates plasma cholecystokinin and pyloric pressures, both of which slow gastric emptying. Gastric emptying regulates postprandial blood glucose. Tryptophan has been reported to decrease energy intake. We investigated the effects of intragastric tryptophan on the glycaemic response to, and gastric emptying of,
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Tryptophan stimulates plasma cholecystokinin and pyloric pressures, both of which slow gastric emptying. Gastric emptying regulates postprandial blood glucose. Tryptophan has been reported to decrease energy intake. We investigated the effects of intragastric tryptophan on the glycaemic response to, and gastric emptying of, a mixed-nutrient drink, and subsequent energy intake. Lean and obese participants (n = 16 each) received intragastric infusions of 1.5 g (“Trp-1.5g”) or 3.0 g (“Trp-3.0g”) tryptophan, or control, and 15 min later consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (56 g carbohydrates). Gastric emptying (13C-acetate breath-test), blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and tryptophan concentrations were measured (t = 0–60 min). Energy intake was assessed between t = 60–90 min. In lean individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, slowed gastric emptying, reduced C-peptideAUC and increased glucagonAUC (all P < 0.05), but did not significantly decrease the blood glucose response to the drink, stimulate cholecystokinin or reduce mean energy intake, compared with control. In obese individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, tended to slow gastric emptying (P = 0.091), did not affect C-peptideAUC, increased glucagonAUC (P < 0.001) and lowered blood glucose at t = 30 min (P < 0.05), and did not affect cholecystokinin or mean energy intake. In obese individuals, intragastrically administered tryptophan may reduce postprandial blood glucose by slowing gastric emptying; the lack of effect on mean energy intake requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns Associated with Cognitive Function among the Older People in Underdeveloped Regions: Finding from the NCDFaC Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040464
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Although dietary patterns are crucial to cognitive function, associations of dietary patterns with cognitive function have not yet been fully understood. This cross-sectional study explored dietary patterns associated with cognitive function among the older adults in underdeveloped regions, using 1504 community-dwelling older adults
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Although dietary patterns are crucial to cognitive function, associations of dietary patterns with cognitive function have not yet been fully understood. This cross-sectional study explored dietary patterns associated with cognitive function among the older adults in underdeveloped regions, using 1504 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. Factor analysis was used to extract dietary patterns. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Two dietary patterns, a “mushroom, vegetable, and fruits” (MVF) pattern and a “meat and soybean products” (MS) pattern, were identified. The MVF pattern, characterized by high consumption of mushrooms, vegetables, and fruits was significantly positively associated with cognitive function (p < 0.05), with an odds ratio of (95% CIs) 0.60 (0.38, 0.94) for cognitive impairment and β (95% CIs) 0.15 (0.02, 0.29) for –log (31-MMSE score). The MS pattern, characterized by high consumption of soybean products and meat, was also associated with better cognitive function, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% CIs 0.30, 0.74) for cognitive impairment and β (95% CIs) 0.34 (0.21, 0.47) for –log (31-MMSE score). Our results suggested that both the MVF and MS patterns were positively associated with better cognitive function among older adults in underdeveloped regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040466
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0–5.9, 6–11.9, and 12–23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the
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Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0–5.9, 6–11.9, and 12–23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was conducted (n = 949). Among 0–5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day) and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day), such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). For infants 6–11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6–11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31%) and SSBs (35%). After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12–23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association of Dietary Patterns with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Italy
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040469
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Specific foods and nutrients help prevent the progression of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer (CC). The aim of this study was to investigate dietary patterns which may be associated with hrHPV status and the risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial
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Specific foods and nutrients help prevent the progression of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer (CC). The aim of this study was to investigate dietary patterns which may be associated with hrHPV status and the risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Overall, 539 eligible women, including 127 with CIN2+, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, and tested for hrHPV infection. Food intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied. Using the Mediterranean Diet Score, we demonstrated that, among 252 women with a normal cervical epithelium, medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreased the odds of hrHPV infection when compared to low adherence (adjOR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22–0.73). Using the principal component analysis, we also identified two dietary patterns which explained 14.31% of the variance in food groups intake. Women in the third and fourth quartiles of the “Western pattern” had higher odds of hrHPV infection when compared with first quartile (adjOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.04–3.54 and adjOR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.14–4.18, respectively). Adjusting for hrHPV status and age, women in the third quartile of the “prudent pattern” had lower odds of CIN2+ when compared with those in the first quartile (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.26–0.98). Our study is the first to demonstrate the association of dietary patterns with hrHPV infection and CC and discourages unhealthy habits in favour of a Mediterranean-like diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle Associations of Mediterranean Diet and a Posteriori Derived Dietary Patterns with Breast and Lung Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040470
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Poland and worldwide. Results of studies involving dietary patterns (DPs) and breast or lung cancer risk in European countries outside the Mediterranean Sea region are limited and
