Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The authors investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-130
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Nutrition and Health Claims on Consumer Perceptions and Portion Size Selection: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050656
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (7888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a ‘halo’ effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The
[...] Read more.
Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a ‘halo’ effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The current study aimed to overcome this limitation through the use of a nationally representative survey. In a cross-sectional survey of 1039 adults across the island of Ireland, respondents were presented with three different claims (nutrition claim = “Low in fat”; health claim = “With plant sterols. Proven to lower cholesterol”; satiety claim = “Fuller for longer”) on four different foods (cereal, soup, lasagne, and yoghurt). Participants answered questions on perceived healthiness, tastiness, and fillingness of the products with different claims and also selected a portion size they would consume. Claims influenced fillingness perceptions of some of the foods. However, there was little influence of claims on tastiness or healthiness perceptions or the portion size selected. Psychological factors such as consumers’ familiarity with foods carrying claims and belief in the claims were the most consistent predictors of perceptions and portion size selection. Future research should identify additional consumer factors that may moderate the relationships between claims, perceptions, and consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Portion Size in Relation to Diet and Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Association of Tea Consumption with Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease and Anti-Beta-Amyloid Effects of Tea
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050655
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurodegenerative disease Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is attracting growing concern because of an increasing patient population among the elderly. Tea consumption is considered a natural complementary therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the reduced
[...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative disease Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is attracting growing concern because of an increasing patient population among the elderly. Tea consumption is considered a natural complementary therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the reduced risk of AD are reviewed and the anti-amyloid effects of related bioactivities in tea are summarized. Future challenges regarding the role of tea in preventing AD are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tea in Health and Disease)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Circulating Metabolites Associated with Alcohol Intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050654
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into
[...] Read more.
Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050653
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD),
[...] Read more.
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice (n = 9) for 6 or 13 days. An additional group of mice (n = 4) were fed a choline supplemented MVD. Weight, body composition, and liver changes were compared to control mice (n = 10) at the beginning and end of the study. The MVD resulted in reduced weight gain and hepatic steatosis. Choline supplementation prevented hepatic steatosis and was associated with increased hepatic concentrations of the methyl donor betaine. Our findings show that (1) feeding a MVD to weanling mice rapidly induces hepatic steatosis, which is a hallmark disturbance of kwashiorkor; and that (2) hepatic steatosis associated with feeding a MVD is prevented by choline supplementation. These findings support the concept that insufficient choline intake may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Aspects of Dietary Choline)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Vitamin D in Vascular Calcification: A Double-Edged Sword?
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050652
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic
[...] Read more.
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification. Therefore, more complex underlying processes involving physiochemical changes to mineral balance, vascular remodelling and perturbed hormonal responses such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) are likely to contribute to VC. In particular, VC resulting from modifications to calcium, phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis has been recently elucidated. Notably, deregulation of vitamin D metabolism, dietary calcium intake and renal mineral handling are associated with imbalances in systemic calcium and phosphate levels and endothelial cell dysfunction, which can modulate both bone and soft tissue calcification. This review addresses the current understanding of VC pathophysiology, with a focus on the pathogenic role of vitamin D that has provided new insights into the mechanisms of VC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Milk-Related Symptoms and Immunoglobulin E Reactivity in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050651
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from
[...] Read more.
Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from early life to adolescence, and Immunoglobulin E (IgE) milk reactivity, focusing on gender differences in a large, population-based birth cohort. Overall, 20.0% (537/2985) of children, with a comparable gender distribution, had early life milk-related symptoms. At 16y, approximately 2% (62/2985) children had persistent symptoms and high milk IgE levels (e.g., median at 4 years: 1.5 kUA/L) that were beginning in early life. In contrast, 94% had transient symptoms and low median IgE levels (early life: 0.63 kUA/L, 8y: 0.72 kUA/L; 16 years: 1.1 kUA/L). Also, at 16 years, approximately 6% of females and 3% of males without any previously reported symptoms reported adolescent-onset of symptoms (p < 0.001). Such symptoms were almost exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms and were not associated with detectable IgE. In conclusion, early life milk-related symptoms are common, although most cases are transient by 16 years. Twice as many females vs. males report adolescent-onset symptoms, and particularly gastrointestinal symptoms. Children with persistent symptoms have both a higher prevalence and higher milk IgE levels, as compared to other phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dietary Iron Bioavailability: Agreement between Estimation Methods and Association with Serum Ferritin Concentrations in Women of Childbearing Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050650
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Predictive iron bioavailability (FeBio) methods aimed at evaluating the association between diet and body iron have been proposed, but few studies explored their validity and practical usefulness in epidemiological studies. In this cross-sectional study involving 127 women (18–42 years) with presumably steady-state body
[...] Read more.
