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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Open AccessBrief Report Neurotensin Is a Lipid-Induced Gastrointestinal Peptide Associated with Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040526
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and
[...] Read more.
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and the development of insulin-resistance. In humans, higher plasma levels of pro-NT, which is the stable circulating precursor of NT, predict obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. In obesity, the presence of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation leads to unfavorable metabolic outcomes and is associated with the development of T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma pro-NT levels and the presence of VAT inflammation in biopsies from 40 morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. We demonstrated that higher proNT levels are significantly associated with greater macrophages infiltration, HIF-1α, WISP-1, and UNC5B expression in VAT (all p < 0.01) due to the diagnosis of T2D and NAFLD. The overall results show that, in obesity, pro-NT is a biomarker of VAT inflammation and insulin-resistance. Additionally, NT may be involved in the development of dysmetabolic conditions likely mediated by increased gut fat absorption and the presence of a proinflammatory milieu in the adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched and Hydroxyhydroquinone-Reduced Coffee on Postprandial Fat Oxidation and Antioxidative Capacity in Healthy Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040525
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here
[...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here we assessed the effects of CGA-enriched and HHQ-reduced coffee on FOX. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (age: 38 ± 8 years (mean ± SD); BMI: 22.4 ± 1.5 kg/m2) participated in this crossover study. Subjects consumed the test beverage (coffee) containing the same amount of CGA with HHQ (CGA-HHQ(+)) or without HHQ (CGA-HHQ(−)) for four weeks. Postprandial FOX and the ratio of the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) to the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) as an indicator of oxidative stress were assessed. After the four-week intervention, postprandial FOX and the postprandial BAP/d-ROMs ratio were significantly higher in the CGA-HHQ(−) group compared with the CGA-HHQ(+) group (4 ± 23 mg/min, group effect: p = 0.040; 0.27 ± 0.74, group effect: p = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, reducing the amount of HHQ facilitated the postprandial FOX effects of CGA in coffee. Our findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibition of FOX by HHQ is related to postprandial oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Design and Reproducibility of a Mini-Survey to Evaluate the Quality of Food Intake (Mini-ECCA) in a Mexican Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040524
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Evaluating food intake quality may contribute to the development of nutrition programs. In Mexico, there are no screening tools that can be administered quickly for the evaluation of this variable. The aim was to determine the reproducibility of a mini-survey designed to evaluate
[...] Read more.
Evaluating food intake quality may contribute to the development of nutrition programs. In Mexico, there are no screening tools that can be administered quickly for the evaluation of this variable. The aim was to determine the reproducibility of a mini-survey designed to evaluate the quality of food intake (Mini-ECCA) in a Mexican population. Mini-ECCA consists of 12 questions that are based on Mexican and international recommendations for food and non-alcoholic beverage intake, with the support of photographs for food quantity estimation. Each question scores as 0 (unhealthy) or 1 (healthy), and the final score undergoes a classification procedure. Through the framework of a nutritional study, 152 employees of the municipal water company in Guadalajara, Mexico (April–August 2016), were invited to participate. The survey was administered in two rounds (test and retest) with a 15-day interval between them. We calculated the Spearman correlation coefficient, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and weighted kappa for score classification agreement (SPSS versus 14 p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). The survey obtained a “good” reproducibility (ρ = 0.713, p < 0.001), and an excellent concordance (ICC = 0.841 Confidence Interval 95% 0.779, 0.885). It can thus be said that the Mini-ECCA displayed acceptable reproducibility and is suitable for the purpose of dietary assessment and guidance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ethanol Extract of Evodia rutaecarpa Attenuates Cell Growth through Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-1 Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040523
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the
[...] Read more.