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Lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Poland and worldwide. Results of studies involving dietary patterns (DPs) and breast or lung cancer risk in European countries outside the Mediterranean Sea region are limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to develop a ‘Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet’ (‘Polish-aMED’) score, and then study the associations between the ‘Polish-aMED’ score and a posteriori-derived dietary patterns with breast or lung cancer risk in adult Poles. This pooled analysis of two case-control studies involved 560 subjects (280 men, 280 women) aged 40–75 years from Northeastern Poland. Diagnoses of breast cancer in 140 women and lung cancer in 140 men were found. The food frequency consumption of 21 selected food groups was collected using a 62-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)-6. The ‘Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet’ score which included eight items—vegetables, fruit, whole grain, fish, legumes, nuts and seeds—as well as the ratio of vegetable oils to animal fat and red and processed meat was developed (range: 0–8 points). Three DPs were identified in a Principal Component Analysis: ‘Prudent’, ‘Non-healthy’, ‘Dressings and sweetened-low-fat dairy’. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, two models were created: crude, and adjusted for age, sex, type of cancer, Body Mass Index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) index, overall physical activity, smoking status and alcohol abuse. The risk of breast or lung cancer was lower in the average (3–5 points) and high (6–8 points) levels of the ‘Polish-aMED’ score compared to the low (0–2 points) level by 51% (odds ratio (OR): 0.49; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.30–0.80; p < 0.01; adjusted) and 63% (OR: 0.37; 95% Cl: 0.21–0.64; p < 0.001; adjusted), respectively. In the middle and upper tertiles compared to the bottom tertile of the ‘Prudent’ DP, the risk of cancer was lower by 38–43% (crude) but was not significant after adjustment for confounders. In the upper compared to the bottom tertile of the ‘Non-healthy’ DP, the risk of cancer was higher by 65% (OR: 1.65; 95% Cl: 1.05–2.59; p < 0.05; adjusted). In conclusion, the Polish adaptation of the Mediterranean diet could be considered for adults living in non-Mediterranean countries for the prevention of the breast or lung cancers. Future studies should explore the role of a traditional Mediterranean diet fitted to local dietary patterns of non-Mediterranean Europeans in cancer prevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Zinc Protects Articular Chondrocytes through Changes in Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidants, Cytokines and Matrix Metalloproteinases
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040471
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related degenerative joint disease characterized by high oxidative stress, chondrocyte death and cartilage damage. Zinc has been implicated in the antioxidant capacity of the cell, and its deficiency might inhibit chondrocyte proliferation. The present study examined the potential of
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related degenerative joint disease characterized by high oxidative stress, chondrocyte death and cartilage damage. Zinc has been implicated in the antioxidant capacity of the cell, and its deficiency might inhibit chondrocyte proliferation. The present study examined the potential of zinc as a preventive supplement against OA using the in vitro chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and an in vivo Wistar rat model to mimic OA progress induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). The results demonstrated that, in SW1353 cells, 5 μM MIA exposure increased oxidative stress and decreased the expression of GPx1 and Mn-SOD but still increased GSH levels and HO-1 expression and enhanced the expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13. Zinc addition could block these changes. Besides, the expression of Nrf2 and phosphorylated (p)-Akt was dramatically increased, implicating the p-Akt/Nrf2 pathway in the effects of zinc on MIA-treated cells. A rat model achieved similar results as those of cell culture, and 1.6 mg/kg/day of zinc supplementation is sufficient to prevent OA progress, while 8.0 mg/kg/day of zinc supplementation does not have a better effect. These findings indicate that zinc supplementation exerts a preventive effect with respect to MIA-induced OA progress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Anti-Periodontitis Effects of Ethanol Extract Prepared Using Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040472
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Poor oral health and related diseases, including caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer, are highly prevalent across the world, particularly in the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the anti-periodontitis activity of fermented skim milk produced using the promising probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp.
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Poor oral health and related diseases, including caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer, are highly prevalent across the world, particularly in the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the anti-periodontitis activity of fermented skim milk produced using the promising probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU101FM). An initial analysis found that an ethanol extract of NTU101FM displayed anti-oxidative activities. Further investigation of pathogen growth inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) revealed that the NTU101FM ethanol extract also had anti-periodontal pathogen activities. In addition, the NTU101FM ethanol extract significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Finally, the NTU101FM ethanol extract was found to inhibit receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation by reducing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. In summary, our study demonstrated that ethanol extract prepared from NTU101FM has potential use as an anti-periodontitis agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coordination of GPR40 and Ketogenesis Signaling by Medium Chain Fatty Acids Regulates Beta Cell Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040473
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Diabetes prevalence increases with age, and β-cell dysfunction contributes to the incidence of the disease. Dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and progression of the disease. Unlike long chain triglycerides, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) increase fat burning in
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Diabetes prevalence increases with age, and β-cell dysfunction contributes to the incidence of the disease. Dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and progression of the disease. Unlike long chain triglycerides, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) increase fat burning in animal and human subjects as well as serum C-peptide in type 2 diabetes patients. We evaluated the beneficial effects of MCT on β-cells in vivo and in vitro. MCT improved glycemia in aged rats via β-cell function assessed by measuring insulin secretion and content. In β-cells, medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)-C10 activated fatty acid receptor 1 FFAR1/GPR40, while MCFA-C8 induced mitochondrial ketogenesis and the C8:C10 mixture improved β cell function. We showed that GPR40 signaling positively impacts ketone body production in β-cells, and chronic treatment with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) improves β-cell function. We also showed that BHB and MCFA help β-cells recover from lipotoxic stress by improving mitochondrial function and increasing the expression of genes involved in β-cell function and insulin biogenesis, such as Glut2, MafA, and NeuroD1 in primary human islets. MCFA offers a therapeutic advantage in the preservation of β-cell function as part of a preventative strategy against diabetes in at risk populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle MOSH Syndrome (Male Obesity Secondary Hypogonadism): Clinical Assessment and Possible Therapeutic Approaches
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040474
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient’s
