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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 1013; doi:10.3390/rs8121013

The Impact of Inter-Modulation Components on Interferometric GNSS-Reflectometry

1
Earth Observation Research Group, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC/IEEC), Barcelona 08193, Spain
2
European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk 2200 AG, The Netherlands
3
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
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Abstract

The interferometric Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (iGNSS-R) exploits the full spectrum of the transmitted GNSS signal to improve the ranging performance for sea surface height applications. The Inter-Modulation (IM) component of the GNSS signals is an additional component that keeps the power envelope of the composite signals constant. This extra component has been neglected in previous studies on iGNSS-R, in both modelling and instrumentation. This letter takes the GPS L1 signal as an example to analyse the impact of the IM component on iGNSS-R ocean altimetry, including signal-to-noise ratio, the altimetric sensitivity and the final altimetric precision. Analytical results show that previous estimates of the final altimetric precision were underestimated by a factor of 1 . 5 1 . 7 due to the negligence of the IM component, which should be taken into account in proper design of the future spaceborne iGNSS-R altimetry missions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R); ocean altimetry; auto-correlation function (ACF); passive reflectometry and interferometry system (PARIS) Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R); ocean altimetry; auto-correlation function (ACF); passive reflectometry and interferometry system (PARIS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Rius, A.; Fabra, F.; Martín-Neira, M.; Cardellach, E.; Ribó, S.; Yang, D. The Impact of Inter-Modulation Components on Interferometric GNSS-Reflectometry. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 1013.

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