The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the fruits of E. rutaecarpa against various diseases, their effects against BPH have not been reported. Here, we investigated the inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa (EEER) against BPH, and its underlying mechanisms regarding cell growth of BPH using BPH-1 cells. An in vitro 5α-reductase activity assay showed that EEER exhibited inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase. In BPH-1 cells, EEER treatment inhibited cell viability and reduced the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and phosphor-ERK1/2 proteins. Moreover, EEER also induced apoptosis, with chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Regarding its underlying mechanisms, EEER exacerbated the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner and eventually caused the cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these data demonstrated that EEER had a potent 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and that EEER treatment in BPH-1 cells inhibited cell viability via caspase-8- and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, EEER may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of BPH. Full article
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Open AccessReview Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040522
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a secondary metabolite naturally synthesized by a number of bacteria, microalgae, and yeasts. The commercial production of this pigment has traditionally been performed by chemical synthesis, but the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis appears to be the most promising source
[...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a secondary metabolite naturally synthesized by a number of bacteria, microalgae, and yeasts. The commercial production of this pigment has traditionally been performed by chemical synthesis, but the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis appears to be the most promising source for its industrial biological production. Due to its collective diverse functions in skin biology, there is mounting evidence that astaxanthin possesses various health benefits and important nutraceutical applications in the field of dermatology. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which astaxanthin might exert its benefits on skin homeostasis have been proposed, including photoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. This review summarizes the available data on the functional role of astaxanthin in skin physiology, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to astaxanthin, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stability of Antiradical Activity of Protein Extracts and Hydrolysates from Dry-Cured Pork Loins with Probiotic Strains of LAB
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040521
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to
[...] Read more.
The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of antiradical activity of protein extracts from LAB-inoculated dry-cured pork loins during long-term aging and evaluate their hydrolysates after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Analyses of hydrolysates by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were strengthened with in silico analysis. The highest antiradical activity of the protein extracts was observed after 180 days of aging. The influence of the strain used (LOCK, BAUER, or BB12) on the inactivation ability of ABTS radicals varied during long-term aging. The IC50 values indicated the higher antiradical properties of salt-soluble (SSF) compared to water-soluble fraction (WSF) of proteins. The peptides generated by in vitro digestion have MW between 700 and 4232 Da and their length ranged from 5 to 47 amino acids in a sequence where Leu, Pro, Lys, Glu, and His had the largest share. This study demonstrates that the degradation of pork muscle proteins during gastrointestinal digestion may give rise to a wide variety of peptides with antiradical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale)
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040520
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of
[...] Read more.
The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women (n = 297) were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain). Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75), which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.841, CI95% = 0.735–0.948), showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On a Molecular Basis, Investigate Association of Molecular Structure with Bioactive Compounds, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Chemical and Nutrient Profiles of Canola Seeds and Co-Products from Canola Processing: Comparison Crusher Plants within Canada and within China as well as between Canada and China
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040519
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular
[...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular structure using Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR-ATR) molecular spectroscopy technique; (b) bioactive compounds, anti-nutritional factors, and chemical composition; and (c) bioenergy values in oil seeds (canola seeds), co-products (meal or pellets) from bio-oil processing plants in Canada in comparison with China. (3) Determine the relationship between protein molecular structural features and nutrient profiles in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. Our results showed the possibility to characterize protein molecular structure using FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Processing induced changes between oil seeds and co-products were found in the chemical, bioenergy profiles and protein molecular structure. However, no strong correlation was found between the chemical and nutrient profiles of oil seeds (canola seeds) and their protein molecular structure. On the other hand, co-products were strongly correlated with protein molecular structure in the chemical profile and bioenergy values. Generally, comparisons of oil seeds (canola seeds) and co-products (meal or pellets) in Canada, in China, and between Canada and China indicated the presence of variations among different crusher plants and bio-oil processing products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Accuracy of Automatic Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat and Calorie Counting Based on Voice Descriptions of Meals in People with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040518
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of automatic macronutrient and calorie counting based on voice descriptions of meals provided by people with unstable type 1 diabetes using the developed expert system (VoiceDiab) in comparison with reference counting made by
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of automatic macronutrient and calorie counting based on voice descriptions of meals provided by people with unstable type 1 diabetes using the developed expert system (VoiceDiab) in comparison with reference counting made by a dietitian, and to evaluate the impact of insulin doses recommended by a physician on glycemic control in the study’s participants. We also compared insulin doses calculated using the algorithm implemented in the VoiceDiab system. Meal descriptions were provided by 30 hospitalized patients (mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.4%, i.e., 68 mmol/mol). In 16 subjects, the physician determined insulin boluses based on the data provided by the system, and in 14 subjects, by data provided by the dietitian. On one hand, differences introduced by patients who subjectively described their meals compared to those introduced by the system that used the average characteristics of food products, although statistically significant, were low enough not to have a significant impact on insulin doses automatically calculated by the system. On the other hand, the glycemic control of patients was comparable regardless of whether the physician was using the system-estimated or the reference content of meals to determine insulin doses. Full article
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Open AccessReview Acid Balance, Dietary Acid Load, and Bone Effects—A Controversial Subject
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040517
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body
[...] Read more.
Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body and progressively increasing degrees of metabolic acidosis, the body has multiple systems to buffer and titrate acid, including bone which contains large quantities of alkaline salts of calcium. Both in vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans suggest that bone base helps neutralize part of the dietary net acid load. This raises the question of whether decades of eating a high acid diet might contribute to the loss of bone mass in osteoporosis. If this idea is true, then additional alkali ingestion in the form of net base-producing foods or alkalinizing salts could potentially prevent this acid-related loss of bone. Presently, data exists that support both the proponents as well as the opponents of this hypothesis. Recent literature reviews have tended to support either one side or the other. Assuming that the data cited by both sides is correct, we suggest a way to reconcile the discordant findings. This overview will first discuss dietary acids and bases and the idea of changes in acid balance with increasing age, then review the evidence for and against the usefulness of alkali therapy as a treatment for osteoporosis, and finally suggest a way of reconciling these two opposing points of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
Open AccessArticle Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040516
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level.
[...] Read more.
Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p < 0.05) by household salt iodine category. Other significant differences were by strata and by household vulnerability to poverty in India and Ghana. In multiple variable regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001). Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.3, 2.0) times higher (India) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6) times higher (Ghana) among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001) and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015); and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029) (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4). No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle The Mediating Role of Overweight and Obesity in the Prospective Association between Overall Dietary Quality and Healthy Aging
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040515
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Our objective was to quantify to what extent the association between adherence to the French nutritional recommendations at midlife, measured by the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), and healthy aging (HA) is mediated by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods: We
[...] Read more.
Background: Our objective was to quantify to what extent the association between adherence to the French nutritional recommendations at midlife, measured by the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), and healthy aging (HA) is mediated by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods: We analyzed data from 2249 participants of the French ‘Supplementation with Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants’ (SU.VI.MAX-‘SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants’) cohort. At baseline (1994–1995), data on BMI status (<25 vs. ≥25 and <30 vs. ≥30) and diet were collected. At follow-up (2007–2009), HA status (yes/no) was evaluated via a multidimensional concept focusing on chronic disease incidence, physical and cognitive functioning, mental and social health, pain, and perceived health. Relative risks (RR) were estimated by extensively adjusted robust-error-variance Poisson regression, and counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed. Results: Our HA criteria were met by 39% of participants. We identified a positive direct relation of a greater adherence to the French nutritional recommendations, with the probability of HA (RRQuartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 1.53)), and an indirect relation mediated by BMI status (1.01 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.02)), accounting for 5% of the total relation. Conclusion: These results indicate that high dietary quality may contribute to the preservation of overall health during aging, partly via obesity prevention and partly via other mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prophylactic Neuroprotection of Total Glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba against Semen Strychni-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Reducing the Absorption of Toxic Components
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040514
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Strychnos alkaloids (SAs) are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total
[...] Read more.
Strychnos alkaloids (SAs) are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba (TGP). An SA brain damage model was firstly established. The neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of TGP were confirmed by physical and behavioral testing, biochemical assay, and histological examination. Then, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to investigate the time-course change and distribution of strychnine and brucine (two main SAs) in the brain after oral SA administration with or without TGP pretreatment. Biochemical analysis results indicated that TGP could ameliorate the oxidative stress status caused by SAs. Time-course change and distribution studies demonstrated that strychnine and brucine were rapidly absorbed into the brain, peaked early at 0.5 h, and were mainly located in the hippocampus and cerebellum. TGP showed a pre-protective effect against neurotoxicity by reducing the absorption of toxic alkaloids into the brain. These findings could provide beneficial information in facilitating future studies of Semen Strychni neurotoxicity and developing herbal medicines to alleviate neurotoxicity in the clinic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iodine Deficiency in a Study Population of Norwegian Pregnant Women—Results from the Little in Norway Study (LiN)
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040513
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150–250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status
[...] Read more.