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Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient’s hormonal profile after a 10% weight loss compared to baseline. Fourteen male patients were enrolled. Hormonal, lipid, glycemic profiles and body composition were determined at baseline and after a 10% weight loss. Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS) and Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) were administered to patients in order to investigate hypogonadal symptoms and food addiction. Compared to baseline, a significant increase of Total Testosterone (TT) (300.2 ± 79.5 ng/dL vs. 408.3 ± 125.9 ng/dL, p = 0.002, 95% CI 26.8; 167.7) and a reduction of 17-Beta Estradiol level (48.3 ± 14.9 pg/mL vs. 39.2 ± 15.2 pg/mL, p = 0.049, 95% CI 3.1; 0.0) were observed. Total Fat Mass (FM) percentage, android and gynoid fat mass percentage (39.2 ± 6.4% vs. 36.2 ± 5.8%, p = 0.0001, 95% CI 22.5; 62.3; 51.5 ± 6.8% vs. 47.6 ± 6.8%, p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.6; 1.8, vs. 39.2 ± 6.2% vs. 36.5 ± 6.3% p = 0.0001, 95% CI 0.9; 2.0 respectively) were significantly decreased after nutritional intervention. In addition, total Fat Free Mass (FFM) in kg was significantly reduced after 10% weight loss (62.3 ± 2.8 kg vs. 60.3 ± 7.7 kg, p = 0.002, 95% CI 45.0; 93.0). Lifestyle changes, specifically dietotherapy and physical activity, induce positive effects on hypogonadism due to obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impaired Hematologic Status in Relation to Clinical Outcomes among HIV-Infected Adults from Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040475
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Impaired hematologic status (IHS) was investigated as a determinant of immune function defined as cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-helper cell count, quality of life (QOL) weight and hospitalization/mortality over 18-months among 398 adult persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) on anti-retroviral therapy. IHS
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Impaired hematologic status (IHS) was investigated as a determinant of immune function defined as cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-helper cell count, quality of life (QOL) weight and hospitalization/mortality over 18-months among 398 adult persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) on anti-retroviral therapy. IHS was defined as having anemia at baseline (Hemoglobin: <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men), time-updated anemia or having low (<30 μg/L) or high (>200 μg/L for men and >150 μg/L for women) ferritin levels at baseline. Months-to-hospitalization/death or study-end (if no event) was calculated from enrollment. Multivariable linear-mixed models quantified associations between IHS and changes in CD4 cell-count, weight gain and QOL. Cox proportional hazards models calculated hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for IHS-related differences in time-to-hospitalization/death. The prevalences of anemia and high and low ferritin levels at baseline were 48.7% (n = 194), 40.5% (n = 161) and 17% (n = 68), respectively. Most patients (63.4%, n = 123) remained anemic during follow-up. Weight gained (ferritin-time interaction, p < 0.01) and QOL (anemia-time interaction, p = 0.05; ferritin-time interaction, p = 0.01) were lower for PLWHA with versus without IHS. Relative to anemia-free/normal ferritin, the risk of hospitalization/death was elevated for PLWHA with anemia (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), low or high ferritin (HR: 1.8–1.9, 95% CI: 0.9–4.1) and those that developed new/persistent/progressive anemia (HR: 2.3–6.7, 95% CI: 1.0–12.7). Among PLWHA, IHS predicted deficits in QOL, low weight gain and a high risk of hospitalization/death. Intervention to mitigate persistent IHS may be warranted among PLWHA on long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to improve health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Postnatal Growth Disadvantage of the Small for Gestational Age Preterm Twins
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040476
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we examined early growth characteristics among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) preterm twins compared to their appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) counterparts. A retrospective study evaluated all consecutive twins born between 2008 and 2015 at a tertiary referral center whose gestational age ranged from 30.0 to
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In this study, we examined early growth characteristics among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) preterm twins compared to their appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) counterparts. A retrospective study evaluated all consecutive twins born between 2008 and 2015 at a tertiary referral center whose gestational age ranged from 30.0 to 34.86 weeks. Included were twins in which one twin was AGA and the other SGA at birth. Changes of ≥2, 1–1.99, and 0–0.99 in z-score between births and 36 weeks post menstrual age (PMA) were respectively defined as severe, moderate, and mild postnatal growth failure (PNGF) in weight or head circumference (HC). Early neonatal morbidities were documented. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine conditions associated with PNGF and its severity. Out of 666 sets of twins, 83 met the inclusion criteria. Weight PNGF was similar and mild among the SGA and the AGA groups (0.9 ± 0.46 vs. 0.96 ± 0.44 z-score, respectively, p = 0.24). At 36 weeks PMA, a significantly larger proportion of SGAs were below −2 z-scores in weight (84.3%) compared to birth (31.3%) or to the AGAs (8.4%). In both groups, weight PNGF correlated with the time needed to regain birth weight. HC PNGF was mild among both groups, yet significantly more prominent among the AGAs (0.39 ± 0.72 z-score) vs. SGAs (0.75 ± 0.65 z-score, p = 0.001). We suggest that among preterm SGA infants, the absolute z-score should be used to assess the severity of weight PNGF. Individual nutritional strategies to decrease time to regain birth weight may mitigate severe malnutrition among SGAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040479
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L.) grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate
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This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L.) grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or adequate intake (AI), and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) and Institute of Medicine (IOM) regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg) in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Abdominal Fat Levels on All-Cause Mortality Risk in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040480
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Although an increased body mass index is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), known as the “obesity paradox,” the relationship of abdominal fat levels with all-cause mortality has rarely been studied. We investigated the impact of computed-tomography-measured abdominal fat levels