Predictive iron bioavailability (FeBio) methods aimed at evaluating the association between diet and body iron have been proposed, but few studies explored their validity and practical usefulness in epidemiological studies. In this cross-sectional study involving 127 women (18–42 years) with presumably steady-state body iron balance, correlations were checked among various FeBio estimates (probabilistic approach and meal-based and diet-based algorithms) and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations. Iron deficiency was defined as SF < 15 µg/L. Pearson correlation, Friedman test, and linear regression were employed. Iron intake and prevalence of iron deficiency were 10.9 mg/day and 12.6%. Algorithm estimates were strongly correlated (0.69≤ r ≥0.85; p < 0.001), although diet-based models (8.5–8.9%) diverged from meal-based models (11.6–12.8%; p < 0.001). Still, all algorithms underestimated the probabilistic approach (17.2%). No significant association was found between SF and FeBio from Monsen (1978), Reddy (2000), and Armah (2013) algorithms. Nevertheless, there was a 30–37% difference in SF concentrations between women stratified at extreme tertiles of FeBio from Hallberg and Hulthén (2000) and Collings’ (2013) models. The results demonstrate discordance of FeBio from probabilistic approach and algorithm methods while suggesting two models with best performances to rank individuals according to their bioavailable iron intakes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Circulating Phospholipid Patterns in NAFLD Patients Associated with a Combination of Metabolic Risk Factors
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050649
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its
[...] Read more.
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its related comorbidities and genetic modifications. Methods: 97 patients with diagnosed NAFLD were recruited at a single center during 2013–2016. Based on histological and transient elastography assessment, 69 patients were divided into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) subgroups. 28 patients served as healthy controls. Serum phospholipids were determined by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: The total content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin in the serum was significantly increased in NAFL and NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. In addition, serum lysophospatidylethanolamine levels were significantly decreased in NAFL and NASH individuals. Circulating PC species, containing linoleic and α-linolenic acids, were markedly increased in NAFLD patients with hypertension, compared to NAFLD patients without hypertension. The pattern of phospholipids did not differ between NAFLD patients with diabetes and those without diabetes. However, NAFLD patients with hyperglycemia (blood glucose level (BGL) >100 mg/dL) exhibited significantly a higher amount of monounsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine than those with low blood glucose levels. In addition, NAFLD patients with proven GG-genotype of PNPLA3, who were at higher risk for the development of progressive disease with fibrosis, showed lower levels of circulating plasmalogens, especially 16:0, compared to those with CC- and CG-allele. Conclusions: Our extended lipidomic study presents a unique metabolic profile of circulating phospholipids associated with the presence of metabolic risk factors or the genetic background of NAFLD patients. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Metabolic Syndrome in the General Korean Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050648
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation is thought to be partly responsible for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Recently, dietary inflammatory index (DII) was developed to calculate the overall inflammatory potential of a diet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between DII and MetS, as well
[...] Read more.
Inflammation is thought to be partly responsible for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Recently, dietary inflammatory index (DII) was developed to calculate the overall inflammatory potential of a diet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between DII and MetS, as well as MetS components, using nationally representative survey data. The study sample consisted of 9291 Korean adults (aged 19–65 years, 3682 men and 5609 women) who participated in the sixth (2013–2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. DII values were calculated using 24-h dietary recall data. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the association between DII and MetS by sex. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the top DII quartile (Q4), was positively associated with MetS prevalence in men (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.06–1.85; p for linear trend = 0.008) and in postmenopausal women (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.15–2.44; p for linear trend = 0.008). The top DII quartile was also positively associated with the prevalence of hyperglycemia in men and the prevalence of central obesity in postmenopausal women. Further studies using prospective cohorts are needed to identify the causal relationship between DII and MetS. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Water Extract on RAW 264.7 Induced with Lipopolysaccharide
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050647
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism
[...] Read more.