Iodine sufficiency is particularly important in pregnancy, where median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in the range of 150–250 µg/L indicates adequate iodine status. The aims of this study were to determine UIC and assess if dietary and maternal characteristics influence the iodine status in pregnant Norwegian women. The study comprises a cross-sectional population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women (Little in Norway (LiN)). Median UIC in 954 urine samples was 85 µg/L and 78.4% of the samples (n = 748) were ≤150 µg/L. 23.2% (n = 221) of the samples were ≤50 µg/L and 5.2% (n = 50) were above the requirements of iodine intake (>250 µg/L). Frequent iodine-supplement users (n = 144) had significantly higher UIC (120 µg/L) than non-frequent users (75 µg/L). Frequent milk and dairy product consumers (4–9 portions/day) had significantly higher UIC (99 µg/L) than women consuming 0–1 portion/day (57 µg/L) or 2–3 portions/day (83 µg/L). Women living in mid-Norway (n = 255) had lowest UIC (72 µg/L). In conclusion, this study shows that the diet of the pregnant women did not necessarily secure a sufficient iodine intake. There is an urgent need for public health strategies to secure adequate iodine nutrition among pregnant women in Norway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040512
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect acid–base balance.
[...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect acid–base balance. Major determinants of net endogenous acid production are the generation of large amounts of hydrogen ions, mostly by animal-derived protein, which is counterbalanced by the metabolism of base-producing foods like fruits and vegetables. Alkali therapy of chronic metabolic acidosis can be achieved by providing an alkali-rich diet or oral administration of alkali salts. The primary goal of dietary treatment should be to increase the proportion of fruits and vegetables and to reduce the daily protein intake to 0.8–1.0 g per kg body weight. Diet modifications should begin early, i.e., even in patients with moderate kidney impairment, because usual dietary habits of many developed societies contribute an increased proportion of acid equivalents due to the high intake of protein from animal sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040511
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females) healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females) healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7 years old). Adherence to a MedDiet was assessed by a KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index) questionnaire. Standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of MF. The cardiometabolic profile was assessed using the following components: triglycerides, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Analysis of covariance shows a significant difference in the cardiometabolic profile of both genders between the high MF/low MedDiet and high MF/optimal MedDiet groups, and the low MF/low MedDiet and low MF/optimal MedDiet groups (p < 0.001). No difference was found on cardiometabolic profile between high MF/optimal MedDiet and high MF/low MedDiet, both in males and females. Additionally, logistic regression shows that both female (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.8–3.7); p = 0.02) and male (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: (1.9–5.8); p < 0.001) participants in the optimal MedDiet/high MF group had the highest odds of expressing a healthier cardiometabolic profile as compared to those in the low MF/low MedDiet group. In conclusion, a combination of high MF levels and optimal adherence to a MedDiet is associated with a healthier cardiometabolic profile; however, high MF levels seem to circumvent the deleterious effects of having a low adherence to a MedDiet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Dose-Response Relationship between Serum Retinol Levels and Survival in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Results from the DACHS Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040510
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Current knowledge on the role of retinol in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is very limited. We investigated the association of serum retinol levels with survival outcomes in a large cohort of 2908 CRC patients from Germany. Retinol concentrations were
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Current knowledge on the role of retinol in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is very limited. We investigated the association of serum retinol levels with survival outcomes in a large cohort of 2908 CRC patients from Germany. Retinol concentrations were determined in serum collected shortly after diagnosis by mass spectrometry. Associations between serum retinol levels and survival outcomes were assessed using multivariable Cox regression and dose-response analyses. The joint association of serum retinol and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) with survival outcomes was also examined. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 787 deaths occurred, 573 of which were due to CRC. Dose-response curves showed an inverse relationship between serum retinol levels and survival endpoints in the range of <2.4 µmol/L, but no associations at higher levels. Low (<1.2 µmol/L) versus high (≥2.4 µmol/L) serum retinol levels were associated with poorer overall survival (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19–1.78, P-trend = 0.0003) and CRC-specific survival (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.33–2.15, P-trend < 0.0001). Joint presence of low serum retinol (<1.2 µmol/L) and low 25(OH)D3 (<30 nmol/L) was associated with a particularly strong decrease in overall and CRC-specific survival. Low serum retinol levels were identified as a predictor of poor survival in CRC patients, in particular when co-occurring with low serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3. The clinical implications of these findings require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Colorectal Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing Parental Engagement in an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program Implemented at Scale: The Infant Program
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040509
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
The ‘early years’ is a crucial period for the prevention of childhood obesity. Health services are well placed to deliver preventive programs to families, however, they usually rely on voluntary attendance, which is challenging given low parental engagement. This study explored factors influencing