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Although an increased body mass index is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), known as the “obesity paradox,” the relationship of abdominal fat levels with all-cause mortality has rarely been studied. We investigated the impact of computed-tomography-measured abdominal fat levels (visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA)) on all-cause mortality in this population. A total of 201 patients undergoing HD were enrolled and cross-classified by VFA and SFA levels according to each cutoff point, VFA of 78.7 cm2 and SFA of 93.2 cm2, based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve as following; group 1 (G1): lower VFA and lower SFA, G2: higher VFA and lower SFA, G3: lower VFA and higher SFA, G4: higher VFA and higher SFA. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 67 patients died. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed 10-year survival rates of 29.0%, 50.0%, 62.6%, and 72.4% in G1, G2, G3, and G4 (p < 0.0001), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–1.09, p = 0.070) for G2 vs. G1, 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76, p = 0.0065) for G3 vs. G1, and 0.21 (95% CI 0.07–0.62, p = 0.0035) for G4 vs. G1, respectively. In conclusion, combined SFA and VFA levels were negatively associated with risks for all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD. These results are a manifestation of the “obesity paradox.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Intake on Disease Activity in Female Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The MIRA Randomized Cross-Over Dietary Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040481
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease. This study evaluates the effect of blue mussel intake on disease activity and quality of life in women with RA. Thirty-nine women with established RA and a disease activity score 28 (DAS28) >3.0 were recruited
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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease. This study evaluates the effect of blue mussel intake on disease activity and quality of life in women with RA. Thirty-nine women with established RA and a disease activity score 28 (DAS28) >3.0 were recruited to a randomized 2 × 11-week cross-over dietary intervention. The participants continued with their medication and habitual diet and exchanged one cooked meal a day, five days a week, with a meal including 75 g blue mussels or 75 g meat. Diets were switched after an eight week washout period. Data regarding quality of life (SF-36), blood lipids, erythrocyte sediment rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and tender and swollen joints were examined at the start and end of each dietary period. Thirty women completed one period, and twenty-three completed both. Intake of the blue mussel diet led to a significant reduction of DAS28-CRP (p = 0.048), but not DAS28. The number of EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) criteria moderate and good responders were higher when consuming blue mussel diet (p = 0.036). Blood lipids did not change. To conclude, blue mussel intake reduced disease symptoms in women with RA and improved perceived health. The reported effects need to be confirmed by non-patient reported outcomes, such as inflammation markers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effects of Different Flavonoids on Vascular and Renal Function in L-NAME Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040484
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: we have evaluated the antihypertensive effect of several flavonoid extracts in a rat model of arterial hypertension caused by chronic administration (6 weeks) of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats received L-NAME alone or L-NAME plus flavonoid-rich vegetal
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Background: we have evaluated the antihypertensive effect of several flavonoid extracts in a rat model of arterial hypertension caused by chronic administration (6 weeks) of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats received L-NAME alone or L-NAME plus flavonoid-rich vegetal extracts (Lemon, Grapefruit + Bitter Orange, and Cocoa) or purified flavonoids (Apigenin and Diosmin) for 6 weeks. Results: L-NAME treatment resulted in a marked elevation of blood pressure, and treatment with Apigenin, Lemon Extract, and Grapefruit + Bitter Orange extracts significantly reduced the elevated blood pressure of these animals. Apigenin and some of these flavonoids also ameliorated nitric oxide-dependent and -independent aortic vasodilation and elevated nitrite urinary excretion. End-organ abnormalities such as cardiac infarcts, hyaline arteriopathy and fibrinoid necrosis in coronary arteries and aorta were improved by these treatments, reducing the end-organ vascular damage. Conclusions: the flavonoids included in this study, specially apigenin, may be used as functional food ingredients with potential therapeutic benefit in arterial hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040485
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA). Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower
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Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA). Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9) were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5)). Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only), and OA severity (bivariate model only) were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Can a Simple Dietary Index Derived from a Sub-Set of Questionnaire Items Assess Diet Quality in a Sample of Australian Adults?
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040486
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Large, longitudinal surveys often lack consistent dietary data, limiting the use of existing tools and methods that are available to measure diet quality. This study describes a method that was used to develop a simple index for ranking individuals according to their diet
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Large, longitudinal surveys often lack consistent dietary data, limiting the use of existing tools and methods that are available to measure diet quality. This study describes a method that was used to develop a simple index for ranking individuals according to their diet quality in a longitudinal study. The RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) project (2004–2011) collected dietary data in varying detail, across four time points. The most detailed dietary data were collected using a 24-item questionnaire at the final time point (n = 555; age ≥ 25 years). At preceding time points, sub-sets of the 24 items were collected. A RESIDE dietary guideline index (RDGI) that was based on the 24-items was developed to assess diet quality in relation to the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The RDGI scores were regressed on the longitudinal sub-sets of six and nine questionnaire items at T4, from which two simple index scores (S-RDGI1 and S-RDGI2) were predicted. The S-RDGI1 and S-RDGI2 showed reasonable agreement with the RDGI (Spearman’s rho = 0.78 and 0.84; gross misclassification = 1.8%; correct classification = 64.9% and 69.7%; and, Cohen’s weighted kappa = 0.58 and 0.64, respectively). For all of the indices, higher diet quality was associated with being female, undertaking moderate to high amounts of physical activity, not smoking, and self-reported health. The S-RDGI1 and S-RDGI2 explained 62% and 73% of the variation in RDGI scores, demonstrating that a large proportion of the variability in diet quality scores can be captured using a relatively small sub-set of questionnaire items. The methods described in this study can be applied elsewhere, in situations where limited dietary data are available, to generate a sample-specific score for ranking individuals according to diet quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040487
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of
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There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49) with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48) aged 23.8 (±4.35 years), body mass index (BMI) 22.7 (±2.6) kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease), and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04)). Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001), but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05). The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC)—156.67 (74.12) mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49) mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively) between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Habitual Flavonoid Intake from Fruit and Vegetables during Adolescence and Serum Lipid Levels in Early Adulthood: A Prospective Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040488
