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Special Issue "Nutrients and Renal Function"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 16 May 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enrico Fiaccadori

Acute and Chronic Renal Failure Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma - Parma (Italy)
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Clinical Nephrology; Hemodialysis; Dialysis, Nutrition in CKD, Nutrition in AKI
Guest Editor
Prof. Loreto Gesualdo

Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation, University of Bari – Bari (Italy)
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Immunology of renal disease, renal fibrosis, immunotherapy, regenerative and translational medicine, microbioma in CKD, diabetic kidney disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global health issue, since 6–10% of the adult population is diagnosed with the syndrome in most of the recent epidemiologic studies. The Western diet is rich in sugar, fat and sodium and poor in fibers. Despite the fact that the indirect effects of these nutrients on renal function are well known, their influence on nutritional and metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, requires further investigation regarding their direct effects on renal function. Different sources of macronutrients have different effects on metabolism; however, the literature regarding the protective or harmful effect of different types of lipids, carbohydrates or proteins on renal function is scarce. In addition, the production of uremic toxins by gut microbiota, known to increase cardiovascular risk and to accelerate the progression of CKD, could also play a role in the reduction of renal function in otherwise healthy subjects. Other nutritional and non-nutritional substances present or added in food, such as nutraceuticals, active metabolites, additives and preservatives can also have potential protective or harmful effects on renal function. On this topic, you are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Special Issue.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Renal Epidemiology and Nutrients” is to publish selected papers detailing specific aspects of nutrition that could play a role in renal function decline, both in normal subjects and in patients with CKD. Particularly, papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) dealing with the role of specific nutrients and non-nutritional substances present in food on renal function, and also contributions addressing their indirect effects on the kidney through metabolic disorders, will be included.

Prof. Dr. Enrico Fiaccadori
Prof Loreto Gesualdo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Protein
  • Fibers
  • Fatty acids
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Uremic toxins
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Fructose
  • Dietary Sodium
  • Dietary potassium
  • Dietary phosphorus

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Dietary Approach to Recurrent or Chronic Hyperkalaemia in Patients with Decreased Kidney Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 261; doi:10.3390/nu10030261 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
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Abstract
Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who
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Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who tend to develop hyperkalaemia including patients who are treated with angiotensin pathway modulators. Most potassium-rich foods are considered heart-healthy nutrients with high fibre, high anti-oxidant vitamins and high alkali content such as fresh fruits and vegetables; hence, the main challenge of dietary potassium management is to maintain high fibre intake and a low net fixed-acid load, because constipation and metabolic acidosis are per se major risk factors for hyperkalaemia. To achieve a careful reduction of dietary potassium load without a decrease in alkali or fibre intake, we recommend the implementation of certain pragmatic dietary interventions as follows: Improving knowledge and education about the type of foods with excess potassium (per serving or per unit of weight); identifying foods that are needed for healthy nutrition in renal patients; classification of foods based on their potassium content normalized per unit of dietary fibre; education about the use of cooking procedures (such as boiling) in order to achieve effective potassium reduction before eating; and attention to hidden sources of potassium, in particular additives in preserved foods and low-sodium salt substitutes. The present paper aims to review dietary potassium handling and gives information about practical approaches to limit potassium load in chronic kidney disease patients at risk of hyperkalaemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle Markers of Iron Status Are Associated with Risk of Hyperuricemia among Chinese Adults: Nationwide Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 191; doi:10.3390/nu10020191
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Background: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) involved in iron metabolism, has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for gout and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between markers of iron status with risk of hyperuricemia (HU)
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Background: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) involved in iron metabolism, has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for gout and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between markers of iron status with risk of hyperuricemia (HU) in Chinese adult population. Methods: Data were extracted from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 7946 apparently healthy adults. Serum ferritin (SF), transferrin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), hemoglobin (Hb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and SUA were measured. Diet was assessed with three consecutive 24 h recalls. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activities were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate the associations of SF, transferrin, sTfR, and Hb with SUA and the risk of HU. Results: The crude prevalence of HU was 16.1%. SF, transferrin, and Hb levels were positively associated with SUA and the risk of HU after adjustment for cluster effects and potential confounders (all p-trend < 0.05). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of SF, those in the highest quartile had significantly higher SUA concentrations (β = 0.899 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.788, 1.010; p < 0.001) and higher risk of HU (odds ratio (OR) = 3.086, 95% CI: 2.450, 3.888; p < 0.001). Participants with the highest quartile of transferrin had significantly higher SUA concentrations (β = 0.488 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.389, 0.587; p < 0.001) and higher risk of HU (OR: 1.900; 95% CI: 1.579, 2.286; p < 0.001) when compared with those with the lowest quartile. In male participants, those in the highest quartile of Hb had significantly higher risk of HU when compared to the reference group (OR: 1.401, 95% CI: 1.104, 1.777; p < 0.01); however, this association was not found in female participants (OR: 1.093; 95% CI: 0.821, 1.455; p = 0.544). Conclusion: SF, transferrin, and Hb levels were positively associated with the risk of HU, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings, as well as to elucidate their underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle Malnutrition, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis Syndrome (MIA) and Diet Recommendations among End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 69; doi:10.3390/nu10010069
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome is one of the causes of increased mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the inflammation and nutritional status of patients in end-stage kidney disease treated with maintenance hemodialysis. The study included a group
[...] Read more.
Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome is one of the causes of increased mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the inflammation and nutritional status of patients in end-stage kidney disease treated with maintenance hemodialysis. The study included a group of 98 hemodialyzed patients with stage 5 CKD (38 women and 60 men). Albumin, prealbumin (PRE), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in serum samples collected before mid-week dialysis. Fruit and vegetables frequency intakes were assessed with a questionnaire. CRP was above the reference limit of 5 mg/L in 53% of patients. Moreover, the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) indicated the co-occurrence of inflammation and protein calorie malnutrition in 11% of patients, and the presence of either inflammation or malnutrition in 25%. The questionnaire revealed that hemodialyzed patients frequently exclude fruit and vegetables from their diets. Nearly 43% of the interviewed patients declared frequently eating vegetables, and 35% declared frequently eating fruit, a few times per week or less. The most frequently selected fruit and vegetables had a low antioxidant capacity. The strict dietary restrictions in CKD are difficult to fulfill, and if strictly followed, may lead to protein-calorie malnutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 241; doi:10.3390/nu10020241
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the
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The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3), folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2), iron (n = 1), vitamin D (n = 1), total energy (n = 2) and protein (n = 1). Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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