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The ‘early years’ is a crucial period for the prevention of childhood obesity. Health services are well placed to deliver preventive programs to families, however, they usually rely on voluntary attendance, which is challenging given low parental engagement. This study explored factors influencing engagement in the Infant Program: a group-based obesity prevention program facilitated by maternal and child health nurses within first-time parent groups. Six 1.5 h sessions were delivered at three-month intervals when the infants were 3–18 months. A multi-site qualitative exploratory approach was used, and program service providers and parents were interviewed. Numerous interrelated factors were identified, linked to two themes: the transition to parenthood, and program processes. Personal factors enabling engagement included parents’ heightened need for knowledge, affirmation and social connections. Adjusting to the baby’s routine and increased parental self-efficacy were associated with diminished engagement. Organisational factors that challenged embedding program delivery into routine practice included aspects of program promotion, referral and scheduling and workforce resources. Program factors encompassed program content, format, resources and facilitators, with the program being described as meeting parental expectations, although some messages were perceived as difficult to implement. The study findings provide insight into potential strategies to address modifiable barriers to parental engagement in early-year interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040508
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different
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Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05) between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design), and significantly higher (p < 0.05) among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001) in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001). Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt) ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9) times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8) times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Ingestion on Postprandial Aminoacidemia Compared with a Free Amino Acid Mixture in Young Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040507
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of
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To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture. This study was an open-label, randomized, 4 × 4 Latin square design. After 12–15 h of fasting, 11 healthy young men ingested the WPH (3.3, 5.0, or 7.5 g of protein) or the EAA mixture (2.5 g). Blood samples were collected before ingestion and at time points from 10 to 120 min after ingestion, and amino acids, insulin, glucose and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in plasma were measured. Even though the EAA mixture and 5.0 g of the WPH contained similar amounts of EAA and leucine, the WPH was associated with significantly higher plasma EAA and leucine levels. These results suggest that the WPH can induce a higher level of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040506
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated
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Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male), with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests), handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Protein intake distribution was calculated for each participant as a coefficient of variance (CV = SD of grams of protein intake per main meal divided by the average total amount of proteins (grams) of the main meals). Based on the CV, participants were divided into tertiles and classified as spread, intermediate or pulse. The average total protein intake was 1.08 ± 0.29 g/kg/day. Total protein intake was not associated with outcome measures using multivariate regression analyses. Individuals with a spread protein diet during the main meals (CV < 0.43) had higher gait speed compared to those with an intermediate diet (CV 0.43–0.62) (β = −0.42, p = 0.035), whereas a spread and pulse protein diet were not associated with SPPB total score, chair rise, grip strength and Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). The interaction of higher physical activity and higher total protein intake was significantly associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.71, p = 0.049). While this interaction was not associated with SPPB or grip strength, the association with quality of life emphasizes the need for a higher total protein intake together with an active lifestyle in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Factors Associated with Hypermetabolism and Hypometabolism in Critically Ill AKI Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040505
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious condition with high mortality. The presence of hypermetabolism may be a factor related to poorer prognosis. This study evaluated the resting energy expenditure (REE) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe AKI using
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious condition with high mortality. The presence of hypermetabolism may be a factor related to poorer prognosis. This study evaluated the resting energy expenditure (REE) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe AKI using indirect calorimetry (IC) and identified factors associated with metabolism categories. Patients were evaluated through measurement of REE and estimation of basal energy expenditure (BEE) using the Harris–Benedict equation. Metabolism categories were as follows: hypermetabolism (REE/BEE > 1.3) and hypometabolism (REE/BEE < 0.9). The metabolism categories were compared using ANOVA and the chi-square test. Variables were analyzed by multiple logistic regression tests. Also, survivors and non-survivors were compared using Student’s t-tests along with Cox regression tests. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were also performed. We evaluated 124 patients with a mean age of 61.08 ± 16.6 years. Sixty-four patients were hypermetabolic (62%) and 18 were hypometabolic (14%). Vasoactive drug (VAD) dose and younger age were independently associated with hypermetabolism. The survival analysis was not associated with metabolism categorization. In conclusion, patients with severe AKI are mostly hypermetabolic and hypermetabolic patients of a lower age receiving treatment with higher VAD doses. The only factors associated with death were protein intake and VAD dose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber Intake and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors among Young South African Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040504
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
This study attempts to bridge the research gap regarding the importance of dietary fiber in reducing metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in young rural South Africans. A total of 627 individuals (309 males and 318 females) aged 18–30 years participated in the study.