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
Flavonoids have been implicated in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In a prospective approach, we investigated whether habitual flavonoid intake from fruit, vegetables and juices (FlavFVJ) during adolescence is associated with adult levels of serum lipids, one of the main CVD risk
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Flavonoids have been implicated in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In a prospective approach, we investigated whether habitual flavonoid intake from fruit, vegetables and juices (FlavFVJ) during adolescence is associated with adult levels of serum lipids, one of the main CVD risk factors. This analysis included healthy participants from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study, who had provided a fasting blood sample in adulthood (aged 18–39 years), data on FlavFVJ intake during adolescence (females: 9–15 years, males: 10–16 years)—estimated either from multiple 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 257), or from validated biomarker hippuric acid (uHA) excretion from multiple 24-h urine samples (n = 233)—together with information on relevant covariates. In multivariable linear regression analyses, a higher FlavFVJ intake during adolescence was independently associated with higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels among males (Ptrend = 0.038); however, the inclusion of adult waist circumference attenuated this association (Ptrend = 0.053). FlavFVJ was not associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; all Ptrend ≥ 0.1), nor was uHA excretion with any serum lipid outcome among males (all Ptrend ≥ 0.5). Neither FlavFVJ intake nor uHA excretion was associated with serum lipids among women (all Ptrend ≥ 0.1). However, a higher flavonoid intake from fruit and vegetables was independently related to lower LDL-C levels (Ptrend = 0.021), while a higher intake from juices was associated with higher LDL-C levels (Ptrend = 0.016) among females. In conclusion, a higher flavonoid intake from fruit, vegetables and/or juices during adolescence may be linked to cholesterol levels in early adulthood in a sex- and food source-specific manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040489
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015
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Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81%)) were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5), low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of 25.4 (5.5–117.3), 17.8 (2.3–138.5), 4.0 (1.7–9.5), 3.3 (1.4–7.9), 2.8 (1.2–6.4), and 2.0 (1.1–3.5), respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5); 0.2 (0.1–0.6); 0.3 (0.1–0.9); and 0.4 (0.2–0.8), respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%). Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040490
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole
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Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS), respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg) by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG) data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS) (NBS/g CO2 per serving), a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Effects and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Laminaria japonica and Hizikia fusiforme in Skeletal Muscle: In Vitro and In Vivo Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040491
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Laminaria japonica (LJ) and Hizikia fusiforme (HF) are brown seaweeds known to have various health-promoting effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects and possible mechanism(s) of LJ and HF by using both in vitro and in vivo
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Laminaria japonica (LJ) and Hizikia fusiforme (HF) are brown seaweeds known to have various health-promoting effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects and possible mechanism(s) of LJ and HF by using both in vitro and in vivo models. C2C12 myotubes, mouse-derived skeletal muscle cells, treated with LF or HF extracts were used for the in vitro model, and muscle tissues from C57BL/6N mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% LF or HF for 16 weeks were used for the in vivo model. Although both the LF and HF extracts significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, the HF extract had a superior α-glucosidase inhibition than the LF extract. In addition, glucose uptake was significantly increased by LJ- and HF-treated groups when compared to the control group. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B and AMP-activated protein kinase was induced by LJ and HF in both the vivo and in vitro skeletal muscle models. Furthermore, LJ and HF significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α whereas both extracts increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, these findings imply that the brown seaweeds LJ and HF could be useful therapeutic agents to attenuate muscle insulin resistance due to diet-induced obesity and its associated inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Bioactives and Insulin Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Increases Fat Oxidation Rate and Reduces Postprandial Triglyceride Concentrations
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040492
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: This study investigated the effect of acute barehanded whole body high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) and moderate intensity and continuous exercise (MICE) at the same quantity of energy expenditure on postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations. (2) Methods: Nine healthy males completed three trials
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(1) Background: This study investigated the effect of acute barehanded whole body high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) and moderate intensity and continuous exercise (MICE) at the same quantity of energy expenditure on postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations. (2) Methods: Nine healthy males completed three trials (HIIE, MICE and control (CON)) in a random order separated by at least 14 days. After each intervention, the participants rested for 12 h and consumed a high-fat test meal on the next day. The blood samples and respiratory exchange ratio were observed in the fasted state and for 4 h after consuming the test meal. (3) Results: The HIIE had a significantly higher area under the curve of postprandial fat oxidation rate than MICE (p = 0.027) and CON (p = 0.035) and exhibited significantly lower postprandial TG concentration than the MICE and CON at 2 and 4 h after the test meal. Moreover, the HIIE displayed a higher postprandial TG concentration area under the curve than MICE (p = 0.013) and CON (p = 0.048). (4) Conclusions: The present study concluded that acute barehanded whole body HIIE could significantly lower postprandial TG concentrations. It possibly can induce a rise in the postprandial fat oxidation rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Post-Game High Protein Intake May Improve Recovery of Football-Specific Performance during a Congested Game Fixture: Results from the PRO-FOOTBALL Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040494
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