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW). The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT), Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Fluo-4 calcium assay. ASW restored cell viability in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. ASW showed notable anti-inflammatory effects. ASW exhibited IC50 = 954.3, 387.3, 191.7, 317.8, 1267.0, 347.0, 110.1, 573.6, 1171.0, 732.6, 980.8, 125.0, and 257.0 µg/mL for interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP)-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-10, and intracellular calcium, respectively. Additionally, ASW inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CHOP (GADD153), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), first apoptosis signal receptor (FAS), and c-Fos, NOS2, and PTGS2 (COX2) in RAW 264.7 significantly (p < 0.05). Data suggest that ASW exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 via NO-bursting/calcium-mediated JAK-STAT pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Predicting Athletes’ Pre-Exercise Fluid Intake: A Theoretical Integration Approach
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050646
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pre-exercise fluid intake is an important healthy behavior for maintaining athletes’ sports performances and health. However, athletes’ behavioral adherence to fluid intake and its underlying psychological mechanisms have not been investigated. This prospective study aimed to use a health psychology model that integrates
[...] Read more.
Pre-exercise fluid intake is an important healthy behavior for maintaining athletes’ sports performances and health. However, athletes’ behavioral adherence to fluid intake and its underlying psychological mechanisms have not been investigated. This prospective study aimed to use a health psychology model that integrates the self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior for understanding pre-exercise fluid intake among athletes. Participants (n = 179) were athletes from college sport teams who completed surveys at two time points. Baseline (Time 1) assessment comprised psychological variables of the integrated model (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and fluid intake (i.e., behavior) was measured prospectively at one month (Time 2). Path analysis showed that the positive association between autonomous motivation and intention was mediated by subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Controlled motivation positively predicted the subjective norm. Intentions positively predicted pre-exercise fluid intake behavior. Overall, the pattern of results was generally consistent with the integrated model, and it was suggested that athletes’ pre-exercise fluid intake behaviors were associated with the motivational and social cognitive factors of the model. The research findings could be informative for coaches and sport scientists to promote athletes’ pre-exercise fluid intake behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Pro-Apoptotic and Anti-Cancer Properties of Diosgenin: A Comprehensive and Critical Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050645
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel and alternative options are being adopted to combat the initiation and progression of human cancers. One of the approaches is the use of molecules isolated from traditional medicinal herbs, edible dietary plants and seeds that play a pivotal role in the prevention/treatment
[...] Read more.
Novel and alternative options are being adopted to combat the initiation and progression of human cancers. One of the approaches is the use of molecules isolated from traditional medicinal herbs, edible dietary plants and seeds that play a pivotal role in the prevention/treatment of cancer, either alone or in combination with existing chemotherapeutic agents. Compounds that modulate these oncogenic processes are potential candidates for cancer therapy and may eventually make it to clinical applications. Diosgenin is a naturally occurring steroidal sapogenin and is one of the major bioactive compounds found in dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds. In addition to being a lactation aid, diosgenin has been shown to be hypocholesterolemic, gastro- and hepato-protective, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer. Diosgenin has a unique structural similarity to estrogen. Several preclinical studies have reported on the pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer properties of diosgenin against a variety of cancers, both in in vitro and in vivo. Diosgenin has also been reported to reverse multi-drug resistance in cancer cells and sensitize cancer cells to standard chemotherapy. Remarkably, diosgenin has also been reported to be used by pharmaceutical companies to synthesize steroidal drugs. Several novel diosgenin analogs and nano-formulations have been synthesized with improved anti-cancer efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile. In this review we discuss in detail the multifaceted anti-cancer properties of diosgenin that have found application in pharmaceutical, functional food, and cosmetic industries; and the various intracellular molecular targets modulated by diosgenin that abrogate the oncogenic process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Differential Impact of Malnutrition on Health Outcomes Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Adults Admitted to Hospital in Regional Australia—A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050644
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The burden of malnutrition in Indigenous people is a major health priority and this study’s aims are to understand health outcomes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. This cohort study includes 608 medical inpatients in three regional hospitals. Participants were screened for malnutrition using
[...] Read more.