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This study attempts to bridge the research gap regarding the importance of dietary fiber in reducing metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in young rural South Africans. A total of 627 individuals (309 males and 318 females) aged 18–30 years participated in the study. Dietary intake was measured using a validated 24-h recall method. The consumption of different types of dietary fiber (total, soluble, and insoluble) was calculated and presented as grams. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured according to standard protocols. According to the definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MetS was 23.1%. Overall, the total median [interquartile range (IQR)] values for total, insoluble, and soluble fiber consumed were 4.6 g [0.0–48.9], 0.0 g [0.0–18.0], and 0.0 g [0.0–15.0], respectively. Females had a higher median [IQR] intake of total (5.1 g [0.0–48.9] vs. 4.3 g [0.0–43.9]), insoluble (0.0 g [0.0–18.0] vs. 0.0 g [0.0–12.0]), and soluble fiber (0.0 g [0.0–14.9] vs. 0.0 g [0.0–7.3]) than males, respectively. The mean values for waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol were higher in females than males (82.20 cm vs. 75.07 cm; 5.59 mmol/L vs. 5.44 mmol/L; and 4.26 mmol/L vs. 4.03 mmol/L, respectively), with significant differences observed for waist circumference and total cholesterol (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). More than 97% of participants had fiber intakes below the recommended levels. After adjusting for all potential confounders (age, gender, and energy), log total fiber was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose (β = −0.019, 95% CI [−0.042 to 0.003], p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (β = −0.002, 95% CI [−0.050 to 0.002], p < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = −0.085, 95% CI [−0.173 to 0.002], p = 0.051) This study may be of public health relevance, providing a potential link between less dietary fiber intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Therefore, this observational data encourages public health policy measures to increase the consumption of dietary fiber in rural communities in order to lower the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Taiwanese Green Propolis Ethanol Extract Delays the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats Treated with Streptozotocin/High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040503
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Taiwanese green propolis ethanol extract (TGPE) is produced only in Taiwan and has a different composition from other types of propolis. TGPE is known for its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-microbial properties, but the effects and mechanisms of TGPE in the modulation of diabetes
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Taiwanese green propolis ethanol extract (TGPE) is produced only in Taiwan and has a different composition from other types of propolis. TGPE is known for its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-microbial properties, but the effects and mechanisms of TGPE in the modulation of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGPE on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a streptozotocin/high-fat-diet (STZ/HFD)-induced T2DM rat model. The results revealed that TGPE delayed the development and progression of T2DM and reduced the severity of β-cell failure. TGPE also attenuated inflammation and reactive oxygen species ROS in the rats. Moreover, there were higher levels of oxidant cytokines, leptin, and adiponectin in the serum of the TGPE-treated group. Unlike Brazilian propolis, TGPE promoted hepatic genes PPAR-α and CYP7A1, which were related to lipid catabolism and removal. TGPE may thus delay the progression of T2DM through anti-inflammation effects, anti-oxidation effects, and balancing lipid metabolism. It is suggested that TGPE can be a potential alternative medicine for T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Sodium and Other Nutrient Intakes among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in New Zealand
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040502
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition
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This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition database, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Intakes of dietary sodium and other nutrients were compared with relevant guidelines and clinical recommendations. Eighty-five participants completed a 3-day weighed food record. The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at and more than half of the participants exceeded recommended intake levels. Sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake. Only 5% of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2 g/kg of protein per day; 68% of participants were consuming inadequate fiber at baseline. A high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data show excess sodium intake. It is also evident that there was poor adherence to dietary guidelines for a range of other nutrients. A total diet approach is needed to lower sodium intake and improve total diet quality among hemodialysis patients in New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle Defining ‘Unhealthy’: A Systematic Analysis of Alignment between the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Health Star Rating System
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040501
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods
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The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institute’s Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’ based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified ‘core’ that received HSR ≤ 2.0; and those classified ‘discretionary’ that received HSR ≥ 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were ‘high in’ salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diets and Feeding Practices during the First 1000 Days Window in the Phnom Penh and North Eastern Districts of Cambodia
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040500
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children
