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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The authors investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to National Dietary Guidelines in Association with Oral Health Impact on Quality of Life
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050527
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
We aimed to assess the association between oral health, in terms of its impact on quality of life, and diet quality expressed as adherence to dietary guidelines. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the French NutriNet-Santé general population-based e-cohort (N = 18,263 adults; mean
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We aimed to assess the association between oral health, in terms of its impact on quality of life, and diet quality expressed as adherence to dietary guidelines. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the French NutriNet-Santé general population-based e-cohort (N = 18,263 adults; mean age = 56.5 ± 13.8 years). The main independent variable, oral health-related quality of life, was assessed in 2016 with the GOHAI instrument (maximum score = 60). The main dependent variable, diet’s nutritional quality, was assessed with the mPNNS-GS score (maximum score = 13.5) measuring adherence to French dietary guidelines and computed on the basis of repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable linear regression models were fit. Mean GOHAI score was 54.5 ± 4.3 and mean mPNNS-GS score was 7.7 ± 1.6. Among participants aged 18–64 years, those scoring ≤50 on GOHAI (poor oral health with a detrimental impact on quality of life) were less likely to adhere to dietary guidelines than participants scoring 57–60 points (good oral health) (beta = −0.18, 95% CI: −0.26, −0.09; p < 0.0001). Among participants aged 65+ years, those scoring 51–56 points on GOHAI (average oral health with some negative impact on quality of life) were less likely to adhere to dietary guidelines than were participants scoring in the range 57–60 (beta = −0.23, 95% CI: −0.33, −0.13; p < 0.0001). The findings suggested modest age-dependent associations between oral health-related quality of life and diet quality. Confirmation is needed longitudinally with representative samples and accounting for diet quality evolution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficacy of a Moderately Low Carbohydrate Diet in a 36-Month Observational Study of Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050528
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
We previously showed that a non-calorie-restricted, moderately low-carbohydrate diet (mLCD) is more effective than caloric restriction for glycemic and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes. To determine whether mLCD intervention is sustainable, effective, and safe over a long period, we
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We previously showed that a non-calorie-restricted, moderately low-carbohydrate diet (mLCD) is more effective than caloric restriction for glycemic and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes. To determine whether mLCD intervention is sustainable, effective, and safe over a long period, we performed a 36-month observational study. We sequentially enrolled 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and taught them how to follow the mLCD. We compared the following parameters pre- and post-dietary intervention in an outpatient setting: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, lipid profile (total cholesterol, low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), and renal function (urea nitrogen, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate). Data from 157 participants were analyzed (43 were lost to follow-up). The following parameters decreased over the period of study: HbA1c (from 8.0 ± 1.5% to 7.5 ± 1.3%, p < 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase (from 29.9 ± 23.6 to 26.2 ± 18.4 IL/L, p = 0.009). Parameters that increased were high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 58.9 ± 15.9 to 61.2 ± 17.4 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and urea nitrogen (from 15.9 ± 5.2 to 17.0 ± 5.4 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Over 36 months, the mLCD intervention showed sustained effectiveness (without safety concerns) in improving HbA1c, lipid profile, and liver enzymes in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050529
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC) was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ellagic Acid Alleviates Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Female Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050531
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and has become one of the most common metabolic liver diseases worldwide. To date, treatments specifically targeting NAFLD do not exist. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance
[...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and has become one of the most common metabolic liver diseases worldwide. To date, treatments specifically targeting NAFLD do not exist. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in diabetes. Accordingly, the goal of this present study was to determine whether Ellagic acid (EA), a natural antioxidant polyphenol found in berries and nuts, mitigates hepatic oxidative stress and insulin resistance in T2DM rats, and thus alleviates NAFLD. Using adult female Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese and spontaneous model of T2DM, we found that EA treatment significantly lowered fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin resistance, as shown by a 21.8% reduction in the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), while triglyceride and total cholesterol levels remained unchanged. Increased hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress present in diabetic GK rats was markedly reduced with EA treatment. This effect was associated with a downregulation of the NADPH oxidase subunit, p47-phox, and overexpression of NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2). Moreover, EA was able to decrease the hepatic expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-α), a transcription factor linked to hypoxia and hepatic steatosis. We further showed that EA treatment activated an insulin signaling pathway in the liver, as evidenced by increased levels of phosphorylated Akt (Ser 473). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EA diminishes blood glucose levels and potently suppress NAFLD in diabetic rats via mechanisms that involve reductions in p47-phox and HIF-α, upregulation of NRF2 and enhancement of the Akt signaling pathway in the liver. Together, these results reveal that EA improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism as a result of its antioxidant effects. This implies an anti-diabetic effect of EA with beneficial effects for the treatment of hepatic complications in T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050532
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a
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Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing) and apolipoprotein C3 (Apoc3, inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Grains Contribute Shortfall Nutrients and Nutrient Density to Older US Adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050534
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Previous data demonstrate grain foods contribute shortfall nutrients to the diet of U.S. adults. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have identified several shortfall nutrients in the U.S. population, including fiber, folate, and iron (women only). Intake of some shortfall nutrients can be
[...] Read more.
Previous data demonstrate grain foods contribute shortfall nutrients to the diet of U.S. adults. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have identified several shortfall nutrients in the U.S. population, including fiber, folate, and iron (women only). Intake of some shortfall nutrients can be even lower in older adults. The present analyses determined the contribution of grain foods for energy and nutrients in older U.S. adults and ranked to all other food sources in the American diet. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-hour recall in adults (≥51 years old; n = 4522) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2014. All grains provided 278 kcal/day or 14% of all energy in the total diet, ranking as the 4th largest contributor of energy compared to 15 main food groups. All grain foods ranked 1st for thiamin (33%) and niacin (23%) intake relative to 15 main food groups. The grain foods category ranked 2nd highest of 15 main food groups for daily dietary fiber (23%), iron (38%), folate (40%), and magnesium (15%) and was the 3rd largest food group contributor for daily calcium intake (13%). When considering nutrients to limit as outlined by dietary guidance, main group of grains contributed 6% total fat, 5% saturated fat, 14% sodium and 9% added sugar. Breads, rolls and tortillas provided 150 kcal/day or 8% of all energy in the total diet, ranking as the 2nd largest contributor of energy compared to 46 food subcategories. Breads, rolls and tortillas ranked 1st of 46 foods for daily thiamin (16%) and niacin (10%) intake and 2nd for dietary fiber (12%), iron (12%), folate (13%), and magnesium (7%). Breads, rolls and tortillas ranked 3rd largest food group contributor for daily calcium (5%) intake. Ready-to-eat cereals provided 47 kcal/day or 2% of all energy in the total diet, ranking as the 20th largest contributor of energy compared to 46 food subcategories. All ready-to-eat cereals ranked 1st for daily iron (19%), 1st for folate (21%), 5th for dietary fiber (7%), 3rd for niacin (9%), 8th for magnesium (4%), and 13th for calcium (2%) intake. Given all grain foods and specific subcategories of grain foods provided a greater percentage of several underconsumed nutrients than calories (including dietary fiber, iron, and folate), grain foods provide nutrient density in the American diet of the older adult. Full article
Open AccessArticle Household Food Insecurity as a Predictor of Stunted Children and Overweight/Obese Mothers (SCOWT) in Urban Indonesia
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050535
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: The double burden of malnutrition has been increasing in countries experiencing the nutrition transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between household food insecurity and the double burden of malnutrition, defined as within-household stunted child and an overweight/obese mother
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(1) Background: The double burden of malnutrition has been increasing in countries experiencing the nutrition transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between household food insecurity and the double burden of malnutrition, defined as within-household stunted child and an overweight/obese mother (SCOWT). (2) Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban city of Surabaya, Indonesia in April and May 2015. (3) Results: The prevalence of child stunting in urban Surabaya was 36.4%, maternal overweight/obesity was 70.2%, and SCOWT was 24.7%. Although many households were food secure (42%), there were high proportions of mild (22.9%), moderate (15.3%) and severe (19.7%) food insecurity. In a multivariate logistic regression, the household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) category significantly correlated with child stunting and SCOWT. Compared to food secure households, mildly food insecure households had the greatest odds of SCOWT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.789; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.540–5.083), followed by moderately food insecure (aOR = 2.530; 95% CI = 1.286–4.980) and severely food insecure households (aOR = 2.045; 95% CI = 1.087–3.848). (4) Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that the double burden of malnutrition is related to food insecurity, and the HFIAS category is a predictor of SCOWT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
Open AccessArticle Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050536
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL) of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM) within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE) determined using
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To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL) of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM) within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE) determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW) from energy intake (EI) assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C) and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%). Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%). TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM). Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Association between Gluten-Free Diet Adherence and Symptoms in Celiac Disease: Analysis of a Patient Powered Research Network
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050538
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: The prevalence of depression in celiac disease (CD) is high, and patients are often burdened socially and financially by a gluten-free diet. However, the relationship between depression, somatic symptoms and dietary adherence in CD is complex and poorly understood. We used a
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Background: The prevalence of depression in celiac disease (CD) is high, and patients are often burdened socially and financially by a gluten-free diet. However, the relationship between depression, somatic symptoms and dietary adherence in CD is complex and poorly understood. We used a patient powered research network (iCureCeliac®) to explore the effect that depression has on patients’ symptomatic response to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Methods: We identified patients with biopsy-diagnosed celiac disease who answered questions pertaining to symptoms (Celiac Symptom Index (CSI)), GFD adherence (Celiac Dietary Adherence Test (CDAT)), and a 5-point, scaled question regarding depressive symptoms relating to patients’ celiac disease. We then measured the correlation between symptoms and adherence (CSI vs. CDAT) in patients with depression versus those without depression. We also tested for interaction of depression with regard to the association with symptoms using a multiple linear regression model. Results: Among 519 patients, 86% were female and the mean age was 40.9 years. 46% of patients indicated that they felt “somewhat,” “quite a bit,” or “very much” depressed because of their disorder. There was a moderate correlation between worsened celiac symptoms and poorer GFD adherence (r = 0.6, p < 0.0001). In those with a positive depression screen, there was a moderate correlation between worsening symptoms and worsening dietary adherence (r = 0.5, p < 0.0001) whereas in those without depression, the correlation was stronger (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001). We performed a linear regression analysis, which suggests that the relationship between CSI and CDAT is modified by depression. Conclusions: In patients with depressive symptoms related to their disorder, correlation between adherence and symptoms was weaker than those without depressive symptoms. This finding was confirmed with a linear regression analysis, showing that depressive symptoms may modify the effect of a GFD on celiac symptoms. Depressive symptoms may therefore mask the relationship between inadvertent gluten exposure and symptoms. Additional longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to further explore this potentially important finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility of a Lactobacillus casei Drink in the Intensive Care Unit for Prevention of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050539
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Over 70% of patients are prescribed antibiotics during their intensive care (ICU) admission. The gut microbiome is dramatically altered early in an ICU stay, increasing the risk for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). Evidence suggests that some probiotics
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Background: Over 70% of patients are prescribed antibiotics during their intensive care (ICU) admission. The gut microbiome is dramatically altered early in an ICU stay, increasing the risk for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). Evidence suggests that some probiotics are effective in the primary prevention of AAD and CDI. Aim: To demonstrate safety and feasibility of a probiotic drink in ICU patients. Methods: ICU patients initiated on antibiotics were recruited, and matched with contemporary controls. Study patients received two bottles daily of a drink containing 10 billion Lactobacillus casei which was bolused via feeding tube. Tolerance to probiotics and enteral nutrition, development of adverse events, and incidence of AAD was recorded. CDI rates were followed for 30 days post antibiotic treatment. Results: Thirty-two patients participated in the trial. There were no serious adverse events in the probiotic group, compared to three in the control group. AAD was documented in 12.5% of the probiotic group and 31.3% in the control group. One patient in the probiotic group developed CDI compared to three in the control group. Discussion: A probiotic containing drink can safely be delivered via feeding tube and should be considered as a preventative measure for AAD and CDI in ICU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Design, Development and Evaluation of the Vegetarian Lifestyle Index on Dietary Patterns among Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050542
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Traditionally, healthful diets and lifestyles have been examined only in relation to single nutrients, foods, or food groups in terms of dietary exposure. An alternative approach is to conceptualize an index based on vegetarian food pyramid guidelines as a measure of overall diet
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Traditionally, healthful diets and lifestyles have been examined only in relation to single nutrients, foods, or food groups in terms of dietary exposure. An alternative approach is to conceptualize an index based on vegetarian food pyramid guidelines as a measure of overall diet and lifestyle quality. Our objectives were to: (1) develop the Vegetarian Lifestyle Index (VLI); and (2) evaluate adherence to the Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid (VFGP) among a low-risk population of Adventists. The index was based on the operationalization of 14 dietary and lifestyle components. All components were equally weighted. Higher score reflected greater adherence to the VFGP. The analytic sample (n = 90,057) comprised 47.7% non-vegetarians, 5.6% semi-, 10.1% pesco-, and 29.0% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and 7.7% vegans, of which 1.1% were current smokers and 9.9% were alcohol consumers. Population mean VLI score was 7.43 (SD = 1.75) ranging from 1 to 12.5. Non-vegetarians (6.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.06–6.21) had a significantly lower mean compared to semi- (7.31; 95% CI, 7.22–7.40), pesco- (7.41; 95% CI, 7.32–7.49), and lacto-ovo-vegetarians (8.16; 95% CI, 8.08–8.24), as well as vegans (8.88; 95% CI, 8.78–8.96). Vegetarians scored on average 1.18 to 2.73 more points than their non-vegetarian counterparts. Results demonstrate that the index has strong discriminant ability across distinct dietary patterns. Additionally, the VLI provides a useful measure of diet and lifestyle adherence to further refine vegetarian food pyramid guidelines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deciphering the Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Inhibitory Efficacy of Taiwanese Local Pomegranate Peels against Urinary Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050543
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has been demonstrated to have the inhibitory activities to various tumors. In this study, we try to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory capability of Taiwanese local pomegranate fruit to urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma. The results
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has been demonstrated to have the inhibitory activities to various tumors. In this study, we try to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory capability of Taiwanese local pomegranate fruit to urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma. The results collected from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated that the ethanol extract of pomegranate peel exhibited better inhibitory activity to human urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and J82 cells than that of pulp. Furthermore, the ethylacetate layer of peel ethanol extract was observed to have the best inhibitory activity against urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cells. One of the eight fractions (PEPE2 fraction) collected from the ethylacetate layer with Diaion HP-20 column chromatography demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cells. The results of the flow cytometry and apoptotic pathway studies suggested that the inhibitory activity of PEPE2 fraction were attributed to the UBUC cell apoptosis. To confirm the above results, our results of xenograft-induced bladder tumor in nude mice showed that the oral consumption of the ethylacetate layer (2, 5, 10 and 100 mg/kg) could decrease the volume and weight of T24 tumors and caused the apoptosis in the xenografted tumors, which was observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay. This study provided the likelihood that the traditionally non-edible pomegranate peel waste is re-utilized to make an affordable and promising chemopreventive product to prevent UBUC incidence or recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Parental Translation into Practice of Healthy Eating and Active Play Messages and the Impact on Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050545
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
Childhood obesity is a significant health issue worldwide. Modifiable risk factors in early childhood relate to child healthy eating and active play, and are influenced by parents. The aim of the study was two-fold. Firstly, to determine the weight status of children aged
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Childhood obesity is a significant health issue worldwide. Modifiable risk factors in early childhood relate to child healthy eating and active play, and are influenced by parents. The aim of the study was two-fold. Firstly, to determine the weight status of children aged between birth and 3.5 years in a rural and remote area of Australia. Secondly, to explore the relationship between child weight status and translation of advice on healthy eating and active play provided to parents by local, nurse-led, Maternal Child Health (MCH) services. Measured anthropometric data (n = 438) were provided by MCH services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two MCH nurses and 15 parents. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was calculated. Local childhood overweight/obesity prevalence was lower than the national average at age 3.5 years (11.38%; 20%). Parents identified the MCH service as a key source of healthy eating and active play advice and reported mostly following recommendations but struggling with screen time and fussy eating recommendations. We observed a relaxation in parent attitudes towards healthy child behaviours which coincided with a trend towards obesity from 12 months (p < 0.001). MCH services provide useful and effective advice to parents but ongoing support is required to prevent obesity later in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