The effects of protein supplementation on performance recovery and inflammatory responses during a simulated one-week in-season microcycle with two games (G1, G2) performed three days apart were examined. Twenty football players participated in two trials, receiving either milk protein concentrate (1.15 and 0.26
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The effects of protein supplementation on performance recovery and inflammatory responses during a simulated one-week in-season microcycle with two games (G1, G2) performed three days apart were examined. Twenty football players participated in two trials, receiving either milk protein concentrate (1.15 and 0.26 g/kg on game and training days, respectively) (PRO) or an energy-matched placebo (1.37 and 0.31 g/kg of carbohydrate on game and training days, respectively) (PLA) according to a randomized, repeated-measures, crossover, double-blind design. Each trial included two games and four daily practices. Speed, jump height, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee flexors (KF) and extensors (KE) were measured before G1 and daily thereafter for six days. Blood was drawn before G1 and daily thereafter. Football-specific locomotor activity and heart rate were monitored using GPS technology during games and practices. The two games resulted in reduced speed (by 3–17%), strength of knee flexors (by 12–23%), and jumping performance (by 3–10%) throughout recovery, in both trials. Average heart rate and total distance covered during games remained unchanged in PRO but not in PLA. Moreover, PRO resulted in a change of smaller magnitude in high-intensity running at the end of G2 (75–90 min vs. 0–15 min) compared to PLA (P = 0.012). KE concentric strength demonstrated a more prolonged decline in PLA (days 1 and 2 after G1, P = 0.014–0.018; days 1, 2 and 3 after G2, P = 0.016–0.037) compared to PRO (days 1 after G1, P = 0.013; days 1 and 2 after G2, P = 0.014–0.033) following both games. KF eccentric strength decreased throughout recovery after G1 (PLA: P=0.001–0.047—PRO: P =0.004–0.22) in both trials, whereas after G2 it declined throughout recovery in PLA (P = 0.000–0.013) but only during the first two days (P = 0.000–0.014) in PRO. No treatment effect was observed for delayed onset of muscle soreness, leukocyte counts, and creatine kinase activity. PRO resulted in a faster recovery of protein and lipid peroxidation markers after both games. Reduced glutathione demonstrated a more short-lived reduction after G2 in PRO compared to PLA. In summary, these results provide evidence that protein feeding may more efficiently restore football-specific performance and strength and provide antioxidant protection during a congested game fixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increase the Levels of Collagen, Elastin, and Hyaluronic Acid in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040495
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L.) contain high levels of anthocyanin polyphenols, which have beneficial effects on health, owing to their antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived substances with estrogenic activity, which could have beneficial effects on the skin. Estradiol secretion decreases during
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Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L.) contain high levels of anthocyanin polyphenols, which have beneficial effects on health, owing to their antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived substances with estrogenic activity, which could have beneficial effects on the skin. Estradiol secretion decreases during menopause, reducing extracellular matrix (ECM) component production by skin fibroblasts. Using a normal human female skin fibroblast cell line (TIG113) and ovariectomized rats, the present study investigated whether an anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) and four blackcurrant anthocyanins have novel phytoestrogenic activities that could benefit the skin in menopausal women. In TIG113 cells, a microarray and the Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis showed that 1.0 μg/mL of BCE upregulated the expression of many estrogen signaling-related genes. A quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that BCE (1.0 or 10.0 μg/mL) and four types of anthocyanins (10 μM) altered the mRNA expression of ECM proteins and enzymes involved in ECM turnover. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the anthocyanins stimulated the expression of ECM proteins, such as collagen (types I and III) and elastin. Dietary administration of 3% BCE to ovariectomized rats for 3 months increased skin levels of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. This is the first study to show that blackcurrant phytoestrogens have beneficial effects on skin experimental models. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Meeting Vitamin D Requirements in White Caucasians at UK Latitudes: Providing a Choice
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040497
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed
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The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed to quantify the sun exposure required to meet vitamin D targets year-round and determine whether this can be safely achieved in a simply defined manner in the UK as an alternative to increasing vitamin D oral intake. Data from observation (sun exposure, diet, and vitamin D status) and UVR intervention studies performed with white Caucasian adults were combined with modeled all-weather UVR climatology. Daily vitamin D effective UVR doses (all-weather) were calculated across the UK based on ten-year climatology for pre-defined lunchtime exposure regimes. Calculations then determined the time necessary to spend outdoors for the body to gain sufficient vitamin D levels for year-round needs without being sunburnt under differing exposure scenarios. Results show that, in specified conditions, white Caucasians across the UK need nine minutes of daily sunlight at lunchtime from March to September for 25(OH)D levels to remain ≥25 nmol/L throughout the winter. This assumes forearms and lower legs are exposed June-August, while in the remaining, cooler months only hands and face need be exposed. Exposing only the hands and face throughout the summer does not meet requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Hepcidin Concentration in Individuals with Sickle Cell Anemia: Basis for the Dietary Recommendation of Iron
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040498
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Dietary iron requirements in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) remain unclear. SCD is a neglected hemoglobinopathy characterized by intense erythropoietic activity and anemia. Hepcidin is the hormone mainly responsible for iron homeostasis and intestinal absorption. Intense erythropoietic activity and anemia may reduce
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Dietary iron requirements in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) remain unclear. SCD is a neglected hemoglobinopathy characterized by intense erythropoietic activity and anemia. Hepcidin is the hormone mainly responsible for iron homeostasis and intestinal absorption. Intense erythropoietic activity and anemia may reduce hepcidin transcription. By contrast, iron overload and inflammation may induce it. Studies on SCD have not evaluated the role of hepcidin in the presence and absence of iron overload. We aimed to compare serum hepcidin concentrations among individuals with sickle cell anemia, with or without iron overload, and those without the disease. Markers of iron metabolism and erythropoietic activity such as hepcidin, ferritin, and growth differentiation factor 15 were evaluated. Three groups participated in the study: the control group, comprised of individuals without SCD (C); those with the disease but without iron overload (SCDw); and those with the disease and iron overload (SCDio). Results showed that hepcidin concentration was higher in the SCDio > C > SCDw group. These data suggest that the dietary iron intake of the SCDio group should not be reduced as higher hepcidin concentrations may reduce the intestinal absorption of iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
