This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta
) estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta
) using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime) and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta
estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets). In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta
, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC), adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA) of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables), NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle), and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max
estimation and nine models for Ta-min
estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max
estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.