Open AccessArticle A Vitamin E-Enriched Antioxidant Diet Interferes with the Acute Adaptation of the Liver to Physical Exercise in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050547
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
Physical exercise is beneficial for general health and is an effective treatment for metabolic disorders. Vitamin E is widely used as dietary supplement and is considered to improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing inflammation and dyslipidemia. However, increased vitamin E intake may
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Physical exercise is beneficial for general health and is an effective treatment for metabolic disorders. Vitamin E is widely used as dietary supplement and is considered to improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing inflammation and dyslipidemia. However, increased vitamin E intake may interfere with adaptation to exercise training. Here, we explored how vitamin E alters the acute exercise response of the liver, an organ that plays an essential metabolic role during physical activity. Mice fed a control or an α-tocopherol-enriched diet were subjected to a non-exhaustive treadmill run. We assessed the acute transcriptional response of the liver as well as glucocorticoid signalling and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and performed indirect calorimetry. Vitamin E interfered with the exercise-induced increase in FFA and upregulation of hepatic metabolic regulators, and it shifted the transcriptional profile of exercised mice towards lipid and cholesterol synthesis while reducing inflammation. Energy utilization, as well as corticosterone levels and signalling were similar, arguing against acute differences in substrate oxidation or glucocorticoid action. Our results show that high-dose vitamin E alters the metabolic and inflammatory response of the liver to physical exercise. The interference with these processes may suggest a cautious use of vitamin E as dietary supplement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Food-Specific Serum IgG Reactivity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients, Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients and Healthy Controls
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050548
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
There is an increasing amount of evidence which links the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with food IgG hyperreactivity. Some authors have suggested that food IgG hyperreactivity could be also involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of
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There is an increasing amount of evidence which links the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with food IgG hyperreactivity. Some authors have suggested that food IgG hyperreactivity could be also involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to compare levels of serum IgG against 39 selected food antigens between three groups of participants: patients with MDD (MDD group), patients with IBS (IBS group) and healthy controls (HC group). The study included 65 participants (22 in the MDD group, 22 in the IBS group and 21 in the HC group). Serum IgG levels were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Medical records, clinical data and laboratory results were collected for the analysis. IgG food hyperreactivity (interpreted as an average of levels of IgG antibodies above 7.5 µg/mL) was detected in 28 (43%) participants, including 14 (64%) from the MDD group, ten (46%) from the IBS group and four (19%) from the HC group. We found differences between extreme IgG levels in MDD versus HC groups and in IBS versus HC groups. Patients with MDD had significantly higher serum levels of total IgG antibodies and IgG against celery, garlic and gluten compared with healthy controls. The MDD group also had higher serum IgG levels against gluten compared with the IBS group. Our results suggest dissimilarity in immune responses against food proteins between the examined groups, with the highest immunoreactivity in the MDD group. Further studies are needed to repeat and confirm these results in bigger cohorts and also examine clinical utility of IgG-based elimination diet in patients with MDD and IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050550
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants’ diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years
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Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants’ diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of a Specific Amino Acid Composition with Micronutrients on Well-Being in Subjects with Chronic Psychological Stress and Exhaustion Conditions: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050551
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 29 April 2018
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Abstract
Chronic work-life stress leads to dysfunction of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis, the autonomic nervous system, and the serotonergic system, with resultant impairment of overall well-being. Aim of the study was to improve perceived stress by a specific amino acid composition with micronutrients in the
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Chronic work-life stress leads to dysfunction of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis, the autonomic nervous system, and the serotonergic system, with resultant impairment of overall well-being. Aim of the study was to improve perceived stress by a specific amino acid composition with micronutrients in the verum versus placebo group. A total of 59 participants (18–65 years) with self-reported perceived chronic stress and exhaustion conditions participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ30), amino acid profile, anthropometric, clinical, blood, urine parameters, and dietary intake were assessed. After 12 weeks, the verum group achieved significantly greater improvements in the total PSQ30 score compared with the placebo group. In the verum group, serum taurine concentration, folic acid concentration, urinary magnesium excretion, and the ratio of l-tryptophan to the sum of competing amino acids rose significantly. In the placebo group, serum concentrations of serotonin, protein, and magnesium decreased significantly, whereas the cardiometabolic risk parameters body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio increased significantly. Compared with placebo, the verum supplementation resulted in a higher improvement in perceived stress. Beneficial effects on the serotonergic system and preventive effects on magnesium homeostasis and some cardiometabolic risk factors were supposed. Additional effects might be caused by the optimized food intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Myoprotective Potential of Creatine Is Greater than Whey Protein after Chemically-Induced Damage in Rat Skeletal Muscle
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050553
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
The myoprotective effects of creatine monohydrate (CR) and whey protein (WP) are equivocal, with the use of proxy measures of muscle damage making interpretation of their effectiveness limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of CR and WP supplementation
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The myoprotective effects of creatine monohydrate (CR) and whey protein (WP) are equivocal, with the use of proxy measures of muscle damage making interpretation of their effectiveness limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of CR and WP supplementation on muscle damage and recovery following controlled, chemically-induced muscle damage. Degeneration of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle was induced by bupivacaine in rats supplemented with either CR, WP, or standard rat chow (CON). At day 7 and 14 post-myotoxic injury, injured EDL muscles were surgically removed and tested for isometric contractile properties, followed by the contralateral, non-injured EDL muscle. At the completion of testing, muscles were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored for later analysis. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Creatine-supplemented muscles displayed a greater proportion of non-damaged (intact) fibers (p = 0.002) and larger cross-sectional areas of regenerating and non-damaged fibers (p = 0.024) compared to CON muscles at day 7 post-injury. At day 14 post-injury, CR-supplemented muscles generated higher absolute forces concomitant with greater contractile protein levels compared to CON (p = 0.001, p = 0.008) and WP-supplemented muscles (p = 0.003, p = 0.006). Creatine supplementation appears to offer an element of myoprotection which was not observed following whey protein supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pilot Testing of an Intensive Cooking Course for New Zealand Adolescents: The Create-Our-Own Kai Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050556
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
The role of cooking on health and wellbeing is a recent area of scientific interest. In order to investigate this role, a cooking program that is suitable for each target population is needed e.g., a program designed for American or Australian children might
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The role of cooking on health and wellbeing is a recent area of scientific interest. In order to investigate this role, a cooking program that is suitable for each target population is needed e.g., a program designed for American or Australian children might not be appropriate for teenagers in New Zealand. As there was no similar previously evaluated program already available, the study’s purpose was to test an intensive cooking intervention on cooking confidence and knowledge amongst a group of adolescents from Dunedin, New Zealand, and to assess its acceptability to participants. This five-day program comprised interactive cooking sessions and informal nutrition education and ran from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., Monday to Friday during school holidays. Participants completed questionnaires on cooking skills and confidence at baseline and the end of intervention and took part in a group interview, which aimed to investigate the acceptability and outcome of the program. Twenty-one participants aged between 12 and 16 years old completed the program. At the end of the program, significant increases were seen in both skills and confidence levels, and feedback from the group interview indicated that the participants enjoyed the program and that it provided additional results other than those that were cooking related. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Providing High-Fat versus High-Carbohydrate Meals on Daily and Postprandial Physical Activity and Glucose Patterns: a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050557
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
We determined the effects of altering meal timing and diet composition on temporal glucose homeostasis and physical activity measures. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese men (mean ± SD, age: 36 ± 4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) completed two × 12-day (12-d)
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We determined the effects of altering meal timing and diet composition on temporal glucose homeostasis and physical activity measures. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese men (mean ± SD, age: 36 ± 4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) completed two × 12-day (12-d) measurement periods, including a 7-d habitual period, and then 5 d of each diet (high-fat diet [HFD]: 67:15:18% fat:carbohydrate:protein versus high-carbohydrate diet [HCD]: 67:15:18% carbohydrate:fat:protein) of three meals/d at ±30 min of 0800 h, 1230 h, and 1800 h, in a randomised order with an 8-d washout. Energy intake (EI), the timing of meal consumption, blood glucose regulation (continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS)), and activity patterns (accelerometer and inclinometer) were assessed across each 12-d period. Meal provision did not alter the patterns of reduced physical activity, and increased sedentary behaviour following dinner, compared with following breakfast and lunch. The HCD increased peak (+1.6 mmol/L, p < 0.001), mean (+0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.001), and total area under the curve (+670 mmol/L/min, p = 0.001), as well as 3-h postprandial meal glucose concentrations (all p < 0.001) compared with the HFD. In overweight/obese males, the provision of meals did not alter physical activity patterns, but did affect glycaemic control. Greater emphasis on meal timing and composition is required in diet and/or behaviour intervention studies to ensure relevance to real-world behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Lactose-Free Diet on the Phalangeal Bone Mineral Status in Italian Adolescents Affected by Adult-Type Hypolactasia
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050558
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) is a clinical syndrome of primary lactase deficiency. A lactose-free diet is advisable to avoid the symptoms linked to the condition, but this potentially creates problems for optimal bone mineralization due to reduced calcium intake. To evaluate the effect of
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Adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) is a clinical syndrome of primary lactase deficiency. A lactose-free diet is advisable to avoid the symptoms linked to the condition, but this potentially creates problems for optimal bone mineralization due to reduced calcium intake. To evaluate the effect of the lactose-free diet on the bone mineral status (BMS), we compared the phalangeal BMS of adolescents with ATH to that of peers on a normal diet. Also, we analyzed the correlations between BMS and dietary behavior, physical exercise, and calcium and vitamin D intake. A total of 102 cases and 102 healthy controls filled out a diet record and underwent phalangeal Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). No difference in BMS was observed. The time spent on lactose-free diet (4.8 ± 3.1 years) was inversely correlated to the BMS. More than 98% of cases consumed lactose-free milk, but calcium and vitamin D intake were significantly lower. Calcium intake was correlated to physical exercise but not to BMS. Our results suggest that a lactose-free diet does not affect the phalangeal BMS of adolescents with primary lactase deficiency when their diet includes lactose-free cow’s milk. However, there is still a significantly lower calcium intake than in the population reference. The inverse correlation observed between the BMS and the time spent on a lactose-free diet suggests that a long-term follow-up is advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pediatric Gastroenterology: Selected Papers from SIGENP)
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Open AccessArticle Frondoside A Enhances the Anti-Cancer Effects of Oxaliplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on Colon Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050560
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Over recent years, we have demonstrated that Frondoside A, a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from an Atlantic sea cucumber, has potent in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects against human pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer. We have also demonstrated that Frondoside A is able
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Over recent years, we have demonstrated that Frondoside A, a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from an Atlantic sea cucumber, has potent in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects against human pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer. We have also demonstrated that Frondoside A is able to potentiate and/or synergize the anti-cancer effects of major classical cytotoxic agents, namely, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin, in the treatment of pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of Frondoside A alone and in combination with the standard cytotoxic drugs oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of colon cancer using three human colon cancer cell lines, namely, HT-29, HCT-116, and HCT8/S11. We demonstrate that Frondoside A, oxaliplatin, and 5-FU cause a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in the number of HT-29 colon cancer cells. A concentration of 2.5 µM of Frondoside A led to almost 100% inhibition of cell numbers at 72 h. A similar effect was only observed with a much higher concentration (100 µM) of oxaliplatin or 5-FU. The reduction in cell numbers by Frondoside A, oxaliplatin, and 5-FU was also confirmed in two other colon cancer cell lines, namely, HCT8/S11 and HCT-116, treated for 48 h. The combinations of low concentrations of these drugs for 48 h in vitro clearly demonstrated that Frondoside A enhances the inhibition of cell numbers induced by oxaliplatin or 5-FU. Similarly, such a combination also efficiently inhibited colony growth in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was significantly enhanced when Frondoside A was used in combination treatments. Moreover, we show that Frondoside A and 5-FU, when used alone, induce a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis and that their pro-apoptotic effect is dramatically enhanced when used in combination. We further demonstrate that apoptosis induction upon the treatment of colon cancer cells was at least in part a result of the inhibition of phosphorylation of the survival kinase AKT, leading to caspase-3 activation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inactivation, and consequently DNA damage, as suggested by the increase in the level of γH2AX. In light of these findings, we strongly suggest that Frondoside A may have a role in colon cancer therapy when used in combination with the standard cytotoxic drugs oxaliplatin and 5-FU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Neurocognitive Disorders and Dehydration in Older Patients: Clinical Experience Supports the Hydromolecular Hypothesis of Dementia
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050562
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Abnormalities of water homeostasis can be early expressions of neuronal dysfunction, brain atrophy, chronic cerebrovasculopathy and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum osmolality of subjects with cognitive impairment. One thousand and ninety-one consecutive patients attending the Alzheimer’s
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Abnormalities of water homeostasis can be early expressions of neuronal dysfunction, brain atrophy, chronic cerebrovasculopathy and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum osmolality of subjects with cognitive impairment. One thousand and ninety-one consecutive patients attending the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 21-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental-ADL (IADL), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Scale (ESS), and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). For each patient, the equation for serum osmolality developed by Khajuria and Krahn was applied. Five hundred and seventy-one patients had cognitive decline and/or depression mood (CD-DM) and 520 did not have CD-DM (control group). Patients with CD-DM were less likely to be male (p < 0.001), and were more likely to be older (p < 0.001), have a significant clear cognitive impairment (MMSE: p < 0.001), show the presence of a depressive mood (HDRS-21: p < 0.001) and have major impairments in ADL (p < 0.001), IADL (p < 0.001), MNA (p < 0.001), and ESS (p < 0.001), compared to the control group. CD-DM patients had a higher electrolyte concentration (Na+: p < 0.001; K+: p < 0.001; Cl: p < 0.001), risk of dehydration (osmolality p < 0.001), and kidney damage (eGFR: p = 0.021), than the control group. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients showed a major risk for current dehydration (p ≤ 0.001), and dehydration was associated with the risk of developing a type of dementia, like AD or vascular dementia (VaD) (OR = 2.016, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of dehydration state was associated with ADL (p < 0.001) and IADL (p < 0.001), but independently associated with age (r2 = 0.0046, p = 0.77), ESS (r2 = 0.0052, p = 0.54) and MNA (r2 = 0.0004, p = 0.48). Moreover, younger patients with dementia were significantly more dehydrated than patients without dementia (65–75 years, p = 0.001; 76–85 years, p = 0.001; ≥86 years, p = 0.293). The hydromolecular hypothesis intends to explain the relationship between dehydration and cognitive impairment in older patients as the result of protein misfolding and aggregation, in the presence of a low interstitial fluid volume, which is a defect of the microcirculation. Defective proteins were shown to impair the amount of information in brain biomolecular mechanisms, with consequent neuronal and synaptic damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Strategies in Cognitive Decline: Focus on Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050563
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT) and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate
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Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT) and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation consumed either immediately pre- or post-RT on skeletal muscle mass (SMM), muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women. Seventy older women participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein pre-RT and placebo post-RT (WP-PLA, n = 24), placebo pre-RT and whey protein post-RT (PLA-WP, n = 23), and placebo pre- and post-RT (PLA-PLA, n = 23). Each group ingested 35 g of WP or PLA. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks (three times per week; 3 × 8–12 repetition maximum). Body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and dietary intake were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for repeated measures, with baseline scores as covariates were used for data analysis. A time vs. group interaction (p < 0.05) was observed with WP-PLA and PLA-WP presenting greater increases compared with PLA-PLA for SMM (WP-PLA = 3.4%; PLA-WP = 4.2%; PLA-PLA = 2.0%), strength (WP-PLA = 8.1%; PLA-WP = 8.3%; PLA-PLA = 7.0%), and the 10-m walk test (WP-PLA = −10.8%; PLA-WP = −11.8%; PLA-PLA = −4.3%). Whey protein supplementation was effective in promoting increases in SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women, regardless of supplementation timing. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03247192. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selected Physiological Effects of a Garcinia Gummi-Gutta Extract in Rats Fed with Different Hypercaloric Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050565
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
Garcinia gummi-gutta (GGG) rind extract is effective for reducing appetite, body weight and adiposity of obese rodents fed high-fat (HF), high-sugar (HS) or high fat/sugar (HFS)-based diets, but these effects have not been simultaneously evaluated. Thirty obese (~425 g) male Wistar rats were