Open AccessArticle Bioelectrical Impedance Phase Angle as an Indicator of Malnutrition in Hospitalized Children with Diagnosed Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Case Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040499
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
The phase angle (PhA) seems to be a reliable screening tool for the identification of malnutrition risk in hospitalized children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to assess the body composition and nutritional status of hospitalized children
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The phase angle (PhA) seems to be a reliable screening tool for the identification of malnutrition risk in hospitalized children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to assess the body composition and nutritional status of hospitalized children and adolescents with IBD by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with phase angle (PhA) calculation, which has not been evaluated in hospitalized children with IBD yet. A total of 59 children and adolescents aged 4–18 years, with IBD: 34 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 25 Crohn’s disease (CD) were included in the study. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. In both groups, BIA was performed and PhA was calculated. IBD patients had significantly lower PhA (UC: 5.34 ± 1.34 vs. 5.96 ± 0.76, p = 0.040; CD: 5.16 ± 1.18 vs. 5.90 ± 0.62, p = 0.009) compared to the control subjects. Significant changes in selected body composition parameters were observed particularly in CD, especially in fat free mass components. Lower phase angle score together with lower body composition parameters and selected nutrition indicators in children and adolescents with IBD demonstrate their worse nutritional and functional status compared to healthy subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enteral Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Diets and Feeding Practices during the First 1000 Days Window in the Phnom Penh and North Eastern Districts of Cambodia
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040500
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children
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Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children under 5 were 10% and 32%, respectively. Thus, a strong focus on improving feeding practices within the first 1000 days window to reduce child malnutrition prevalence in Cambodia is needed. This cross-sectional study assessed the current feeding practices among of women of reproductive age, pregnant women, lactating women and children less than 24 months living in six districts from Phnom Penh and two rural provinces in the North East of Cambodia. The nutritional status of pregnant women was poor, with 21.4% having a Middle Upper arm circumference below 23 cm. While breastfeeding was predominant within the first 6 months of age in every district, feeding practices of pregnant women and children were a concern, as >70% of the children were not meeting the minimum acceptable diet, and most of the women did not improve their diet during pregnancy. Inadequate nutrition during the first 1000 days is highly prevalent in Cambodia. A comprehensive national Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition strategy needs to be developed and operationalized to improve feeding practices of Cambodian women and children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Defining ‘Unhealthy’: A Systematic Analysis of Alignment between the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Health Star Rating System
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040501
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods
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The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institute’s Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’ based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified ‘core’ that received HSR ≤ 2.0; and those classified ‘discretionary’ that received HSR ≥ 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were ‘high in’ salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Sodium and Other Nutrient Intakes among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in New Zealand
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040502
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition
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This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition database, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Intakes of dietary sodium and other nutrients were compared with relevant guidelines and clinical recommendations. Eighty-five participants completed a 3-day weighed food record. The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at and more than half of the participants exceeded recommended intake levels. Sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake. Only 5% of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2 g/kg of protein per day; 68% of participants were consuming inadequate fiber at baseline. A high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data show excess sodium intake. It is also evident that there was poor adherence to dietary guidelines for a range of other nutrients. A total diet approach is needed to lower sodium intake and improve total diet quality among hemodialysis patients in New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle Taiwanese Green Propolis Ethanol Extract Delays the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats Treated with Streptozotocin/High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040503
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Taiwanese green propolis ethanol extract (TGPE) is produced only in Taiwan and has a different composition from other types of propolis. TGPE is known for its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-microbial properties, but the effects and mechanisms of TGPE in the modulation of diabetes
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Taiwanese green propolis ethanol extract (TGPE) is produced only in Taiwan and has a different composition from other types of propolis. TGPE is known for its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-microbial properties, but the effects and mechanisms of TGPE in the modulation of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGPE on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a streptozotocin/high-fat-diet (STZ/HFD)-induced T2DM rat model. The results revealed that TGPE delayed the development and progression of T2DM and reduced the severity of β-cell failure. TGPE also attenuated inflammation and reactive oxygen species ROS in the rats. Moreover, there were higher levels of oxidant cytokines, leptin, and adiponectin in the serum of the TGPE-treated group. Unlike Brazilian propolis, TGPE promoted hepatic genes PPAR-α and CYP7A1, which were related to lipid catabolism and removal. TGPE may thus delay the progression of T2DM through anti-inflammation effects, anti-oxidation effects, and balancing lipid metabolism. It is suggested that TGPE can be a potential alternative medicine for T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber Intake and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors among Young South African Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040504
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
This study attempts to bridge the research gap regarding the importance of dietary fiber in reducing metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in young rural South Africans. A total of 627 individuals (309 males and 318 females) aged 18–30 years participated in the study.