The burden of malnutrition in Indigenous people is a major health priority and this study’s aims are to understand health outcomes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. This cohort study includes 608 medical inpatients in three regional hospitals. Participants were screened for malnutrition using the Subjective Global Assessment tool. Hospital length of stay, discharge destination, 30-day and six-month hospital readmission and survival were measured. Although no significant difference was observed between Indigenous participants who were malnourished or nourished (p = 0.120), malnourished Indigenous participants were more likely to be readmitted back into hospital within 30 days (Relative Risk (RR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19–1.97, p = 0.002) and six months (RR 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05–1.88, p = 0.018), and less likely to be alive at six months (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20–2.21, p = 0.015) than non-Indigenous participants. Malnutrition was associated with higher mortality (Hazards Ratio (HR) 3.32, 95% CI 1.87–5.89, p < 0.001) for all participants, and independent predictors for six-month mortality included being malnourished (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.16–3.79, p = 0.014), advanced age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, p = 0.001), increased acute disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05, p = 0.002) and higher chronic disease index (Charlson Comorbidity Index, HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16–3.79, p = 0.014). Malnutrition in regional Australia is associated with increased healthcare utilization and decreased survival. New approaches to malnutrition-risk screening, increased dietetic resourcing and nutrition programs to proactively identify and address malnutrition in this context are urgently required. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Lactobacillus plantarum Strain Ln4 Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Changes in Hepatic mRNA Levels Associated with Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050643
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt and Kimchi, can significantly impact obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related biomarkers. In this study, we screened over 400 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were isolated from fermented foods to identify potent anti-obesogenic and diabetic probiotics in vitro. Of the strains tested, Lactobacillus plantarum Ln4 (Ln4), which was obtained from napa cabbage kimchi, significantly reduced lipid accumulation and stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration of Ln4 reduced weight gain and epididymal fat mass in mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). Total plasma triglyceride level was significantly lower in mice that were treated Ln4 as compared with mice fed HFD. The protein levels of adipokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-3 (IGFBP-3), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) decreased in white adipose tissues of Ln4-treated mice. Furthermore, these mice exhibited a significant reduction of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the improvement of glucose tolerance (OGTT) and insulin response (ITT) following Ln4 administration. This was associated with changes in several hepatic gene expressions (increased mRNA levels of IRS2, Akt2, AMPK, LPL, and reduced CD36) that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate that in vitro and in vivo Ln4 treatment attenuates diet-induced obesity and T2D biomarkers, highlighting the potential of Ln4 as a therapeutic probiotic agent for metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Bioactives and Insulin Resistance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Polyphenols in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050642
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, therapeutic options treating only its symptoms are very disappointing. Therefore there is an ongoing search for compounds capable of tackling the multi-dimensional features of PD. Recently natural polyphenols have gained great interest
[...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, therapeutic options treating only its symptoms are very disappointing. Therefore there is an ongoing search for compounds capable of tackling the multi-dimensional features of PD. Recently natural polyphenols have gained great interest as potential therapeutic agents. Herein, we have attempted to summarize results obtained in different animal models demonstrating their neuroprotective effects. The in vivo findings presented below are supported by human subject data and reports regarding the ability of polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier. The beneficial effects of polyphenols are demonstrated by the results of behavioral examinations, mainly related to motor and cognitive capabilities, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination concerning the protection of dopaminergic neurons, analyses of dopamine and the concentration of its metabolites, as well as mechanistic studies regarding the modulation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, cellular iron management, proteinopathy, and additionally the regulation of signaling pathways. Importantly, data about brain distribution of the metabolic derivatives of the reviewed polyphenols are crucial for the justification of their nutritional intake in neuroprotective intervention, as well as for the identification of potential targets for a novel therapeutic approach to Parkinson’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Aging and Gut-Brain Axis)
Back to Top