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Garcinia gummi-gutta (GGG) rind extract is effective for reducing appetite, body weight and adiposity of obese rodents fed high-fat (HF), high-sugar (HS) or high fat/sugar (HFS)-based diets, but these effects have not been simultaneously evaluated. Thirty obese (~425 g) male Wistar rats were fed for eleven weeks with six hypercaloric diets (4.1 kcal/g; five rats/diet) non-supplemented (HF, HS, HFS), or supplemented (HF+, HS+, HFS+) with GGG extract (5.9%), while rats from the control group (375 g) were fed a normocaloric diet (3.5 kcal/g). Body weight, dietary intake, body fat distribution, and histological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Compared to control rats, non-supplemented and supplemented groups consumed significantly less food (14.3% and 24.6% (−4.3 g/day), respectively) (p < 0.05). Weight loss was greater in the HF+ group (35–52 g), which consumed 1.9 times less food than the HS+ or HFS+ fed groups. The HF and HFS groups showed 40% less plasma triacylglycerides and lower glucose levels compared to the HF+. GGG-supplemented diets were associated with lower ketonuria. The HF+ diet was associated with the best anti-adiposity effect (as measured with the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Soxhlet methods). The severity of hepatocyte lipidosis was HF > control > HF+, and no signs of toxicity in the testes were observed. The results indicate that GGG is more effective when co-administered with HF diets in obese rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disparate Habitual Physical Activity and Dietary Intake Profiles of Elderly Men with Low and Elevated Systemic Inflammation
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050566
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and
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The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and musculoskeletal performance among community-dwelling elderly men with low and elevated systemic inflammation. Nonsarcopenic older men free of chronic diseases were grouped as ‘low’ (LSI: n = 17; 68.2 ± 2.6 years; hs-CRP: <1 mg/L) or ‘elevated’ (ESI: n = 17; 68.7 ± 3.0 years; hs-CRP: >1 mg/L) systemic inflammation according to their serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). All participants were assessed for body composition via Dual Emission X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), physical performance using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and handgrip strength, daily PA using accelerometry, and daily macro- and micronutrient intake. ESI was characterized by a 2-fold greater hs-CRP value than LSI (p < 0.01). The two groups were comparable in terms of body composition, but LSI displayed higher physical performance (p < 0.05), daily PA (step count/day and time at moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were greater by 30% and 42%, respectively, p < 0.05), and daily intake of the antioxidant vitamins A (6590.7 vs. 4701.8 IU/day, p < 0.05), C (120.0 vs. 77.3 mg/day, p < 0.05), and E (10.0 vs. 7.5 mg/day, p < 0.05) compared to ESI. Moreover, daily intake of vitamin A was inversely correlated with levels of hs-CRP (r = −0.39, p = 0.035). These results provide evidence that elderly men characterized by low levels of systemic inflammation are more physically active, spend more time in MVPA, and receive higher amounts of antioxidant vitamins compared to those with increased systemic inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Lipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulae
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050567
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The quantity and quality of dietary lipids in infant formulae have a significant impact on health outcomes, especially when fat storing and/or absorption are limited (e.g., preterm birth and short bowel disease) or when fat byproducts may help to prevent some pathologies (e.g.,
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The quantity and quality of dietary lipids in infant formulae have a significant impact on health outcomes, especially when fat storing and/or absorption are limited (e.g., preterm birth and short bowel disease) or when fat byproducts may help to prevent some pathologies (e.g., atopy). The lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the different fat sources used, and the potential biological effects are related to the variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. For example, since lipids are the main source of energy when the normal absorptive capacity of the digestive tract is compromised, medium-chain saturated fatty acids might cover this requirement. Instead, ruminant-derived trans fatty acids and metabolites of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with their anti-inflammatory properties can modulate immune function. Furthermore, dietary fats may influence the nutrient profile of formulae, improving the acceptance of these products and the compliance with dietary schedules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pediatric Gastroenterology: Selected Papers from SIGENP)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Zinc Intake and Hyperuricemia among Adults in the United States
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050568
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 5 May 2018
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Abstract
We aim to explore the associations between dietary zinc intake and hyperuricemia (HU) in United States (US) adults. 24,975 US adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 to 2014 were stratified into quintiles
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We aim to explore the associations between dietary zinc intake and hyperuricemia (HU) in United States (US) adults. 24,975 US adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 to 2014 were stratified into quintiles based on zinc intake. All dietary intake measured through 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between zinc intake and HU after adjustment for possible confounders. For males, compared with respondents consuming less than 7.33 mg zinc daily, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71, 0.97) among those consuming 10.26–13.54 mg zinc daily, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63–0.96) among those consuming 18.50 mg or greater, and p for the trend was 0.0134. For females, compared with respondents consuming less than 5.38 mg zinc daily, the OR was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63, 0.97) among those consuming 9.64–12.93 mg zinc daily, and p for the trend was 0.3024. Our findings indicated that dietary zinc intake is inversely associated with HU in US men and women, independent of some major confounding factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Dietary Zinc)
Open AccessArticle A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Safety and Efficacy of Daily Ingestion of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cv. “Yabukita” and “Sunrouge” on Eyestrain and Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050569
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 6 May 2018
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Abstract
The green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar “Sunrouge” contains anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols. To determine whether ingesting green tea containing anthocyanins improves visual function and blood pressure (BP) in healthy adults, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. A total of 120
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The green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar “Sunrouge” contains anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols. To determine whether ingesting green tea containing anthocyanins improves visual function and blood pressure (BP) in healthy adults, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. A total of 120 healthy subjects, aged between 20 and 60 years and with a systolic BP (SBP) value of ≤125 and <155 and a diastolic BP (DBP) value <95, or a DBP of ≤75 mmHg and <95 mmHg and a SBP <155 mmHg, were randomly assigned to one of three groups. For 12 weeks, the placebo group received barley extract without catechin; another group received “Sunrouge” extract containing 11.2 mg anthocyanin and 323.6 mg epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG); and a third group received “Yabukita” extract containing 322.2 mg EGCG. Home BP, accommodation ability, visual analog scale questionnaires for eyestrain, and metabolic-associated markers were analyzed at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period. The ingestion of “Sunrouge” tea significantly improved accommodation ability and eyestrain in subjects younger than 45 years and in subjects who operated visual display terminals every day. It also elevated BP. “Yabukita” tea ingestion significantly increased serum adiponectin levels. No adverse effects were observed. We conclude that long-term intake of “Sunrouge” tea containing anthocyanins and flavonols might improve visual function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Zinc Intake and Its Association with Metabolic Syndrome Indicators among Chinese Adults: An Analysis of the China Nutritional Transition Cohort Survey 2015
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050572
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
The dietary zinc consumed in Chinese households has decreased over the past decade. However, the national dietary zinc intake in the last five years has seldom been investigated. Using data from 12,028 participants 18 to 64 years old (52.9% male) in the China
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The dietary zinc consumed in Chinese households has decreased over the past decade. However, the national dietary zinc intake in the last five years has seldom been investigated. Using data from 12,028 participants 18 to 64 years old (52.9% male) in the China Nutritional Transition Cohort Survey (CNTCS) 2015, we describe the intake of dietary zinc and the contributions of major foods and we examine the relationship between the level of dietary zinc intake and metabolic syndrome indicators, including blood pressure, fasting glucose, and triglycerides (TG), in Chinese adults. We assessed dietary zinc intake using 24 h recalls on three consecutive days. The mean daily dietary zinc intake for all participants was 10.2 milligrams per day (males 11.2 mg/day, females 9.4 mg/day, p < 0.001). The mean daily dietary zinc density for all participants was 5.2 mg/day per 1000 kilocalories. Among all participants, 31.0% were at risk of zinc deficiency, with dietary zinc intakes of less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (males 49.2%, females 14.8%, p < 0.050), and 49.9% had adequate dietary zinc intakes, equal to or greater than the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) (males 30.7%, females 67.0%, p < 0.050). We found substantial gender differences in dietary zinc intake and zinc deficiency, with nearly half of the men at risk of zinc deficiency. Males of younger age, with higher education and incomes, and who consumed higher levels of meat, had higher zinc intakes, higher zinc intake densities, and higher rates of meeting the EAR. Among all participants, grains, livestock meat, fresh vegetables, legumes, and seafood were the top five food sources of zinc, and their contributions to total dietary zinc intake were 39.5%, 17.3%, 8.9%, 6.4%, and 4.8%, respectively. The groups with relatively better dietary zinc intakes consumed lower proportions of grains and higher proportions of livestock meat. For males with adequate dietary zinc intake (≥RNI), TG levels increased by 0.219 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) compared with males with deficient dietary zinc intake (<EAR). For females in the ≥RNI group, diastolic blood pressure decreased by 0.963 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and fasting glucose decreased by 0.187 mmol/L compared with females in the <EAR group; in addition, TG increased by 0.097 mmol/L in females in the ≥RNI group and by 0.120 mmol/L in females in the equal to or greater than the EAR and less than the RNI (EAR-RNI) group compared with females in the <EAR group. Adequate dietary zinc was associated with reduced diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose levels in female Chinese adults, but with raised TG levels in all Chinese adults. We recommend strengthened nutrition interventions for Chinese males and lower socioeconomic subgroups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficacy of a Gluten-Free Diet in the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050573
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) may be associated. We analyse the efficacy of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in 29 patients with GTS (23 children; six adults) in a prospective pilot study. All of them followed a
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The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) may be associated. We analyse the efficacy of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in 29 patients with GTS (23 children; six adults) in a prospective pilot study. All of them followed a GFD for one year. The Yale Global Tics Severity Scale (YGTSS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Self Report (Y-BOCS) or the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Self Report (CY-BOCS), and the Cavanna’s Quality of Life Questionnaire applied to GTS (GTS-QOL) were compared before and after the GFD; 74% of children and 50% of adults were males, not significant (NS). At the beginning of the study, 69% of children and 100% of adults had associated obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (NS). At baseline, the YGTSS scores were 55.0 ± 17.5 (children) and 55.8 ± 19.8 (adults) (NS), the Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS scores were 15.3, (standard deviation (SD) = 12.3) (children) and 26.8 (9.2) (adults) (p = 0.043), and the GTS-QOL scores were 42.8 ± 18.5 (children) and 64 ± 7.9 (adults) (p = 0.000). NCGS was frequent in both groups, with headaches reported by 47.0% of children and 83.6% of adults (p = 0.001). After one year on a GFD there was a marked reduction in measures of tics (YGTSS) (p = 0.001), and the intensity and frequency of OCD (Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS) (p = 0.001), along with improved generic quality of life (p = 0.001) in children and adults. In conclusion, a GFD maintained for one year in GTS patients led to a marked reduction in tics and OCD both in children and adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relationship of a Special Acidified Milk Protein Drink with Cognitive Performance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Young Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050574
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
A previous in vivo study with rats suggested that a special milk protein drink manufactured using an acidification procedure to suppress the aggregation of milk proteins was absorbed quickly after feeding. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measure crossover study to investigate the
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A previous in vivo study with rats suggested that a special milk protein drink manufactured using an acidification procedure to suppress the aggregation of milk proteins was absorbed quickly after feeding. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measure crossover study to investigate the short-term effects on cognitive performance in 29 healthy young adult men after they consumed this drink in the morning. After an overnight fast, subjects were tested for performance in the Uchida–Kraepelin serial arithmetic test and the Stroop test as well as for subjective feeling, body temperature, and heart rate variability before and after consumption of either the acidified milk protein drink or an isoenergetic placebo drink. Subjects showed a significant improvement in performance in the Uchida–Kraepelin test, the primary outcome measured, when they consumed the acidified milk protein drink compared with the placebo control condition. In addition, consumption of the acidified milk protein drink, compared with the placebo control, was associated with increases in vagally-mediated heart rate variability indices which, from recent theoretical perspectives, may reflect a higher ability to modulate cognitive and behavioral processes. There was no significant difference in subjective feelings and body temperature between the test drink conditions. These data suggest that consumption of the acidified milk protein drink may improve cognitive performance, with possible involvement of physiological systems that regulate cognition and behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Sleep Duration and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration with Obesity in an Elderly Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050575
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Studies have recently reported an association between sleep duration and obesity in some individuals. Vitamin D deficiency is common in elderly populations and is also associated with obesity. In this study, the combined interaction effect of vitamin D levels and sleep duration on
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Studies have recently reported an association between sleep duration and obesity in some individuals. Vitamin D deficiency is common in elderly populations and is also associated with obesity. In this study, the combined interaction effect of vitamin D levels and sleep duration on obesity-related variables was analyzed in 3757 individuals from an elderly Korean population using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Significant differences were observed in the interaction effect of the vitamin D levels and sleep duration on obesity-related variables, including BMI (p = 0.004) and the risk of obesity (p < 0.001). Using vitamin D sufficient status and proper sleep duration as a reference, subjects with sufficient vitamin D did not differ in their risk of obesity regardless of their sleep duration. However, the risk of obesity tended to increase with short sleep duration rather than proper sleep duration among subjects who were vitamin D insufficient odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 1.293 (1.10–1.657) for proper sleep duration vs. 1.374 (1.066–1.770) for short sleep duration). Only the participants in the vitamin D deficient population who consumed less protein showed an increasing trend in the risk of obesity according to the sleep duration (OR (95% CI) = 1.645 (1.155–2.344) for proper sleep duration and 1.668 (1.156–2.406) for short sleep duration). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microbiome Responses to an Uncontrolled Short-Term Diet Intervention in the Frame of the Citizen Science Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050576
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits
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Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits and lifestyle with gut microbiota. Stool samples from 248 citizen-science volunteers were collected before and after a self-reported 2-week personalized diet intervention, then analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Considerable correlations between long-term dietary habits and gut community structure were detected. A higher intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with increased levels of butyrate-producing Clostridiales and higher community richness. A paired comparison of the metagenomes before and after the 2-week intervention showed that even a brief, uncontrolled intervention produced profound changes in community structure: resulting in decreased levels of Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Rikenellaceae families and decreased alpha-diversity coupled with an increase of Methanobrevibacter, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae- as well as the prevalence of a permatype (a bootstrapping-based variation of enterotype) associated with a higher diversity of diet. The response of microbiota to the intervention was dependent on the initial microbiota state. These findings pave the way for the development of an individualized diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Animal and Plant Protein Intake and Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Korean Elderly Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050577
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Controversy exists on whether animal and plant proteins influence obesity differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake with the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and renal function in the Korean
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Controversy exists on whether animal and plant proteins influence obesity differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake with the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and renal function in the Korean elderly. Study participants included Korean adults aged 60 years or older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013–2014. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured and the body mass index was calculated. One-day 24-hour recall data were used to estimate daily total, animal, and plant protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. General linear modellings were used to assess the relationships between protein intake, BMI and WC. The mean age was 69.2 ± 0.2 years and 44.2% were male. The total daily protein intake was 1.1 ± 0.02 g/kg/day and 0.9 ± 0.02 g/kg/day for males and females, respectively. Only one third of protein intake was from animal sources. In males, BMI (regression coefficient (95% CI); −1.30 (−1.55, −1.06), p < 0.001; −0.29 (−0.52, −0.05), p = 0.016; −1.30 (−1.8, −1.02), p < 0.001, respectively) and WC (−3.87 (−4.58, −3.16), p < 0.001; −0.90 (−1.58, −0.22), p = 0.010; −3.88 (−4.68, −3.08), p < 0.001, respectively) decreased as daily intake of plant protein (g/kg/day), animal protein (g/kg/day) and total protein (g/kg/day) increased. Similar associations were shown in Korean females. GFR was not associated with protein intake regardless of protein source in both sexes. In Korean adults aged 60 years or older, the protein intake was associated with a favorable obesity index without decrease in renal function. The effect was similar in both males and females, with both animal and plant proteins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anthropometric and Dietary Factors as Predictors of DNA Damage in Obese Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050578
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Enhanced DNA damage and disturbances in DNA repair mechanisms are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether anthropometric factors and dietary habits