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This study attempts to bridge the research gap regarding the importance of dietary fiber in reducing metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in young rural South Africans. A total of 627 individuals (309 males and 318 females) aged 18–30 years participated in the study. Dietary intake was measured using a validated 24-h recall method. The consumption of different types of dietary fiber (total, soluble, and insoluble) was calculated and presented as grams. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured according to standard protocols. According to the definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MetS was 23.1%. Overall, the total median [interquartile range (IQR)] values for total, insoluble, and soluble fiber consumed were 4.6 g [0.0–48.9], 0.0 g [0.0–18.0], and 0.0 g [0.0–15.0], respectively. Females had a higher median [IQR] intake of total (5.1 g [0.0–48.9] vs. 4.3 g [0.0–43.9]), insoluble (0.0 g [0.0–18.0] vs. 0.0 g [0.0–12.0]), and soluble fiber (0.0 g [0.0–14.9] vs. 0.0 g [0.0–7.3]) than males, respectively. The mean values for waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol were higher in females than males (82.20 cm vs. 75.07 cm; 5.59 mmol/L vs. 5.44 mmol/L; and 4.26 mmol/L vs. 4.03 mmol/L, respectively), with significant differences observed for waist circumference and total cholesterol (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). More than 97% of participants had fiber intakes below the recommended levels. After adjusting for all potential confounders (age, gender, and energy), log total fiber was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose (β = −0.019, 95% CI [−0.042 to 0.003], p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (β = −0.002, 95% CI [−0.050 to 0.002], p < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = −0.085, 95% CI [−0.173 to 0.002], p = 0.051) This study may be of public health relevance, providing a potential link between less dietary fiber intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Therefore, this observational data encourages public health policy measures to increase the consumption of dietary fiber in rural communities in order to lower the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Factors Associated with Hypermetabolism and Hypometabolism in Critically Ill AKI Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040505
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious condition with high mortality. The presence of hypermetabolism may be a factor related to poorer prognosis. This study evaluated the resting energy expenditure (REE) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe AKI using
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious condition with high mortality. The presence of hypermetabolism may be a factor related to poorer prognosis. This study evaluated the resting energy expenditure (REE) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe AKI using indirect calorimetry (IC) and identified factors associated with metabolism categories. Patients were evaluated through measurement of REE and estimation of basal energy expenditure (BEE) using the Harris–Benedict equation. Metabolism categories were as follows: hypermetabolism (REE/BEE > 1.3) and hypometabolism (REE/BEE < 0.9). The metabolism categories were compared using ANOVA and the chi-square test. Variables were analyzed by multiple logistic regression tests. Also, survivors and non-survivors were compared using Student’s t-tests along with Cox regression tests. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were also performed. We evaluated 124 patients with a mean age of 61.08 ± 16.6 years. Sixty-four patients were hypermetabolic (62%) and 18 were hypometabolic (14%). Vasoactive drug (VAD) dose and younger age were independently associated with hypermetabolism. The survival analysis was not associated with metabolism categorization. In conclusion, patients with severe AKI are mostly hypermetabolic and hypermetabolic patients of a lower age receiving treatment with higher VAD doses. The only factors associated with death were protein intake and VAD dose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040506
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated
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Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male), with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests), handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Protein intake distribution was calculated for each participant as a coefficient of variance (CV = SD of grams of protein intake per main meal divided by the average total amount of proteins (grams) of the main meals). Based on the CV, participants were divided into tertiles and classified as spread, intermediate or pulse. The average total protein intake was 1.08 ± 0.29 g/kg/day. Total protein intake was not associated with outcome measures using multivariate regression analyses. Individuals with a spread protein diet during the main meals (CV < 0.43) had higher gait speed compared to those with an intermediate diet (CV 0.43–0.62) (β = −0.42, p = 0.035), whereas a spread and pulse protein diet were not associated with SPPB total score, chair rise, grip strength and Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). The interaction of higher physical activity and higher total protein intake was significantly associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.71, p = 0.049). While this interaction was not associated with SPPB or grip strength, the association with quality of life emphasizes the need for a higher total protein intake together with an active lifestyle in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Ingestion on Postprandial Aminoacidemia Compared with a Free Amino Acid Mixture in Young Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040507
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of
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To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture. This study was an open-label, randomized, 4 × 4 Latin square design. After 12–15 h of fasting, 11 healthy young men ingested the WPH (3.3, 5.0, or 7.5 g of protein) or the EAA mixture (2.5 g). Blood samples were collected before ingestion and at time points from 10 to 120 min after ingestion, and amino acids, insulin, glucose and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in plasma were measured. Even though the EAA mixture and 5.0 g of the WPH contained similar amounts of EAA and leucine, the WPH was associated with significantly higher plasma EAA and leucine levels. These results suggest that the WPH can induce a higher level of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040508
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different
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Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05) between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design), and significantly higher (p < 0.05) among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001) in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001). Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt) ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9) times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8) times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing Parental Engagement in an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program Implemented at Scale: The Infant Program
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040509
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
The ‘early years’ is a crucial period for the prevention of childhood obesity. Health services are well placed to deliver preventive programs to families, however, they usually rely on voluntary attendance, which is challenging given low parental engagement. This study explored factors influencing
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The ‘early years’ is a crucial period for the prevention of childhood obesity. Health services are well placed to deliver preventive programs to families, however, they usually rely on voluntary attendance, which is challenging given low parental engagement. This study explored factors influencing engagement in the Infant Program: a group-based obesity prevention program facilitated by maternal and child health nurses within first-time parent groups. Six 1.5 h sessions were delivered at three-month intervals when the infants were 3–18 months. A multi-site qualitative exploratory approach was used, and program service providers and parents were interviewed. Numerous interrelated factors were identified, linked to two themes: the transition to parenthood, and program processes. Personal factors enabling engagement included parents’ heightened need for knowledge, affirmation and social connections. Adjusting to the baby’s routine and increased parental self-efficacy were associated with diminished engagement. Organisational factors that challenged embedding program delivery into routine practice included aspects of program promotion, referral and scheduling and workforce resources. Program factors encompassed program content, format, resources and facilitators, with the program being described as meeting parental expectations, although some messages were perceived as difficult to implement. The study findings provide insight into potential strategies to address modifiable barriers to parental engagement in early-year interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Dose-Response Relationship between Serum Retinol Levels and Survival in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Results from the DACHS Study