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Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children under 5 were 10% and 32%, respectively. Thus, a strong focus on improving feeding practices within the first 1000 days window to reduce child malnutrition prevalence in Cambodia is needed. This cross-sectional study assessed the current feeding practices among of women of reproductive age, pregnant women, lactating women and children less than 24 months living in six districts from Phnom Penh and two rural provinces in the North East of Cambodia. The nutritional status of pregnant women was poor, with 21.4% having a Middle Upper arm circumference below 23 cm. While breastfeeding was predominant within the first 6 months of age in every district, feeding practices of pregnant women and children were a concern, as >70% of the children were not meeting the minimum acceptable diet, and most of the women did not improve their diet during pregnancy. Inadequate nutrition during the first 1000 days is highly prevalent in Cambodia. A comprehensive national Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition strategy needs to be developed and operationalized to improve feeding practices of Cambodian women and children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioelectrical Impedance Phase Angle as an Indicator of Malnutrition in Hospitalized Children with Diagnosed Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Case Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040499
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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The phase angle (PhA) seems to be a reliable screening tool for the identification of malnutrition risk in hospitalized children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to assess the body composition and nutritional status of hospitalized children
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The phase angle (PhA) seems to be a reliable screening tool for the identification of malnutrition risk in hospitalized children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to assess the body composition and nutritional status of hospitalized children and adolescents with IBD by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with phase angle (PhA) calculation, which has not been evaluated in hospitalized children with IBD yet. A total of 59 children and adolescents aged 4–18 years, with IBD: 34 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 25 Crohn’s disease (CD) were included in the study. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. In both groups, BIA was performed and PhA was calculated. IBD patients had significantly lower PhA (UC: 5.34 ± 1.34 vs. 5.96 ± 0.76, p = 0.040; CD: 5.16 ± 1.18 vs. 5.90 ± 0.62, p = 0.009) compared to the control subjects. Significant changes in selected body composition parameters were observed particularly in CD, especially in fat free mass components. Lower phase angle score together with lower body composition parameters and selected nutrition indicators in children and adolescents with IBD demonstrate their worse nutritional and functional status compared to healthy subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enteral Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Hepcidin Concentration in Individuals with Sickle Cell Anemia: Basis for the Dietary Recommendation of Iron
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040498
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Dietary iron requirements in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) remain unclear. SCD is a neglected hemoglobinopathy characterized by intense erythropoietic activity and anemia. Hepcidin is the hormone mainly responsible for iron homeostasis and intestinal absorption. Intense erythropoietic activity and anemia may reduce
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Dietary iron requirements in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) remain unclear. SCD is a neglected hemoglobinopathy characterized by intense erythropoietic activity and anemia. Hepcidin is the hormone mainly responsible for iron homeostasis and intestinal absorption. Intense erythropoietic activity and anemia may reduce hepcidin transcription. By contrast, iron overload and inflammation may induce it. Studies on SCD have not evaluated the role of hepcidin in the presence and absence of iron overload. We aimed to compare serum hepcidin concentrations among individuals with sickle cell anemia, with or without iron overload, and those without the disease. Markers of iron metabolism and erythropoietic activity such as hepcidin, ferritin, and growth differentiation factor 15 were evaluated. Three groups participated in the study: the control group, comprised of individuals without SCD (C); those with the disease but without iron overload (SCDw); and those with the disease and iron overload (SCDio). Results showed that hepcidin concentration was higher in the SCDio > C > SCDw group. These data suggest that the dietary iron intake of the SCDio group should not be reduced as higher hepcidin concentrations may reduce the intestinal absorption of iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Meeting Vitamin D Requirements in White Caucasians at UK Latitudes: Providing a Choice
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040497
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (13311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed
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The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed to quantify the sun exposure required to meet vitamin D targets year-round and determine whether this can be safely achieved in a simply defined manner in the UK as an alternative to increasing vitamin D oral intake. Data from observation (sun exposure, diet, and vitamin D status) and UVR intervention studies performed with white Caucasian adults were combined with modeled all-weather UVR climatology. Daily vitamin D effective UVR doses (all-weather) were calculated across the UK based on ten-year climatology for pre-defined lunchtime exposure regimes. Calculations then determined the time necessary to spend outdoors for the body to gain sufficient vitamin D levels for year-round needs without being sunburnt under differing exposure scenarios. Results show that, in specified conditions, white Caucasians across the UK need nine minutes of daily sunlight at lunchtime from March to September for 25(OH)D levels to remain ≥25 nmol/L throughout the winter. This assumes forearms and lower legs are exposed June-August, while in the remaining, cooler months only hands and face need be exposed. Exposing only the hands and face throughout the summer does not meet requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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