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Enhanced DNA damage and disturbances in DNA repair mechanisms are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether anthropometric factors and dietary habits are related to endogenous DNA damage. One hundred and fourteen premenopausal, apparently healthy women were included in the study: 88 obese individuals and 26 controls. The comet assay was used to measure basal DNA damage. Biochemical measurements included lipids, apolipoproteinAI, fasting insulin, glucose, and C-reactive protein high sensitivity (CRP-hs). Dietary intakes were assessed by 3-day food records. The mean level of DNA damage was almost two times higher in obese than in non-obese women (p < 0.001). Regression modeling showed that body mass index (BMI), daily intakes of energy, and vitamin C are key predictors of variance in basal DNA damage. Our data demonstrate the impact of obesity-associated inflammation on DNA damage and indicate that regardless of obesity, the level of DNA damage can be reduced by adequate intakes of vitamins C and E. It suggests that particular attention should be paid to the content of antioxidants in the diet of obese people and further studies are needed to modify dietary guidelines to prevent DNA damage in obese individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050579
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and
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Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and fat distribution at birth, 1, 3, and 5 years. Mean energy intake was 2157 ± 375 kcal (n = 186) in early and 2208 ± 460 kcal (n = 167) in late gestation. The partition model showed mostly no significant associations between maternal diet in early pregnancy and offspring body composition. In late pregnancy, higher fat intake was negatively associated with clinical outcomes at birth, 1, and 5 years. Protein intake was negatively associated with BMI z score (zBMI) at 3 and 5 years. A 10 g increase in fiber was associated with an increase of 3.50 mm2 abdominal subcutaneous fat at 1, 172.49 g fat mass at 3, and 0.23 zBMI at 5 years. Results were largely comparable in the substitution model. An incremental increase in fat and protein at the expense of carbohydrates in late but not early pregnancy may be associated with lower fat mass up to 5 years. Findings require confirmation by additional prospective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Changes of Blood Pressure and Hemodynamic Parameters after Oral Magnesium Supplementation in Patients with Essential Hypertension—An Intervention Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050581
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the changes of blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters after oral magnesium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension. The single-arm non-blinded intervention study comprised 48 patients (19 men; 29 women) whose antihypertensive therapy was not changed
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The objective of this study was to examine the changes of blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters after oral magnesium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension. The single-arm non-blinded intervention study comprised 48 patients (19 men; 29 women) whose antihypertensive therapy was not changed for at least one month. The participants were asked to consume (daily at home) 300 mg of oral magnesium-oxide supplementation product for one month and to have their blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters (thoracic fluid content, stroke volume, stroke index, cardiac output, cardiac index, acceleration index, left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index, heart rate) measured in the hospital before and after the intervention. Measurements were performed with impedance cardiography. After magnesium supplementation, systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly decreased (mean ± standard deviation (SD)/mmHg/from 139.7 ± 15.0 to 130.8 ± 13.4 and from 88.0 ± 10.4 to 82.2 ± 9.0, respectively; both p < 0.001). The two significant hemodynamic changes were the decrease of systemic vascular resistance index (dyn s m2/cm5) and left cardiac work index (kg m/m²)/mean ± SD from 2319.3 ± 753.3 to 2083.0 ± 526.9 and from 4.8 ± 1.4 to 4.4 ± 0.9, respectively; both p < 0.05). The observed hemodynamic changes may explain lowering blood pressure after magnesium supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Acid Load and Mental Health Outcomes in Children and Adolescents: Results from the GINIplus and LISA Birth Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050582
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
High dietary acid load may have detrimental effects on mental health during childhood and adolescence. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of dietary acid load and mental health problems in a population-based sample, using data from the German birth cohort studies GINIplus (German
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High dietary acid load may have detrimental effects on mental health during childhood and adolescence. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of dietary acid load and mental health problems in a population-based sample, using data from the German birth cohort studies GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISA (Influences of lifestyle-related factors on the immune system and the development of allergies in childhood). These studies included detailed assessments of dietary intake through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), mental health outcomes measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and covariates. Using logistic regression, cross-sectional associations between dietary acid load measured as potential renal acid load (PRAL) and SDQ subscales were assessed at age 10 years (N = 2350) and 15 years (N = 2061). Prospective associations were assessed, considering PRAL at 10 years as exposure and SDQ subscales at 15 years as outcome (N = 1685). Results indicate that children with a diet higher in PRAL have more emotional problems (OR = 1.33 (95% CI = 1.15; 1.54); p < 0.001), and show hyperactivity more often (1.22 (1.04; 1.43); p = 0.014) at 10 years. No significant associations were present either cross-sectionally at age 15 years, nor prospectively. Results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. These findings reveal first evidence for potential relationships between PRAL and mental health in childhood, although we cannot exclude reverse causality, i.e., that dietary behavior and PRAL are influenced by mental status. Future studies should address confirmation and identify biological mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve after Visiting a Food Pantry among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050583
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired,
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Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455) completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure (p = 0.02) and food-insecure (p < 0.0001) pantry clients. Mean energy intake (p = 0.0003), number of eating occasions (p = 0.004), and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit (p < 0.001) and whole fruit (p < 0.0003) increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups)
Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Activities of Sulforaphane and Its Metabolites in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050585
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA
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Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA damage, tumorigenicity, cell migration and adhesion were measured in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and their anti-angiogenetic effects were determined in a 3D co-culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and pericytes. Results indicated that these metabolites at high doses decreased cancer cell viability, induced DNA damage and inhibited motility, and impaired endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Additionally, pre-treatment with low doses of SFN metabolites protected against H2O2 challenge. The activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and the induction of intracellular glutathione (GSH) played an important role in the cytoprotective effects of SFN metabolites. In conclusion, SFN metabolites exhibited similar cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects to SFN, which proves the necessity to study the mechanisms of action of not only SFN but also of its metabolites. Based on the different tissue distribution profiles of these metabolites, the most relevant chemical forms can be selected for targeted chemoprevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Mangosteen Extract Shows a Potent Insulin Sensitizing Effect in Obese Female Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050586
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
There is a widely acknowledged association between insulin resistance and obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and insulin sensitizing treatments have proved effective in preventing diabetes and inducing weight loss. Obesity and T2DM are also associated with increased inflammation. Mangosteen is a tropical tree, whose
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There is a widely acknowledged association between insulin resistance and obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and insulin sensitizing treatments have proved effective in preventing diabetes and inducing weight loss. Obesity and T2DM are also associated with increased inflammation. Mangosteen is a tropical tree, whose fruits—known for their antioxidant properties—have been recently suggested having a possible further role in the treatment of obesity and T2DM. The objective of this pilot study has been to evaluate safety and efficacy of treatment with mangosteen extract on insulin resistance, weight management, and inflammatory status in obese female patients with insulin resistance. Twenty-two patients were randomized 1:1 to behavioral therapy alone or behavioral therapy and mangosteen and 20 completed the 26-week study. The mangosteen group reported a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, HOMA-IR −53.22% vs. −15.23%, p = 0.004), and no side effect attributable to treatment was reported. Given the positive preliminary results we report and the excellent safety profile, we suggest a possible supplementary role of mangosteen extracts in the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases-Related Dietary Nutrient Profile in the UK (2008–2014)
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050587
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
We described the contribution of ultra-processed foods in the U.K. diet and its association with the overall dietary content of nutrients known to affect the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Cross-sectional data from the U.K. National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2014) were
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We described the contribution of ultra-processed foods in the U.K. diet and its association with the overall dietary content of nutrients known to affect the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Cross-sectional data from the U.K. National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2014) were analysed. Food items collected using a four-day food diary were classified according to the NOVA system. The average energy intake was 1764 kcal/day, with 30.1% of calories coming from unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 4.2% from culinary ingredients, 8.8% from processed foods, and 56.8% from ultra-processed foods. As the ultra-processed food consumption increased, the dietary content of carbohydrates, free sugars, total fats, saturated fats, and sodium increased significantly while the content of protein, fibre, and potassium decreased. Increased ultra-processed food consumption had a remarkable effect on average content of free sugars, which increased from 9.9% to 15.4% of total energy from the first to the last quintile. The prevalence of people exceeding the upper limits recommended for free sugars and sodium increased by 85% and 55%, respectively, from the lowest to the highest ultra-processed food quintile. Decreasing the dietary share of ultra-processed foods may substantially improve the nutritional quality of diets and contribute to the prevention of diet-related NCDs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intestinal Absorption and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Pomace Polyphenols
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050588
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
The absorption and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from grape pomace (GP) are important aspects of its valorization as a feed additive in the diet of weaned piglets. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of polyphenols from GP both in vitro in IPEC
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The absorption and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from grape pomace (GP) are important aspects of its valorization as a feed additive in the diet of weaned piglets. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of polyphenols from GP both in vitro in IPEC cells and in vivo in the duodenum and colon of piglets fed with diets containing or not 5% GP and also to compare and correlate the aspects of their in vitro and in vivo absorption. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant status (TAS, CAT, SOD and GPx enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation-TBARS level) were assessed in duodenum and colon of piglets fed or not a diet with 5% GP. The results of UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrated that in cellular and extracellular medium the GP polyphenols were oxidized (between λmax = 276 nm and λmax = 627.0 nm) with the formation of o-quinones and dimers. LC-MS analysis indicated a procyanidin trimer possibly C2, and a procyanidin dimer as the major polyphenols identified in GP, 12.8% of the procyanidin trimer and 23% of the procyanidin dimer respectively being also found in the compound feed. Procyanidin trimer C2 is the compound accumulated in duodenum, 73% of it being found in the colon of control piglets, and 62.5% in the colon of GP piglets. Correlations exist between the in vitro and in vivo investigations regarding the qualitative evaluation of GP polyphenols in the cells (λmax at 287.1 nm) and in the gut (λmax at 287.5 nm), as oxidated metabolic products. Beside the presence of polyphenols metabolites this study shows also the presence of the unmetabolized procyanidin trimers in duodenum and colon tissue, an important point in evaluating the benefic actions of these molecules at intestinal level. Moreover the in vivo study shows that a 5% GP in piglet’s diet increased the total antioxidant status (TAS) and decreased lipid peroxidantion (TBARS) in both duodenum and colon, and increased SOD activity in duodenum and CAT and GPx activity in colon. These parameters are modulated by the different polyphenols absorbed, mainly by the procyanidin trimers and catechin on one side and the polyphenols metabolites on the other side. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Silico Investigation of the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo biloba L. on Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050589
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
Based on compelling experimental and clinical evidence, Ginkgo biloba L. exerts a beneficial effect in ameliorating mild to moderate dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, although the pharmacological mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, compounds, their putative
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Based on compelling experimental and clinical evidence, Ginkgo biloba L. exerts a beneficial effect in ameliorating mild to moderate dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, although the pharmacological mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, compounds, their putative target proteins identified using an inverse docking approach, and clinically tested AD-related target proteins were systematically integrated together with applicable bioinformatics methods in silico. The results suggested that the beneficial effects of G. biloba on AD may be contributed by the regulation of hormone sensitivity, improvements in endocrine homeostasis, maintenance of endothelial microvascular integrity, and proteolysis of tau proteins, particularly prior to amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaque formation. Moreover, we identified six putative protein targets that are significantly related to AD, but have not been researched or have had only preliminary studies conducted on the anti-AD effects of G. biloba. These mechanisms and protein targets are very significant for future scientific research. In addition, the existing mechanisms were also verified, such as the reduction of oxidative stress, anti-apoptotic effects, and protective effects against amyloidogenesis and Aβ aggregation. The discoveries summarized here may provide a macroscopic perspective that will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of medicinal plants or dietary supplements, as well as new clues for the future development of therapeutic strategies for AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle The Relative Validity of the Menzies Remote Short-Item Dietary Assessment Tool (MRSDAT) in Aboriginal Australian Children Aged 6–36 Months
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050590
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
The Menzies Remote Short-item Dietary Assessment Tool (MRSDAT) can be used to derive a dietary index score, which measures the degree of compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. This study aimed to determine the relative validity of a dietary index score for children
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The Menzies Remote Short-item Dietary Assessment Tool (MRSDAT) can be used to derive a dietary index score, which measures the degree of compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. This study aimed to determine the relative validity of a dietary index score for children aged 6–24 months, living in a Remote Aboriginal Community (RAC), derived using MRSDAT. This validation study compared dietary index scores derived using MRSDAT with those derived from the average of three 24-h recalls. Participants were aged 6–36 months at the first dietary assessment and were living in a RAC. The level of agreement between the two methods was explored using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), Bland-Altman plots, weighted Cohen’s kappa, and Fischer’s exact and paired t-tests. Forty participants were recruited. The CCC was poor between methods (R = 0.35, 95% CI 0.06, 0.58), with MRSDAT estimating higher dietary intake scores for all food groups except fruit, and higher dietary quality scores by an average of 4.78 points/100. Community-based Aboriginal researchers were central to this validation study. MRSDAT was within the performance range of other short-item dietary assessment tools developed for young children, and shows promise for use with very young children in RACs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Implementation of Dietary Reference Intake Standards in Preschool Menus in Poland
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050592
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
Although the nutritional value of preschool menus largely determines the proper nutrition of attending children, their nutrient composition often does not meet the standards. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional value of menus served in preschools throughout Poland. We
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Although the nutritional value of preschool menus largely determines the proper nutrition of attending children, their nutrient composition often does not meet the standards. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional value of menus served in preschools throughout Poland. We analyzed a sample of 10 daily menus and inventory reports reflecting foods and beverages served in 270 full-board government-sponsored preschools. Nutrient content was calculated per child per day, and compared with 70% of dietary reference intake (DRI) for children aged 1–3 and 4–6. The content of energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrates generally exceeded 70% of DRI. The amount of vitamins was correct, with the exception of vitamin D (100% of daycare centers (DCCs) were below the recommendations); in ≤3% of preschools vitamin E, folate, and niacin were below DRI. Calcium was too low in 63% of preschools for children aged 1–3 years and in 99% for 4–6-year-olds. A shortage of iodine, iron, and potassium (especially for 4–6-year-olds) was observed in a small number of preschools. Our study highlights the need for uniform legal standards of nutrition in childcare centers, based on the current recommendations for the age group. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Highly Polymeric A-Type Proanthocyanidins from Seed Shells of Japanese Horse Chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) against Light-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Retina
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050593
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
Retinal tissue is exposed to oxidative stress caused by visible light. Light-damaged rat used in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) studies clarified that antioxidants decrease retinal light damage. Albino rats were exposed to 5000 Lux light for 12 h with oral administration of the
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Retinal tissue is exposed to oxidative stress caused by visible light. Light-damaged rat used in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) studies clarified that antioxidants decrease retinal light damage. Albino rats were exposed to 5000 Lux light for 12 h with oral administration of the polyphenolic compounds fraction (PF) from the seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg body weight: BW). To evaluate the protective effects against light damage, electroretinograms (ERGs), the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, the antioxidant activity of plasma, oxidized retinal lipids, and the detection of apoptosis were examined. To reveal their active compounds, PF were separated into an A-type proanthocyanidin (PAF) and a flavonol O-glycosides fraction. The protective effects of these fractions against light damage were compared by measuring the thickness of the ERGs and ONL. Compared with the negative control, the PF group (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg BW) significantly suppressed the decrease of the ERG amplitudes and ONL thickness. PF (300 mg/kg BW) induced the elevation of in vivo antioxidant activity, and the suppression of retinal lipid oxidation. PF administration also suppressed apoptotic cell death. The protective effects against light damage were attributable to the antioxidant activity of PAF. The light-induced damage of retinas was protected by oral administration of PF and PAF. Taken together, these compounds are potentially useful for the prevention of the disease caused by light exposure. Highlights: The protective effects of retinal damage by light exposure were evaluated using polyphenolic compounds from the seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) as an antioxidant. Decreases in the electroretinographic amplitude and outer nuclear layer thickness were suppressed by the polyphenolic compounds of the seed shells. Polyphenolic compounds from the seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut inhibited the oxidation of retinal lipids. Highly polymeric A-type proanthocyanidin from the seed shells protected the rat retina from light exposure damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptotic mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) on NPY Serum Levels in Healthy Adult Humans Whilst Controlling for Methionine Supply—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050594
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Central nervous serotonin (5-HT) can influence behaviour and neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from animal models suggest that lowered levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) may have similar effects, although it is currently unknown whether decreased central nervous 5-HT impact NPY concentrations. Given that the production
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Central nervous serotonin (5-HT) can influence behaviour and neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from animal models suggest that lowered levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) may have similar effects, although it is currently unknown whether decreased central nervous 5-HT impact NPY concentrations. Given that the production of NPY is dependent on the essential amino acid methionine (MET), it is imperative to account for the presence of MET in such investigations. Hence, this study sought to examine the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD; a dietary procedure that temporarily lowers central nervous 5-HT synthesis) on serum concentrations of NPY, whilst using the potential renal acid load indicator (PRAL) to control for levels of MET. In a double-blind repeated measures design, 24 adult humans randomly received an AA-load lacking in TRP (ATD) on one occasion, and a balanced control mixture with TRP (BAL) on a second occasion, both with a PRAL of nearly 47.3 mEq of MET. Blood samples were obtained at 90, 180, and 240 min after each of the AA challenges. ATD, and therefore, diminished substrate availability for brain 5-HT synthesis did not lead to significant changes in serum NPY concentrations over time, compared to BAL, under an acute acidotic stimulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
Open AccessArticle Kidney Response to the Spectrum of Diet-Induced Acid Stress
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050596
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Chronic ingestion of the acid (H+)-producing diets that are typical of developed societies appears to pose a long-term threat to kidney health. Mechanisms employed by kidneys to excrete this high dietary H+ load appear to cause long-term kidney injury when
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Chronic ingestion of the acid (H+)-producing diets that are typical of developed societies appears to pose a long-term threat to kidney health. Mechanisms employed by kidneys to excrete this high dietary H+ load appear to cause long-term kidney injury when deployed over many years. In addition, cumulative urine H+ excretion is less than the cumulative increment in dietary H+, consistent with H+ retention. This H+ retention associated with the described high dietary H+ worsens as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines which further exacerbates kidney injury. Modest H+ retention does not measurably change plasma acid–base parameters but, nevertheless, causes kidney injury and might contribute to progressive nephropathy. Current clinical methods do not detect H+ retention in its early stages but the condition manifests as metabolic acidosis as it worsens, with progressive decline of the glomerular filtration rate. We discuss this spectrum of H+ injury, which we characterize as “H+ stress”, and the emerging evidence that high dietary H+ constitutes a threat to long-term kidney health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Lean-Seafood and Non-Seafood Diets on Fasting and Postprandial Serum Metabolites and Lipid Species: Results from a Randomized Crossover Intervention Study in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050598
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
The metabolic effects associated with intake of different dietary protein sources are not well characterized. We aimed to elucidate how two diets that varied in main protein sources affected the fasting and postprandial serum metabolites and lipid species. In a randomized controlled trial
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The metabolic effects associated with intake of different dietary protein sources are not well characterized. We aimed to elucidate how two diets that varied in main protein sources affected the fasting and postprandial serum metabolites and lipid species. In a randomized controlled trial with crossover design, healthy adults (n = 20) underwent a 4-week intervention with two balanced diets that varied mainly in protein source (lean-seafood versus non-seafood proteins). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were applied to examine the effects of the two diets on serum metabolites. In the fasting state, the lean-seafood diet period, as opposed to the non-seafood diet period, significantly decreased the serum levels of isoleucine and valine, and during the postprandial state, a decreased level of lactate and increased levels of citrate and trimethylamine N-oxide were observed. The non-seafood diet significantly increased the fasting level of 26 lipid species including ceramides 18:1/14:0 and 18:1/23:0 and lysophosphatidylcholines 20:4 and 22:5, as compared to the lean-seafood diet. Thus, the lean-seafood diet decreased circulating isoleucine and valine levels, whereas the non-seafood diet elevated the levels of certain ceramides, metabolites that are associated with insulin-resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fibre Intake in Australia. Paper I: Associations with Demographic, Socio-Economic, and Anthropometric Factors
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050599
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Dietary fibre is important for regular laxation and reduces chronic disease risk. The National Health and Medical Research Council outlines daily fibre intake targets, yet the proportion of the population that meets these targets is unknown. Using the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical
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Dietary fibre is important for regular laxation and reduces chronic disease risk. The National Health and Medical Research Council outlines daily fibre intake targets, yet the proportion of the population that meets these targets is unknown. Using the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, we profiled fibre intake among Australian children and adults. Data from one-day dietary recalls were analysed (n = 12,153, ≥2 years) as well as demographic and anthropometric factors. The median fibre intake was 18.2 g (interquartile range [IQR] 13.2–25.0) in children and 20.7 g (IQR 14.3–28.7) in adults. We found that 42.3% (95% CI 40.5–44.1%) of children and 28.2% (95% CI 27.3–29.1%) of adults met the Adequate Intake (AI), and less than 20% of adults met the Suggested Dietary Target (SDT) to reduce the risk of chronic disease. Older children (aged 14–18 years), girls, young adults (19–30 years), males, and those of lower socio-economic status were less likely to meet the AI (p < 0.001). Those with a higher energy intake were more likely to meet the AI. Anthropometric measures were not associated with fibre intake or the likelihood of meeting the AI. Fibre is a nutrient of concern in Australian diets, with most children and adults falling short of recommendations. Adolescents, girls, young adults, men, and those of lower socio-economic status were less likely to meet the recommendations and may benefit most from public health interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association of Habitually Low Intake of Dietary Calcium with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in a Population with Predominantly Plant-Based Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050603
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years
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This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years or older in this analysis. Food intakes were measured by 3-day 24-h individual recalls combined with a weighing and measuring of household food inventory. The participants were divided into normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to their mean blood pressure of three repeated measurements. Six intake levels were decided by percentiles of gender-specific dietary calcium intakes (P0–10, P10–30, P30–50, P50–70, P70–90, and P90–100). Average dietary calcium intakes were 405 mg/day for men and 370 mg/day for women, 80% and 84% of which were derived from plant-based food in men and women, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary calcium intakes were not related with blood pressure in both genders (all P > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed a lower risk of pre-hypertension with higher dietary calcium intakes in women (all Pfor trend < 0.001), but not in men; no association between dietary calcium intake and hypertensive risk was found in both genders (all Pfor trend > 0.05). This study suggests that there are no conclusive associations of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk in Chinese individuals consuming predominantly plant-based diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Human Microbiota Response to Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized with Mushroom Extract
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050607
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
The ability to orally administer silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in enteric capsules implies a direct interaction with the colon microbiota. The in vitro effect provides a portrayal of the functional properties under in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe a
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The ability to orally administer silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in enteric capsules implies a direct interaction with the colon microbiota. The in vitro effect provides a portrayal of the functional properties under in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe a green AgNP synthesis process, using aqueous extract from Lactarius piperatus mushroom, and to characterize the nanomaterial. We determined its antimicrobial and antioxidant effects in vitro in the microbiota of healthy individuals via the GIS1 system—a colon transit simulator. Per the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results, the antimicrobial properties of the AgNPs affected the initial share of different enteric species by decreasing the Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus populations and favoring the Bifidobacterium group. The association between AgNPs and wild mushroom L. piperatus extract had a synergistic antibacterial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms while the mushroom extract reduced biofilm formation. Administration of AgNP maintained its constant antioxidant status, and it was correlated with a reduction in ammonium compounds. The physicochemical characterization of these NPs complemented their biochemical characterization. The maximum ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) absorbance was observed at 440 nm, while the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum reached a peak at 3296 cm–1, which was correlated with the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC). The major phenolic compound was homogentisic acid. The size (49 ± 16 nm in diameter) and spherical shape of the NPs were correlated with their biological effects in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Formula Milk Supplementation on the Postnatal Ward: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050608
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Breastfeeding rates are low in the UK, where approximately one quarter of infants receive a breastmilk substitute (BMS) in the first week of life. We investigated the reasons for early BMS use in two large maternity units in the UK, in order to
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Breastfeeding rates are low in the UK, where approximately one quarter of infants receive a breastmilk substitute (BMS) in the first week of life. We investigated the reasons for early BMS use in two large maternity units in the UK, in order to understand the reasons for the high rate of early BMS use in this setting. Data were collected through infant feeding records, as well as maternal and midwife surveys in 2016. During 2016, 28% of infants received a BMS supplement prior to discharge from the hospital maternity units with only 10% supplementation being clinically indicated. There was wide variation in BMS initiation rates between different midwives, which was associated with ward environment and midwife educational level. Specific management factors associated with non-clinically indicated initiation of BMS were the absence of skin-to-skin contact within an hour of delivery (p = 0.01), and no attendance at an antenatal breastfeeding discussion (p = 0.01). These findings suggest that risk of initiating a BMS during postnatal hospital stay is largely modifiable. Concordance with UNICEF Baby Friendly 10 steps, attention to specific features of the postnatal ward working environment, and the targeting of midwives and mothers with poor educational status may all lead to improved exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Maternal Wellbeing at Four Months Post-Partum in Ireland
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050609
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to examine factors associated with maternal wellbeing at four months post-partum in the Irish context. Socio-demographic, health behaviour and infant feeding data were collected in pregnancy, at birth and at 17 weeks post-partum. Maternal distress, body image and resilience were
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This study aimed to examine factors associated with maternal wellbeing at four months post-partum in the Irish context. Socio-demographic, health behaviour and infant feeding data were collected in pregnancy, at birth and at 17 weeks post-partum. Maternal distress, body image and resilience were measured at 17 weeks post-partum. Binary logistic regression predicted maternal distress and statistical significance was taken at p < 0.05. One hundred and seventy-two women were followed-up in pregnancy, at birth and at 17 weeks post-partum. Three in five (61.6%, n106) initiated breastfeeding. At 17 weeks post-partum, 23.8% (n41) were exclusively or partially breastfeeding and over a third (36.0%, n62) of all mothers were at risk of distress. In multivariate analyses, independent predictors of distress included: low maternal resilience (p < 0.01, odds ratio (OR): 7.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.49–20.95)); unsatisfactory partner support (p = 0.02, OR: 3.89 (95% CI: 1.20–12.65)); older age (p = 0.02, OR: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02–1.21)); and breastfeeding (p = 0.01, OR: 2.89 (95% CI: 1.29–6.47)). Routine assessment of emotional wellbeing and targeted interventions are needed to promote a more healthful transition to motherhood among women in Ireland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Intake of Japanese Mushrooms on Visceral Fat Accumulation and Gut Microbiota in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050610
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together
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A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together in realistic quantities. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with a variety of mushroom types affects visceral fat accumulation and gut microbiota in mice. The most popular mushroom varieties in Japan were lyophilized and mixed according to their local production ratios. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat (HF) diet, HF with 0.5% mushroom mixture (equivalent to 100 g mushrooms/day in humans) or HF with 3% mushroom mixture (equivalent to 600 g mushrooms/day in humans) for 4 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed, and blood samples, tissue samples and feces were collected. Our results show that mushroom intake suppressed visceral fat accumulation and increased the relative abundance of some short chain fatty acid- and lactic acid-producing gut bacteria. These findings suggest that mushroom intake is an effective strategy for obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Genetic Variation in the Epithelial Sodium Channel Gene with Urinary Sodium Excretion and Blood Pressure
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050612
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
This study was performed to investigate whether genetic variation in the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is associated with 24-h urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure. A total of 3345 participants of the KoGES_Ansan and Ansung study were eligible for this study. Genomic DNA
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This study was performed to investigate whether genetic variation in the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is associated with 24-h urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure. A total of 3345 participants of the KoGES_Ansan and Ansung study were eligible for this study. Genomic DNA samples were isolated from peripheral blood and genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted for gene regions (SCNN1A, SCNN1B, and SCNN1G) as additive components by using Plink. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretions were estimated from spot urine samples using the Tanaka formula. The general linear model (GLM) was applied to assess the association between SNPs and urinary sodium excretion or blood pressure. In the SCNN1G gene, six SNPs (rs4073291, rs12934362, rs7404408, rs4494543, rs5735, and rs6497657) were significantly different in 24-h urinary sodium excretion according to gene variants. However, no difference was found in blood pressure among participants with gene variants of ENaC. Our finding indicated that 24-h urinary sodium excretions were different according to variants of the SCNN1G gene in large samples. Further studies to replicate these findings are warranted. Full article
Open AccessArticle Diet-Induced Weight Loss Has No Effect on Psychological Stress in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050613
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
The effect of weight loss on psychological stress is unknown. The study aimed to investigate the effect of diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults on psychological measures of stress through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Databases including Medline Complete,
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The effect of weight loss on psychological stress is unknown. The study aimed to investigate the effect of diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults on psychological measures of stress through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Databases including Medline Complete, Embase and PsycINFO were searched up to February 2018 for diet-induced weight loss RCTs, which included self-reported assessment of psychological stress. The mean difference between the intervention and control group of changes in stress (intervention—baseline) was used. Ten RCTs were included with 615 participants (502 women, age range 20–80 years). Overall, there was no change in stress (mean difference −0.06, 95% CI: −0.17, 0.06, p = 0.33) and no change in the five studies with a significant reduction in weight in the intervention group compared to a control group that lost no weight (mean difference in weight −3.9 Kg, 95% CI: −5.51, −2.29, p < 0.0001; mean difference in stress 0.04, 95% CI: −0.17, 0.25, p = 0.71). For all analyses, there was low heterogeneity. The benefits of weight loss for those who are overweight and obese do not appear to either increase or reduce psychological stress at the end of the weight loss period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cost-Effectiveness of Product Reformulation in Response to the Health Star Rating Food Labelling System in Australia
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050614
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
The Health Star Rating (HSR) system is a voluntary front-of-pack labelling (FoPL) initiative endorsed by the Australian government in 2014. This study examines the impact of the HSR system on pre-packaged food reformulation measured by changes in energy density between products with and
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The Health Star Rating (HSR) system is a voluntary front-of-pack labelling (FoPL) initiative endorsed by the Australian government in 2014. This study examines the impact of the HSR system on pre-packaged food reformulation measured by changes in energy density between products with and without HSR. The cost-effectiveness of the HSR system was modelled using a proportional multi-state life table Markov model for the 2010 Australian population. We evaluated scenarios in which the HSR system was implemented on a voluntary and mandatory basis (i.e., HSR uptake across 6.7% and 100% of applicable products, respectively). The main outcomes were health-adjusted life years (HALYs), net costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). These were calculated with accompanying 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UI). The model predicted that HSR-attributable reformulation leads to small reductions in mean population energy intake (voluntary: 0.98 kJ/day [95% UI: −1.08 to 2.86]; mandatory: 11.81 kJ/day [95% UI: −11.24 to 36.13]). These are likely to result in reductions in mean body weight (voluntary: 0.01 kg [95% UI: −0.01 to 0.03]; mandatory: 0.11 kg [95% UI: −0.12 to 0.32], and HALYs (voluntary: 4207 HALYs [95% UI: 2438 to 6081]; mandatory: 49,949 HALYs [95% UI: 29,291 to 72,153]). The HSR system evaluated via changes in reformulation could be considered cost-effective relative to a willingness-to-pay threshold of A$50,000 per HALY (voluntary: A$1728 per HALY [95% UI: dominant to 10,445] and mandatory: A$4752 per HALY [95% UI: dominant to 16,236]). Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Food Intake and Brain Responses to Food: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial in Healthy Humans
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050615
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Whether non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) consumption impacts food intake behavior in humans is still unclear. Discrepant sensory and metabolic signals are proposed to mislead brain regulatory centers, in turn promoting maladaptive food choices favoring weight gain. We aimed to assess whether ingestion of sucrose-
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Whether non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) consumption impacts food intake behavior in humans is still unclear. Discrepant sensory and metabolic signals are proposed to mislead brain regulatory centers, in turn promoting maladaptive food choices favoring weight gain. We aimed to assess whether ingestion of sucrose- and NNS-sweetened drinks would differently alter brain responses to food viewing and food intake. Eighteen normal-weight men were studied in a fasted condition and after consumption of a standardized meal accompanied by either a NNS-sweetened (NNS), or a sucrose-sweetened (SUC) drink, or water (WAT). Their brain responses to visual food cues were assessed by means of electroencephalography (EEG) before and 45 min after meal ingestion. Four hours after meal ingestion, spontaneous food intake was monitored during an ad libitum buffet. With WAT, meal intake led to increased neural activity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the insula, areas linked to cognitive control and interoception. With SUC, neural activity in the insula increased as well, but decreased in temporal regions linked to food categorization, and remained unchanged in dorsal prefrontal areas. The latter modulations were associated with a significantly lower total energy intake at buffet (mean kcal ± SEM; 791 ± 62) as compared to WAT (942 ± 71) and NNS (917 ± 70). In contrast to WAT and SUC, NNS consumption did not impact activity in the insula, but led to increased neural activity in ventrolateral prefrontal regions linked to the inhibition of reward. Total energy intake at the buffet was not significantly different between WAT and NNS. Our findings highlight the differential impact of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on subsequent brain responses to visual food cues and energy intake. These variations may reflect an initial stage of adaptation to taste-calorie uncoupling, and could be indicative of longer-term consequences of repeated NNS consumption on food intake behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
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Open AccessCommunication Growth Hormone Secretion Patterns in German Landrace (DL) Fetuses and Piglets Compared to DL Piglets with Inherited 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050617
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
The regulation of growth hormone (GH) release during prenatal development and during early postnatal life is not entirely clarified. In this study plasma GH concentrations in pigs with inherited pseudo vitamin D deficiency type I (PDDR-I), which regularly show growth retardation, were compared
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The regulation of growth hormone (GH) release during prenatal development and during early postnatal life is not entirely clarified. In this study plasma GH concentrations in pigs with inherited pseudo vitamin D deficiency type I (PDDR-I), which regularly show growth retardation, were compared during ontogeny with unaffected pigs of the same breed (German Landrace, DL) as control. Plasma GH concentrations were measured in plasma of chronically catheterized fetuses (beginning on day 101 after mating or after artificial insemination) and in piglets (day 37 postpartum (p.p.)—day 42 p.p.) of both lines. A growth curve beginning at day 7 p.p. was recorded for both lines. The relative amount of GH receptor (GHR) mRNA in liver was quantified by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in piglets at day 42 p.p. A trend for higher GH concentrations was observed in PDDR-I fetuses (p < 0.1). In PDDR-I piglets compared to DL piglets higher plasma GH values (p < 0.01), were observed despite lower body weight. The relative quantity of GHR mRNA in liver was not significantly different between the two lines. Piglets with an inherited defect of vitamin D synthesis showed higher GH concentrations. A hormonal imprinting by low 1,25(OH)2D3 could be one reason for our observations and should be analysed in detail in future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Incorporation of DHA in Circulatory and Neural Tissue When Provided as Triacylglycerol (TAG), Monoacylglycerol (MAG) or Phospholipids (PL) Provides New Insight into Fatty Acid Bioavailability
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050620
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to
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Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to compare the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma, erythrocytes, retina and brain tissues in adult rats when provided as PL (PL-DHA) and MAG (MAG-DHA). Conventional dietary DHA oil containing TAG (TAG-DHA) as well as control chow diet were used to evaluate the potency of the two alternative DHA carriers over a 60-day feeding period. Fatty acid profiles were determined in erythrocytes and plasma lipids at time 0, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 49 days of the experimental period and in retina, cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus at 60 days. The assessment of the longitudinal evolution of DHA in erythrocyte and plasma lipids suggest that PL-DHA and MAG-DHA are efficient carriers of dietary DHA when compared to conventional DHA oil (TAG-DHA). Under these experimental conditions, both PL-DHA and MAG-DHA led to higher incorporations of DHA erythrocytes lipids compared to TAG-DHA group. After 60 days of supplementation, statistically significant increase in DHA level incorporated in neural tissues analyzed were observed in the DHA groups compared with the control. The mechanism explaining hypothetically the difference observed in circulatory lipids is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Potential Cost-Effectiveness and Equity Impacts of Restricting Television Advertising of Unhealthy Food and Beverages to Australian Children
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050622
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Television (TV) advertising of food and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) influences food preferences and consumption. Children from lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have higher exposure to TV advertising due to more time spent watching TV. This paper sought to estimate
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Television (TV) advertising of food and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) influences food preferences and consumption. Children from lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have higher exposure to TV advertising due to more time spent watching TV. This paper sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of legislation to restrict HFSS TV advertising until 9:30 pm, and to examine how health benefits and healthcare cost-savings differ by SEP. Cost-effectiveness modelling was undertaken (i) at the population level, and (ii) by area-level SEP. A multi-state multiple-cohort lifetable model was used to estimate obesity-related health outcomes and healthcare cost-savings over the lifetime of the 2010 Australian population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were reported, with assumptions tested through sensitivity analyses. An intervention restricting HFSS TV advertising would cost AUD5.9M (95% UI AUD5.8M–AUD7M), resulting in modelled reductions in energy intake (mean 115 kJ/day) and body mass index (BMI) (mean 0.352 kg/m2). The intervention is likely to be cost-saving, with 1.4 times higher total cost-savings and 1.5 times higher health benefits in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (17,512 HALYs saved (95% UI 10,372–25,155); total cost-savings AUD126.3M (95% UI AUD58.7M–196.9M) over the lifetime) compared to the least disadvantaged socioeconomic group (11,321 HALYs saved (95% UI 6812–15,679); total cost-savings AUD90.9M (95% UI AUD44.3M–136.3M)). Legislation to restrict HFSS TV advertising is likely to be cost-effective, with greater health benefits and healthcare cost-savings for children with low SEP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Pattern and Plasma BCAA-Variations in Healthy Men and Women—Results from the KarMeN Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050623
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in plasma are discussed as risk factors for the onset of several diseases. Information about the contribution of the overall diet to plasma BCAA concentrations is controversial. Our objective was to investigate which dietary pattern is associated with plasma
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Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in plasma are discussed as risk factors for the onset of several diseases. Information about the contribution of the overall diet to plasma BCAA concentrations is controversial. Our objective was to investigate which dietary pattern is associated with plasma BCAA concentrations and whether other additional nutrients besides BCAA further characterize this dietary pattern. Based on the cross-sectional KarMeN study, fasting plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, as well as current and habitual dietary intake were assessed in 298 healthy individuals. Using reduced rank regression, we derived a habitual dietary pattern that explained 32.5% of plasma BCAA variation. This pattern was high in meat, sausages, sauces, eggs, and ice cream but low in nuts, cereals, mushrooms, and pulses. The age, sex, and energy intake adjusted dietary pattern score was associated with an increase in animal-based protein together with a decrease in plant-based protein, dietary fiber, and an unfavorable fatty acid composition. Besides BCAA, alanine, lysine and the aromatic AA were positively associated with the dietary pattern score as well. All of these factors were reported to be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases before. Our data suggest that rather than the dietary intake of BCAA, the overall dietary pattern that contributes to high BCAA plasma concentrations may modulate chronic diseases risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pilot Study Examining the Influence of Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Nitrogen Balance and Whole-Body Ammonia and Urea Turnover Following Short-Term Energy Restriction in Older Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050624
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
With aging there is a chronic low-grade metabolic-acidosis that may exacerbate negative protein balance during weight loss. The objective of this randomized pilot study was to assess the impact of 90 mmol∙day−1 potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) versus a placebo (PLA) on
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With aging there is a chronic low-grade metabolic-acidosis that may exacerbate negative protein balance during weight loss. The objective of this randomized pilot study was to assess the impact of 90 mmol∙day−1 potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) versus a placebo (PLA) on 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), nitrogen balance (NBAL), and whole-body ammonia and urea turnover following short-term diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen (KHCO3; n = 8, PLA; n = 8) older (64 ± 4 years) overweight (BMI: 28.5 ± 2.1 kg∙day−1) men completed a 35-day controlled feeding study, with a 7-day weight-maintenance phase followed by a 28-day 30% energy-restriction phase. KHCO3 or PLA supplementation began during energy restriction. NAE, NBAL, and whole-body ammonia and urea turnover (15N-glycine) were measured at the end of the weight-maintenance and energy-restriction phases. Following energy restriction, NAE was −9.8 ± 27.8 mmol∙day−1 in KHCO3 and 43.9 ± 27.8 mmol∙day−1 in PLA (p < 0.05). No significant group or time differences were observed in NBAL or ammonia and urea turnover. Ammonia synthesis and breakdown tended (p = 0.09) to be higher in KHCO3 vs. PLA following energy restriction, and NAE was inversely associated (r = −0.522; p < 0.05) with urea synthesis in all subjects. This pilot study suggests some benefit may exist with KHCO3 supplementation following energy restriction as lower NAE indicated higher urea synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle Gain-Framed Messages Were Related to Higher Motivation Scores for Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Parenting Practices than Loss-Framed Messages
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050625
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Parents play an important role in promoting healthy beverage intake among children. Message-framing approaches, where outcomes are described as positive (gain) or negative (loss) results, can be used to encourage parenting practices that promote healthy beverage intakes. This study tested the effectiveness of
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Parents play an important role in promoting healthy beverage intake among children. Message-framing approaches, where outcomes are described as positive (gain) or negative (loss) results, can be used to encourage parenting practices that promote healthy beverage intakes. This study tested the effectiveness of message framing on motivation for parenting practices targeting reductions in child sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake (controlling availability, role modeling) and dispositional factors moderating effectiveness. Parents (n = 380) completed a survey to assess motivation after viewing gain- and loss-framed messages to engage in parenting practices, usual beverage intake, and home beverage availability. Paired t-tests were used to examine differences in motivation scores after viewing gain- vs. loss-framed messages for all parents and by subgroups according to low vs. high SSB intake and home availability, and weight status. Gain- versus loss-framed messages were related to higher motivation scores for both parenting practices for all parents (n = 380, p < 0.01) and most subgroups. No differences were observed by message frame for parents in low home SSB availability or normal and overweight BMI subgroups for controlling availability. Gain- versus loss-framed messages were related to higher motivation scores, therefore gain-framed messages are recommended for parent interventions intended to decrease child intake of SSBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelial Functional Risk Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050626
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving 58 subjects supplemented with a daily dose (30 mL) of three oils: (1) a VOO (124 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); (2) an optimized VOO (OVOO) (490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); and (3) a functional olive oil (FOO) high in phenolic compounds (487 ppm) and enriched with triterpenes (389 ppm). Metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers were determined in vivo and ex vivo. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) increased after the OVOO intake. Plasma endothelin-1 levels decreased after the intake of the three olive oils, and in blood cell cultures challenged. Daily intake of VOO enriched in phenolic compounds improved plasma HDLc, although no differences were found at the end of the three interventions, while VOO with at least 124 ppm of phenolic compounds, regardless of the triterpenes content improved the systemic endothelin-1 levels in vivo and ex vivo. No effect of triterpenes was observed after three weeks of interventions. Results need to be confirmed in subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired endothelial function (Clinical Trials number NCT02520739). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Conditions)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Energy Expenditure and Oxidation of Energy Substrates in Adult Males after Intake of Meals with Varying Fat and Carbohydrate Content
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050627
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient
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Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient content, in normal-weight and overweight/obese people. In the study, 46 healthy adult males (23 with normal body weight and 23 overweight/obese), aged 21–58, were examined. During two consecutive visits, subjects received isocaloric standardized meals (450 kcal) with different content of basic nutrients. Resting metabolic rate and carbohydrate and fat utilization were evaluated during the fasting state and postprandially, using an indirect calorimetry method. Energy expenditure was higher in people with normal body weight and slightly higher after the high-carbohydrate meal. In overweight/obese people, increased expenditure was noted after normo-carbohydrate meal intake. The high-fat meal induced lower postprandial thermal response compared to a high-carbohydrate meal, both in people with normal body weight and in overweight/obese men. Glucose utilization was higher after the high-carbohydrate meal, and it was higher in the normal body weight group than in overweight/obese people. In addition, overweight/obese people showed a lower level of fatty acid oxidation under fasting conditions which, together with limited ability to oxidize energy substrates, depending on their availability, indicates that these people are characterized by lower metabolic flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake with Cardiometabolic Risk in Four Countries across the Epidemiologic Transition
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050628
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2
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The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition. We examined population-based samples of men and women, aged 25–45 of African origin from Ghana, Jamaica, the Seychelles and the USA. Ghanaians had the lowest prevalence of obesity (10%), while Jamaicans had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (5%) across all the sites. Participants from the US presented with the highest prevalence of obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (22%). Overall, the Ghanaians consumed the highest dietary fiber (24.9 ± 9.7 g), followed by Jamaica (16.0 ± 8.3 g), the Seychelles (13.6 ± 7.2 g) and the lowest in the USA (14.2 ± 7.1 g). Consequently, 43% of Ghanaians met the fiber dietary guidelines (14 g/1000 kcal/day), 9% of Jamaicans, 6% of Seychellois, and only 3% of US adults. Across all sites, cardiometabolic risk (metabolic syndrome, inflammation and obesity) was inversely associated with dietary fiber intake, such that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13% for those in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, compared to 9% those in the highest quartile of fiber intake. Notably, twice as many of participants (38%) in the lowest quartile were obese compared to those in the highest quartile of fiber intake (18%). These findings further support the need to incorporate strategies and policies to promote increased dietary fiber intake as one component for the prevention of cardiometabolic risk in all countries spanning the epidemiologic transition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Case-Control Study of the Association between Vitamin D Levels and Gastric Incomplete Intestinal Metaplasia
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050629
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Aim: Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, but whether vitamin D levels are associated with premalignant gastric mucosal changes is unknown. Here, we determined associations between vitamin D levels and gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia, a known gastric adenocarcinoma
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Aim: Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, but whether vitamin D levels are associated with premalignant gastric mucosal changes is unknown. Here, we determined associations between vitamin D levels and gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia, a known gastric adenocarcinoma risk factor. Methods: This was a retrospective, unmatched, case-control study comparing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among subjects with gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia (cases; n = 103) and those without gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia (controls; n = 216). The 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were categorized as normal (30–100 ng/dL), vitamin D insufficiency (VDi; 20–29 ng/dL), and vitamin D deficiency (VDd; <20 ng/dL). Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and adjusted to age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, and timing of vitamin D collection to assess associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia. Results: A majority of case subjects were male, Hispanic, and did not have hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was significantly lower in the intestinal metaplasia group than the control group (19.7 ng/dL vs. 34.7 ng/dL; p < 0.001). Hypovitaminosis D was more common in subjects with incomplete intestinal metaplasia in a multivariable regression model (OR 54.1, 95% CI 21.8–134.3; p < 0.001). VDd (OR 129.0, 95% CI 43.7–381.2; p < 0.001) and VDi (OR 31.0, 95% CI 11.9–80.3; p < 0.001) were more common in patients with incomplete intestinal metaplasia than healthy subjects, with VDd slightly more prevalent than VDi (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7–9.6; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are more common in patients with gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia than healthy subjects and may play a role in the development of premalignant phenotypes related to gastric adenocarcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Human Milk Immunoglobulin Survival during Gastric Digestion between Preterm and Term Infants
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050631
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Human milk provides immunoglobulins (Igs) that supplement the passive immune system of neonates; however, the extent of survival of these Igs during gastric digestion and whether this differs between preterm and term infants remains unknown. Human milk, and infant gastric samples at 2
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Human milk provides immunoglobulins (Igs) that supplement the passive immune system of neonates; however, the extent of survival of these Igs during gastric digestion and whether this differs between preterm and term infants remains unknown. Human milk, and infant gastric samples at 2 h post-ingestion were collected from 15 preterm (23–32 week gestational age (GA)) mother-infant pairs and from 8 term (38–40 week of GA) mother-infant pairs within 7–98 days postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for concentration of total IgA (secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA), total secretory component (SC/SIgA/SIgM), total IgM (SIgM/IgM), and IgG as well as peptidomics. Total IgA concentration decreased by 60% from human milk to the preterm infant stomach and decreased by 48% in the term infant stomach. Total IgM and IgG concentrations decreased by 33% and 77%, respectively, from human milk to the term infant stomach but were stable in the preterm infant stomach. Release of peptides from all Ig isotypes in the term infant stomach was higher than in the preterm stomach. Overall, the stability of human milk Igs during gastric digestion is higher in preterm infant than in term infants, which could be beneficial for assisting the preterm infants’ immature immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Open AccessArticle Longitudinal Effects of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Subsequent Repletion on Blood Parameters and the Rate and Composition of Growth in Pigs
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050632
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Iron deficiency is reported as the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Due to rapid growth, infants are at particular risk for developing iron deficiency, which can easily progress to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), if not treated. The aim of this study was to
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Iron deficiency is reported as the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Due to rapid growth, infants are at particular risk for developing iron deficiency, which can easily progress to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), if not treated. The aim of this study was to determine the lasting effects of an early-life iron deficiency after a period of dietary iron repletion. Forty-two intact male pigs were fed, ad libitum, either control (CONT, 21.3 mg Fe/L) or iron-deficient (ID 2.72 mg Fe/L) milk replacer from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 32 (phase 1). From PND 33 to 61 (phase 2), all pigs were transitioned onto a series of industry-standard, iron-adequate diets. Blood was collected weekly from PND 7 to 28, and again on PND 35 and 56, and tissues were collected at either PND 32 or PND 61. At the end of phase 1, ID pigs exhibited reduced hematocrit (Hct; p < 0.0001) and hemoglobin (Hb; p < 0.0001) compared with CONT pigs, but neither Hct (p = 0.5968) nor Hb (p = 0.6291) differed between treatment groups after dietary iron repletion at the end of phase 2. Body weight gain was reduced (p < 0.0001) 58% at PND 32 in ID pigs compared with CONT pigs during phase 1, and this effect remained significant at the end of phase 2 (p = 0.0001), with ID pigs weighing 34% less than CONT pigs at PND 61. Analysis of peripheral protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression biomarkers yielded inconclusive results, as would be expected based on previous biomarker analyses across multiple species. These findings suggest that early-life iron status negatively influences blood parameters and growth performance, with dietary iron repletion allowing for full recovery of hematological outcomes, but not growth performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Organoleptic Characterization of a Skimmed Goat Milk Fermented with the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050633
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Ultrafiltration was
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The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Ultrafiltration was chosen as the skimmed milk concentration method because it produced the best viscosity and syneresis and a high casein content. The viability rate of all bacterial strains was >107 cfu/mL, even after 5 weeks of storage or after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, which is especially important for exertion of the probiotic strain functionalities. This fermented milk is also a good source of nutrients, having a low lactose and fat content, high protein proportion, and good mineral concentration. According to these data and the overall acceptability described by panelists, this fermented milk is a healthy dairy product comparable with commercially available fermented milks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Increasing the Protein Content of Human Milk Fortifier to 1.8 g/100 mL on Growth in Preterm Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050634
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of feeding high protein human milk fortifier (HMF) on growth in preterm infants. In this single-centre randomised trial, 60 infants born 28–32 weeks’ gestation were randomised to receive a higher protein HMF providing
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of feeding high protein human milk fortifier (HMF) on growth in preterm infants. In this single-centre randomised trial, 60 infants born 28–32 weeks’ gestation were randomised to receive a higher protein HMF providing 1.8 g protein (n = 31) or standard HMF providing 1 g protein per 100 mL expressed breast milk (EBM) (n = 29). The primary outcome was rate of weight gain. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. There was no difference between high and standard HMF groups for weight gain (mean difference (MD) −14 g/week; 95% CI −32, 4; p = 0.12), length gain (MD −0.01 cm/week; 95% CI −0.06, 0.03; p = 0.45) or head circumference gain (MD 0.007 cm/week; 95% CI −0.05, 0.06; p = 0.79), despite achieving a 0.7 g/kg/day increase in protein intake in the high protein group. Infants in the high protein group had a higher proportion of lean body mass at trial entry; however, there was no group by time effect on lean mass gains over the study. Increasing HMF protein content to 1.8 g per 100 mL EBM does not improve growth in preterm infants born 28–32 weeks’ gestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Leucine Supplementation Does Not Attenuate Skeletal Muscle Loss during Leg Immobilization in Healthy, Young Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050635
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health. Objective: To
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Background: Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health. Objective: To assess whether daily leucine supplementation during a short period of disuse can attenuate subsequent muscle loss in vivo in humans. Methods: Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 y) young males were exposed to a 7-day unilateral knee immobilization intervention by means of a full leg cast with (LEU, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) daily leucine supplementation (2.5 g leucine, three times daily). Prior to and directly after immobilization, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (computed tomography (CT) scan) and leg strength (one-repetition maximum (1-RM)) were assessed. Furthermore, muscle biopsies were taken in both groups before and after immobilization to assess changes in type I and type II muscle fiber CSA. Results: Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) declined in the CON and LEU groups (p < 0.01), with no differences between the two groups (from 7712 ± 324 to 7287 ± 305 mm2 and from 7643 ± 317 to 7164 ± 328 mm2; p = 0.61, respectively). Leg muscle strength decreased from 56 ± 4 to 53 ± 4 kg in the CON group and from 63 ± 3 to 55 ± 2 kg in the LEU group (main effect of time p < 0.01), with no differences between the groups (p = 0.052). Type I and II muscle fiber size did not change significantly over time, in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Free leucine supplementation with each of the three main meals (7.5 g/d) does not attenuate the decline of muscle mass and strength during a 7-day limb immobilization intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Growth Responses of Preterm Pigs Fed Formulas with Different Protein Levels and Supplemented with Leucine or β-Hydroxyl β-Methylbutyrate
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050636
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Growth after preterm birth is an important determinant of long-term outcomes. Yet, many preterm infants suffer ex utero growth retardation. We evaluated effects of leucine and the metabolite, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on growth of preterm pigs, a previously-validated translational model for preterm infants.
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Growth after preterm birth is an important determinant of long-term outcomes. Yet, many preterm infants suffer ex utero growth retardation. We evaluated effects of leucine and the metabolite, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on growth of preterm pigs, a previously-validated translational model for preterm infants. After 48 h of parenteral nutrition preterm pigs were fed for 6 to 7 days isocaloric formulas with different levels of protein (50 or 100 g/L) with leucine (10 g/L, 76 mM) or HMB (at 1.1 g/L, 4 mM) added to stimulate protein synthesis or with alanine (6.8 g/L; 76 mM) as the control. Rates of growth of pigs fed the low protein formula with alanine (3.4 ± 0.2% gain per day) or leucine (3.7 ± 0.2) exceeded that of pigs fed the high protein formula (2.8 ± 0.2, p = 0.02 for comparison with both low protein formulas; p = 0.01 compared with low protein + leucine). Supplementing the high protein formula with leucine or HMB did not increase growth relative to alanine (2.72 ± 0.20, 2.74 ± 0.27, and 2.52 ± 0.20, respectively). Small pigs (<700 g birth weight) grew slower during parenteral nutrition and had a more pronounced response to leucine. Females fed the high protein formulas grew faster than males, and particularly for small pigs (p < 0.05). Blood urea nitrogen values were lower for pigs fed the low versus the high protein formulas (p < 0.05). Leucine and HMB improved growth of preterm pigs fed low, but not high protein formulas, even after controlling for birth weight and sex, which independently correlated with growth rates. They offer an option to improve growth without increasing the amino acid load, with its attendant metabolic disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Phosphatidylserine Source of Docosahexanoic Acid Improves Neurodevelopment and Survival of Preterm Pigs
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050637
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
The amount, composition, and sources of nutrition support provided to preterm infants is critical for normal growth and development, and particularly for structural and functional neurodevelopment. Although omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and particularly docosahexanoic acid (DHA), are considered of particular
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The amount, composition, and sources of nutrition support provided to preterm infants is critical for normal growth and development, and particularly for structural and functional neurodevelopment. Although omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and particularly docosahexanoic acid (DHA), are considered of particular importance, results from clinical trials with preterm infants have been inconclusive because of ethical limitations and confounding variables. A translational large animal model is needed to understand the structural and functional responses to DHA. Neurodevelopment of preterm pigs was evaluated in response to feeding formulas to term-equivalent age supplemented with DHA attached to phosphatidylserine (PS-DHA) or sunflower oil as the placebo. Newborn term pigs were used as a control for normal in utero neurodevelopment. Supplementing formula with PS-DHA increased weight of the brain, and particularly the cerebellum, at term-equivalent age compared with placebo preterm pigs (P’s < 0.10 and 0.05 respectively), with a higher degree of myelination in all regions of the brain examined (all p < 0.06). Brains of pigs provided PS-DHA were similar in weight to newborn term pigs. Event-related brain potentials and performance in a novel object recognition test indicated the PS-DHA supplement accelerated development of sensory pathways and recognition memory compared with placebo preterm pigs. The PS-DHA did not increase weight gain, but was associated with higher survival. The benefits of PS-DHA include improving neurodevelopment and possibly improvement of survival, and justify further studies to define dose-response relations, compare benefits associated with other sources of DHA, and understand the mechanisms underlying the benefits and influences on the development of other tissues and organ systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
Open AccessArticle Cobalamin and Folate Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050639
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Cobalamin and folate are crucial micronutrients during infancy and they are required for growth and cognitive development. Due to the monotonous and predominantly vegetarian-based complementary feeding and poor maternal micronutrient status, infants from low- and middle-income countries are susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However,
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Cobalamin and folate are crucial micronutrients during infancy and they are required for growth and cognitive development. Due to the monotonous and predominantly vegetarian-based complementary feeding and poor maternal micronutrient status, infants from low- and middle-income countries are susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, data on plasma cobalamin and folate and the functional markers methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine from breastfed infants in Nepal are still needed. We collected plasma samples from 316 6–11-month-old breastfed infants with a length-for-age of less than minus one z-score and analyzed blood for plasma folate, cobalamin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations. Cobalamin deficiency (plasma cobalamin <148 pmol/L) was found among 11%, whereas 24% of the infants had plasma cobalamin concentrations between 148–221 pmol/L. Elevated total homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) and methylmalonic acid (>0.28 µmol/L) indicating functional cobalamin deficiency were found among 53% and 75% of the infants, respectively. Based on a combined indicator of cobalamin status, 58% were found to have low cobalamin status. However, folate deficiency (<10 nmol/L) was not found as the lowest value of plasma folate was 20.7 nmol/L. It is important to examine the extent to which poor cobalamin status during infancy has immediate or long-term consequences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prognosis of Dermatitis Herpetiformis Patients with and without Villous Atrophy at Diagnosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050641
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. At diagnosis, the majority of patients have villous atrophy in the small bowel mucosa. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the presence or absence of villous atrophy at diagnosis affects
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Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. At diagnosis, the majority of patients have villous atrophy in the small bowel mucosa. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the presence or absence of villous atrophy at diagnosis affects the long-term prognosis of DH. Data were gathered from the patient records of 352 DH and 248 coeliac disease patients, and follow-up data via questionnaires from 181 DH and 128 coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Of the DH patients, 72% had villous atrophy when DH was diagnosed, and these patients were significantly younger at diagnosis compared to those with normal small bowel mucosa (37 vs. 54 years, p < 0.001). Clinical recovery on a GFD did not differ significantly between the DH groups, nor did current adherence to a GFD, the presence of long-term illnesses, coeliac disease-related complications or gastrointestinal symptoms, or quality of life. By contrast, the coeliac disease controls had more often osteopenia/osteoporosis, thyroid diseases, malignancies and current gastrointestinal symptoms compared to the DH patients. In conclusion, villous atrophy at the time of DH diagnosis does not have an impact on the clinical recovery or long-term general health of DH patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Lactobacillus plantarum Strain Ln4 Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Changes in Hepatic mRNA Levels Associated with Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050643
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt
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The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt and Kimchi, can significantly impact obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related biomarkers. In this study, we screened over 400 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were isolated from fermented foods to identify potent anti-obesogenic and diabetic probiotics in vitro. Of the strains tested, Lactobacillus plantarum Ln4 (Ln4), which was obtained from napa cabbage kimchi, significantly reduced lipid accumulation and stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration of Ln4 reduced weight gain and epididymal fat mass in mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). Total plasma triglyceride level was significantly lower in mice that were treated Ln4 as compared with mice fed HFD. The protein levels of adipokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-3 (IGFBP-3), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) decreased in white adipose tissues of Ln4-treated mice. Furthermore, these mice exhibited a significant reduction of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the improvement of glucose tolerance (OGTT) and insulin response (ITT) following Ln4 administration. This was associated with changes in several hepatic gene expressions (increased mRNA levels of IRS2, Akt2, AMPK, LPL, and reduced CD36) that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate that in vitro and in vivo Ln4 treatment attenuates diet-induced obesity and T2D biomarkers, highlighting the potential of Ln4 as a therapeutic probiotic agent for metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Bioactives and Insulin Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Impact of Malnutrition on Health Outcomes Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Adults Admitted to Hospital in Regional Australia—A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050644
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
The burden of malnutrition in Indigenous people is a major health priority and this study’s aims are to understand health outcomes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. This cohort study includes 608 medical inpatients in three regional hospitals. Participants were screened for malnutrition using
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The burden of malnutrition in Indigenous people is a major health priority and this study’s aims are to understand health outcomes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. This cohort study includes 608 medical inpatients in three regional hospitals. Participants were screened for malnutrition using the Subjective Global Assessment tool. Hospital length of stay, discharge destination, 30-day and six-month hospital readmission and survival were measured. Although no significant difference was observed between Indigenous participants who were malnourished or nourished (p = 0.120), malnourished Indigenous participants were more likely to be readmitted back into hospital within 30 days (Relative Risk (RR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19–1.97, p = 0.002) and six months (RR 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05–1.88, p = 0.018), and less likely to be alive at six months (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20–2.21, p = 0.015) than non-Indigenous participants. Malnutrition was associated with higher mortality (Hazards Ratio (HR) 3.32, 95% CI 1.87–5.89, p < 0.001) for all participants, and independent predictors for six-month mortality included being malnourished (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.16–3.79, p = 0.014), advanced age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, p = 0.001), increased acute disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05, p = 0.002) and higher chronic disease index (Charlson Comorbidity Index, HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16–3.79, p = 0.014). Malnutrition in regional Australia is associated with increased healthcare utilization and decreased survival. New approaches to malnutrition-risk screening, increased dietetic resourcing and nutrition programs to proactively identify and address malnutrition in this context are urgently required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Athletes’ Pre-Exercise Fluid Intake: A Theoretical Integration Approach
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050646
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Pre-exercise fluid intake is an important healthy behavior for maintaining athletes’ sports performances and health. However, athletes’ behavioral adherence to fluid intake and its underlying psychological mechanisms have not been investigated. This prospective study aimed to use a health psychology model that integrates
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Pre-exercise fluid intake is an important healthy behavior for maintaining athletes’ sports performances and health. However, athletes’ behavioral adherence to fluid intake and its underlying psychological mechanisms have not been investigated. This prospective study aimed to use a health psychology model that integrates the self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior for understanding pre-exercise fluid intake among athletes. Participants (n = 179) were athletes from college sport teams who completed surveys at two time points. Baseline (Time 1) assessment comprised psychological variables of the integrated model (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and fluid intake (i.e., behavior) was measured prospectively at one month (Time 2). Path analysis showed that the positive association between autonomous motivation and intention was mediated by subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Controlled motivation positively predicted the subjective norm. Intentions positively predicted pre-exercise fluid intake behavior. Overall, the pattern of results was generally consistent with the integrated model, and it was suggested that athletes’ pre-exercise fluid intake behaviors were associated with the motivational and social cognitive factors of the model. The research findings could be informative for coaches and sport scientists to promote athletes’ pre-exercise fluid intake behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Water Extract on RAW 264.7 Induced with Lipopolysaccharide
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050647
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism
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The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW). The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT), Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Fluo-4 calcium assay. ASW restored cell viability in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. ASW showed notable anti-inflammatory effects. ASW exhibited IC50 = 954.3, 387.3, 191.7, 317.8, 1267.0, 347.0, 110.1, 573.6, 1171.0, 732.6, 980.8, 125.0, and 257.0 µg/mL for interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP)-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-10, and intracellular calcium, respectively. Additionally, ASW inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CHOP (GADD153), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), first apoptosis signal receptor (FAS), and c-Fos, NOS2, and PTGS2 (COX2) in RAW 264.7 significantly (p < 0.05). Data suggest that ASW exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 via NO-bursting/calcium-mediated JAK-STAT pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation- An Ancient Battle. What are the Roles of Nutrients?)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Metabolic Syndrome in the General Korean Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050648
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Inflammation is thought to be partly responsible for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Recently, dietary inflammatory index (DII) was developed to calculate the overall inflammatory potential of a diet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between DII and MetS, as well
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Inflammation is thought to be partly responsible for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Recently, dietary inflammatory index (DII) was developed to calculate the overall inflammatory potential of a diet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between DII and MetS, as well as MetS components, using nationally representative survey data. The study sample consisted of 9291 Korean adults (aged 19–65 years, 3682 men and 5609 women) who participated in the sixth (2013–2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. DII values were calculated using 24-h dietary recall data. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the association between DII and MetS by sex. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the top DII quartile (Q4), was positively associated with MetS prevalence in men (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.06–1.85; p for linear trend = 0.008) and in postmenopausal women (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.15–2.44; p for linear trend = 0.008). The top DII quartile was also positively associated with the prevalence of hyperglycemia in men and the prevalence of central obesity in postmenopausal women. Further studies using prospective cohorts are needed to identify the causal relationship between DII and MetS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Circulating Phospholipid Patterns in NAFLD Patients Associated with a Combination of Metabolic Risk Factors
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050649
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its
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Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its related comorbidities and genetic modifications. Methods: 97 patients with diagnosed NAFLD were recruited at a single center during 2013–2016. Based on histological and transient elastography assessment, 69 patients were divided into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) subgroups. 28 patients served as healthy controls. Serum phospholipids were determined by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: The total content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin in the serum was significantly increased in NAFL and NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. In addition, serum lysophospatidylethanolamine levels were significantly decreased in NAFL and NASH individuals. Circulating PC species, containing linoleic and α-linolenic acids, were markedly increased in NAFLD patients with hypertension, compared to NAFLD patients without hypertension. The pattern of phospholipids did not differ between NAFLD patients with diabetes and those without diabetes. However, NAFLD patients with hyperglycemia (blood glucose level (BGL) >100 mg/dL) exhibited significantly a higher amount of monounsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine than those with low blood glucose levels. In addition, NAFLD patients with proven GG-genotype of PNPLA3, who were at higher risk for the development of progressive disease with fibrosis, showed lower levels of circulating plasmalogens, especially 16:0, compared to those with CC- and CG-allele. Conclusions: Our extended lipidomic study presents a unique metabolic profile of circulating phospholipids associated with the presence of metabolic risk factors or the genetic background of NAFLD patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Iron Bioavailability: Agreement between Estimation Methods and Association with Serum Ferritin Concentrations in Women of Childbearing Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050650
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Predictive iron bioavailability (FeBio) methods aimed at evaluating the association between diet and body iron have been proposed, but few studies explored their validity and practical usefulness in epidemiological studies. In this cross-sectional study involving 127 women (18–42 years) with presumably steady-state body
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Predictive iron bioavailability (FeBio) methods aimed at evaluating the association between diet and body iron have been proposed, but few studies explored their validity and practical usefulness in epidemiological studies. In this cross-sectional study involving 127 women (18–42 years) with presumably steady-state body iron balance, correlations were checked among various FeBio estimates (probabilistic approach and meal-based and diet-based algorithms) and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations. Iron deficiency was defined as SF < 15 µg/L. Pearson correlation, Friedman test, and linear regression were employed. Iron intake and prevalence of iron deficiency were 10.9 mg/day and 12.6%. Algorithm estimates were strongly correlated (0.69≤ r ≥0.85; p < 0.001), although diet-based models (8.5–8.9%) diverged from meal-based models (11.6–12.8%; p < 0.001). Still, all algorithms underestimated the probabilistic approach (17.2%). No significant association was found between SF and FeBio from Monsen (1978), Reddy (2000), and Armah (2013) algorithms. Nevertheless, there was a 30–37% difference in SF concentrations between women stratified at extreme tertiles of FeBio from Hallberg and Hulthén (2000) and Collings’ (2013) models. The results demonstrate discordance of FeBio from probabilistic approach and algorithm methods while suggesting two models with best performances to rank individuals according to their bioavailable iron intakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Milk-Related Symptoms and Immunoglobulin E Reactivity in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050651
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from
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Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from early life to adolescence, and Immunoglobulin E (IgE) milk reactivity, focusing on gender differences in a large, population-based birth cohort. Overall, 20.0% (537/2985) of children, with a comparable gender distribution, had early life milk-related symptoms. At 16y, approximately 2% (62/2985) children had persistent symptoms and high milk IgE levels (e.g., median at 4 years: 1.5 kUA/L) that were beginning in early life. In contrast, 94% had transient symptoms and low median IgE levels (early life: 0.63 kUA/L, 8y: 0.72 kUA/L; 16 years: 1.1 kUA/L). Also, at 16 years, approximately 6% of females and 3% of males without any previously reported symptoms reported adolescent-onset of symptoms (p < 0.001). Such symptoms were almost exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms and were not associated with detectable IgE. In conclusion, early life milk-related symptoms are common, although most cases are transient by 16 years. Twice as many females vs. males report adolescent-onset symptoms, and particularly gastrointestinal symptoms. Children with persistent symptoms have both a higher prevalence and higher milk IgE levels, as compared to other phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050653
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD),
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Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice (n = 9) for 6 or 13 days. An additional group of mice (n = 4) were fed a choline supplemented MVD. Weight, body composition, and liver changes were compared to control mice (n = 10) at the beginning and end of the study. The MVD resulted in reduced weight gain and hepatic steatosis. Choline supplementation prevented hepatic steatosis and was associated with increased hepatic concentrations of the methyl donor betaine. Our findings show that (1) feeding a MVD to weanling mice rapidly induces hepatic steatosis, which is a hallmark disturbance of kwashiorkor; and that (2) hepatic steatosis associated with feeding a MVD is prevented by choline supplementation. These findings support the concept that insufficient choline intake may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Aspects of Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Circulating Metabolites Associated with Alcohol Intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050654
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into
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Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Nutrition and Health Claims on Consumer Perceptions and Portion Size Selection: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050656
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a ‘halo’ effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The
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Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a ‘halo’ effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The current study aimed to overcome this limitation through the use of a nationally representative survey. In a cross-sectional survey of 1039 adults across the island of Ireland, respondents were presented with three different claims (nutrition claim = “Low in fat”; health claim = “With plant sterols. Proven to lower cholesterol”; satiety claim = “Fuller for longer”) on four different foods (cereal, soup, lasagne, and yoghurt). Participants answered questions on perceived healthiness, tastiness, and fillingness of the products with different claims and also selected a portion size they would consume. Claims influenced fillingness perceptions of some of the foods. However, there was little influence of claims on tastiness or healthiness perceptions or the portion size selected. Psychological factors such as consumers’ familiarity with foods carrying claims and belief in the claims were the most consistent predictors of perceptions and portion size selection. Future research should identify additional consumer factors that may moderate the relationships between claims, perceptions, and consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Portion Size in Relation to Diet and Health)
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Open AccessReview Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements in Adults: A Review on the Effects of Dietary Factors and Exercise
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050530
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Improving cerebrovascular function may be a key mechanism whereby a healthy lifestyle, of which a healthy diet combined with increased physical activity levels is a cornerstone, protects against cognitive impairments. In this respect, effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF)—a sensitive physiological marker of
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Improving cerebrovascular function may be a key mechanism whereby a healthy lifestyle, of which a healthy diet combined with increased physical activity levels is a cornerstone, protects against cognitive impairments. In this respect, effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF)—a sensitive physiological marker of cerebrovascular function—are of major interest. This review summarizes the impact of specific dietary determinants and physical exercise on CBF in adults and discusses the relation between these effects with potential changes in cognitive function. A limited number of randomized controlled trials have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of an acute intake of nitrate and polyphenols on CBF, but evidence for a relationship between these effects as well as improvements in cognitive functioning is limited. Moreover, long-term trans-resveratrol supplementation has been shown to increase CBF in populations at increased risk of accelerated cognitive decline. Long-term supplementation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may also increase CBF, but related effects on cognitive performance have not yet been found. Significant decreases in cerebral perfusion were observed by commonly consumed amounts of caffeine, while alcohol intake was shown to increase CBF in a dose-dependent way. However, the long-term effects are not clear. Finally, long-term exercise training may be a promising approach to improve CBF, as increases in perfusion may contribute to the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning observed following increased physical activity levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients for Cardiometabolic Health and Brain Function)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Vitamin D Requirements for the Future—Lessons Learned and Charting a Path Forward
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050533
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Estimates of dietary requirements for vitamin D or Dietary Reference Values (DRV) are crucial from a public health perspective in providing a framework for prevention of vitamin D deficiency and optimizing vitamin D status of individuals. While these important public health policy instruments
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Estimates of dietary requirements for vitamin D or Dietary Reference Values (DRV) are crucial from a public health perspective in providing a framework for prevention of vitamin D deficiency and optimizing vitamin D status of individuals. While these important public health policy instruments were developed with the evidence-base and data available at the time, there are some issues that need to be clarified or considered in future iterations of DRV for vitamin D. This is important as it will allow for more fine-tuned and truer estimates of the dietary requirements for vitamin D and thus provide for more population protection. The present review will overview some of the confusion that has arisen in relation to the application and/or interpretation of the definitions of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). It will also highlight some of the clarifications needed and, in particular, how utilization of a new approach in terms of using individual participant-level data (IPD), over and beyond aggregated data, from randomised controlled trials with vitamin D may have a key role in generating these more fine-tuned and truer estimates, which is of importance as we move towards the next iteration of vitamin D DRVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Pediatric and Adult Crohn’s Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050537
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Genetic and environmental factors are thought to profoundly influence the pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). Changes in dietary and hygiene patterns affect the interactions between the immune system and environment. The gut microbiome is responsible for mediating host immune response with significant dysbiosis
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Genetic and environmental factors are thought to profoundly influence the pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). Changes in dietary and hygiene patterns affect the interactions between the immune system and environment. The gut microbiome is responsible for mediating host immune response with significant dysbiosis observed in individuals with CD. Diet therapy using exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been studied as primary therapy for the management of CD. EEN may cultivate the presence of beneficial microbiota, improve bile acid metabolism, and decrease the number of dietary microparticles possibly influencing disease and immune activity. In this review, we will address the current evidence on EEN in the management of adult and pediatric CD. In adults, EEN appears to be moderately beneficial for the induction of remission of CD; however, its use is understudied and underutilized. Stronger evidence is in place to support the use of EEN in pediatric CD with the added benefit of nutrition support and steroid-sparing therapy during the growth phase. Overall, EEN is an established therapy in inducing CD remission in the pediatric population while its role as primary therapy of adult Crohn’s disease remains to be defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview A Low-Protein Diet for Diabetic Kidney Disease: Its Effect and Molecular Mechanism, an Approach from Animal Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050544
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
A low-protein diet (LPD) can be expected to retard renal function decline in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and is recommended in a clinical setting. Regarding the molecular mechanisms of an LPD against DKD, previous animal
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A low-protein diet (LPD) can be expected to retard renal function decline in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and is recommended in a clinical setting. Regarding the molecular mechanisms of an LPD against DKD, previous animal studies have shown that an LPD exerts reno-protection through mainly the improvement of glomerular hyperfiltration/hypertension due to the reduction of intraglomerular pressure. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that an LPD, particularly a very-LPD (VLPD), improved tubulo-interstitial damage, inflammation and fibrosis, through the restoration of autophagy via the reduction of a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in type 2 diabetes and obesity animal models. Thus, based on animal studies, a VLPD may show a more beneficial effect against advanced DKD. Previous clinical reports have also shown that a VLPD, not a moderate LPD, slows the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with chronic glomerular nephritis. However, there is insufficient clinical data regarding the beneficial effects of a VLPD against DKD. Additionally, the patients with CKD, including DKD, are a high-risk group for malnutrition, such as protein–energy wasting (PEW), sarcopenia, and frailty. Therefore, an LPD, including a VLPD, should be prescribed to patients when the benefits of an LPD outweigh the risks, upon consideration of adherence, age, and nutritional status. As the future predicts, the development of a VLPD replacement therapy without malnutrition may be expected for reno-protection against the advanced stages of DKD, through the regulation of mTORC1 activity and adequate autophagy induction. However, further studies to elucidate detailed mechanisms by which a VLPD exerts reno-protection are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessReview Egg and Soy-Derived Peptides and Hydrolysates: A Review of Their Physiological Actions against Diabetes and Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050549
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are two chronic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and their prevalences are increasing worldwide. The investigation of food protein-derived bioactive peptides that can improve the pathophysiology of diabetes or obesity while causing minimal side effects is desired.
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Type 2 diabetes and obesity are two chronic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and their prevalences are increasing worldwide. The investigation of food protein-derived bioactive peptides that can improve the pathophysiology of diabetes or obesity while causing minimal side effects is desired. Egg and soy proteins generate bioactive peptides with multiple biological effects, exerting nutritional and physiological benefits. This review focuses on the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of egg- and soy-derived peptides and hydrolysates in vivo and in vitro relevant to these conditions. Studies using the intact protein were considered only when comparing the results with the hydrolysate or peptides. In vivo evidence suggests that bioactive peptides from egg and soy can potentially be used to manage elements of glucose homeostasis in metabolic syndrome; however, the mechanisms of action on glucose and insulin metabolism, and the interaction between peptides and their molecular targets remain unclear. Optimizing the production of egg- and soy-derived peptides and standardizing the physiological models to study their effects on diabetes and obesity could help to clarify the effects of these bioactive peptides in metabolic syndrome-related conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
Open AccessReview Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA) in Muscle Damage and Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050552
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 29 April 2018
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Abstract
Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid
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Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3). It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview The Vitamin D–Folate Hypothesis as an Evolutionary Model for Skin Pigmentation: An Update and Integration of Current Ideas
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050554
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin D is unique in being generated in our skin following ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. Ongoing research into vitamin D must therefore always consider the influence of UVR on vitamin D processes. The close relationship between vitamin D and UVR forms the basis
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Vitamin D is unique in being generated in our skin following ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. Ongoing research into vitamin D must therefore always consider the influence of UVR on vitamin D processes. The close relationship between vitamin D and UVR forms the basis of the “vitamin D–folate hypothesis”, a popular theory for why human skin colour has evolved as an apparent adaption to UVR environments. Vitamin D and folate have disparate sensitivities to UVR; whilst vitamin D may be synthesised following UVR exposure, folate may be degraded. The vitamin D–folate hypothesis proposes that skin pigmentation has evolved as a balancing mechanism, maintaining levels of these vitamins. There are several alternative theories that counter the vitamin D–folate hypothesis. However, there is significant overlap between these theories and the now known actions of vitamin D and folate in the skin. The focus of this review is to present an update on the vitamin D–folate hypothesis by integrating these current theories and discussing new evidence that supports associations between vitamin D and folate genetics, UVR, and skin pigmentation. In light of recent human migrations and seasonality in disease, the need for ongoing research into potential UVR-responsive processes within the body is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Status and Nutritional Treatment Are Related to Outcomes and Mortality in Older Adults with Hip Fracture
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050555
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture.
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Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture. We searched the PubMed database for studies evaluating nutritional aspects in people aged 70 years and over with hip fracture. The total number of studies included in the review was 44, which analyzed 26,281 subjects (73.5% women, 83.6 ± 7.2 years old). Older people with hip fracture presented an inadequate nutrient intake for their requirements, which caused deterioration in their already compromised nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was approximately 18.7% using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (large or short form) as a diagnostic tool, but the prevalence was greater (45.7%) if different criteria were used (such as Body Mass Index (BMI), weight loss, or albumin concentration). Low scores in anthropometric indices were associated with a higher prevalence of complications during hospitalization and with a worse functional recovery. Despite improvements in the treatment of geriatric patients with hip fracture, mortality was still unacceptably high (30% within 1 year and up to 40% within 3 years). Malnutrition was associated with an increase in mortality. Nutritional intervention was cost effective and was associated with an improvement in nutritional status and a greater functional recovery. To conclude, in older people, the prevention of malnutrition and an early nutritional intervention can improve recovery following a hip fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessReview Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative