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Remote Sens., Volume 7, Issue 1 (January 2015), Pages 1-1180

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Open AccessArticle Soil Drought Anomalies in MODIS GPP of a Mediterranean Broadleaved Evergreen Forest
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1154-1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101154
Received: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) yields global operational estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). In this study, we compared MOD17A2 GPP with tower eddy flux-based estimates of GPP from 2001 to 2010 over an evergreen broad-leaf Mediterranean forest in Southern France
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The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) yields global operational estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). In this study, we compared MOD17A2 GPP with tower eddy flux-based estimates of GPP from 2001 to 2010 over an evergreen broad-leaf Mediterranean forest in Southern France with a significant summer drought period. The MOD17A2 GPP shows seasonal variations that are inconsistent with the tower GPP, with close-to-accurate winter estimates and significant discrepancies for summer estimates which are the least accurate. The analysis indicated that the MOD17A2 GPP has high bias relative to tower GPP during severe summer drought which we hypothesized caused by soil water limitation. Our investigation showed that there was a significant correlation (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.0001) between the relative soil water content and the relative error of MOD17A2 GPP. Therefore, the relationship between the error and the measured relative soil water content could explain anomalies in MOD17A2 GPP. The results of this study indicate that careful consideration of the water conditions input to the MOD17A2 GPP algorithm on remote sensing is required in order to provide accurate predictions of GPP. Still, continued efforts are necessary to ascertain the most appropriate index, which characterizes soil water limitation in water-limited environments using remote sensing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8: Design Overview and Pre-Launch Characterization
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1135-1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101135
Received: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (49936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8 is the latest thermal sensor in that series of missions. Unlike the previous single-channel sensors, TIRS uses two channels to cover the 10–12.5 micron band. It is also a pushbroom imager; a departure from the
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The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8 is the latest thermal sensor in that series of missions. Unlike the previous single-channel sensors, TIRS uses two channels to cover the 10–12.5 micron band. It is also a pushbroom imager; a departure from the previous whiskbroom approach. Nevertheless, the instrument requirements are defined such that data continuity is maintained. This paper describes the design of the TIRS instrument, the results of pre-launch calibration measurements and shows an example of initial on-orbit science performance compared to Landsat 7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landsat-8 Sensor Characterization and Calibration)
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Open AccessArticle Oil Spill Detection in Glint-Contaminated Near-Infrared MODIS Imagery
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1112-1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101112
Received: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (6823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a methodology to detect oil spills using MODIS near-infrared sun glittered radiance imagery. The methodology was developed by using a set of seven MODIS images (training dataset) and validated using four other images (validation dataset). The method is based on the
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We present a methodology to detect oil spills using MODIS near-infrared sun glittered radiance imagery. The methodology was developed by using a set of seven MODIS images (training dataset) and validated using four other images (validation dataset). The method is based on the ratio image R = L'GN/LGN, where L'GN is the MODIS-retrieved normalized sun glint radiance image and LGN the same quantity, but obtained from the Cox and Munk isotropic (independent of wind direction) sun glint model. We show that in the R image, while clean water pixel values tend to one, oil spills stand out as anomalies. Moreover, we provide a criterion to distinguish between positive and negative oil-water contrast. A pixel in an R image is classified as a potential oil spill or water via a variable threshold Rs as a function of L'GN, where the threshold values are obtained from the slicks of our training dataset. Two different fitting curves are provided for Rs, according to the contrast sign. The selection of the correct fitting curve is based on the contrast type, resulting from the criterion above. Results indicate that the thresholding is able to isolate the spills and that the spills of the validation dataset are successfully detected. Spurious look-alike features, such as clouds, and other non-spill features, e.g., large areas at the glint region border, are also detected as oil spills and must be eliminated. We believe that our methodology represents a novel and promising, though preliminary, approach towards automatic oil spill detection in optical satellite images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Handheld Mobile Laser Scanners for Forest Surveys
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1095-1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101095
Received: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (45226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A handheld mobile laser scanning (HMLS) approach to forest inventory surveying allows virtual reconstructions of forest stands and extraction of key structural parameters from beneath the canopy, significantly reducing survey time when compared against static laser scan and fieldwork methods. A proof of
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A handheld mobile laser scanning (HMLS) approach to forest inventory surveying allows virtual reconstructions of forest stands and extraction of key structural parameters from beneath the canopy, significantly reducing survey time when compared against static laser scan and fieldwork methods. A proof of concept test application demonstrated the ability of this technique to successfully extract diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem position compared against a concurrent terrestrial laser scan (TLS) survey. When stems with DBH > 10 cm are examined, an HMLS to TLS modelling success rate of 91% was achieved with the root mean square error (RMSE) of the DBH and stem position being 1.5 cm and 2.1 cm respectively. The HMLS approach gave a survey coverage time per surveyor of 50 m2/min compared with 0.85 m2/min for the TLS instrument and 0.43 m2/min for the field study. This powerful tool has potential applications in forest surveying by providing much larger data sets at reduced operational costs to current survey methods. HMLS provides an efficient, cost effective, versatile forest surveying technique, which can be conducted as easily as walking through a plot, allowing much more detailed, spatially extensive survey data to be collected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle UAV Remote Sensing for Urban Vegetation Mapping Using Random Forest and Texture Analysis
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1074-1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101074
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 60 | PDF Full-text (86113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing has great potential for vegetation mapping in complex urban landscapes due to the ultra-high resolution imagery acquired at low altitudes. Because of payload capacity restrictions, off-the-shelf digital cameras are widely used on medium and small sized UAVs.
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Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing has great potential for vegetation mapping in complex urban landscapes due to the ultra-high resolution imagery acquired at low altitudes. Because of payload capacity restrictions, off-the-shelf digital cameras are widely used on medium and small sized UAVs. The limitation of low spectral resolution in digital cameras for vegetation mapping can be reduced by incorporating texture features and robust classifiers. Random Forest has been widely used in satellite remote sensing applications, but its usage in UAV image classification has not been well documented. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using Random Forest and texture analysis to accurately differentiate land covers of urban vegetated areas, and analyze how classification accuracy changes with texture window size. Six least correlated second-order texture measures were calculated at nine different window sizes and added to original Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images as ancillary data. A Random Forest classifier consisting of 200 decision trees was used for classification in the spectral-textural feature space. Results indicated the following: (1) Random Forest outperformed traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier and showed similar performance to object-based image analysis in urban vegetation classification; (2) the inclusion of texture features improved classification accuracy significantly; (3) classification accuracy followed an inverted U relationship with texture window size. The results demonstrate that UAV provides an efficient and ideal platform for urban vegetation mapping. The hybrid method proposed in this paper shows good performance in differentiating urban vegetation mapping. The drawbacks of off-the-shelf digital cameras can be reduced by adopting Random Forest and texture analysis at the same time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1048-1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101048
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 5 January 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (47145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by
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Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees) and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation) and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (≤5, 6–10, >10 years-old) based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR) and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle GRACE Gravity Satellite Observations of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes for Drought Characterization in the Arid Land of Northwestern China
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 1021-1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70101021
Received: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (12955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drought is a complex natural hazard which can have negative effects on agriculture, economy, and human life. In this paper, the primary goal is to explore the application of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity satellite data for the quantitative investigation
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Drought is a complex natural hazard which can have negative effects on agriculture, economy, and human life. In this paper, the primary goal is to explore the application of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity satellite data for the quantitative investigation of the recent drought dynamic over the arid land of northwestern China, a region with scarce hydrological and meteorological observation datasets. The spatiotemporal characteristics of terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) were first evaluated based on the GRACE satellite data, and then validated against hydrological model simulations and precipitation data. A drought index, the total storage deficit index (TSDI), was derived on the basis of GRACE-recovered TWSC. The spatiotemporal distributions of drought events from 2003 to 2012 in the study region were obtained using the GRACE-derived TSDI. Results derived from TSDI time series indicated that, apart from four short-term (three months) drought events, the study region experienced a severe long-term drought from May 2008 to December 2009. As shown in the spatial distribution of TSDI-derived drought conditions, this long-term drought mainly concentrated in the northwestern area of the entire region, where the terrestrial water storage was in heavy deficit. These drought characteristics, which were detected by TSDI, were consistent with local news reports and other researchers’ results. Furthermore, a comparison between TSDI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) implied that GRACE TSDI was a more reliable integrated drought indicator (monitoring agricultural and hydrological drought) in terms of considering total terrestrial water storages for large regions. The GRACE-derived TSDI can therefore be used to characterize and monitor large-scale droughts in the arid regions, being of special value for areas with scarce observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land Degradation in Drylands)
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Open AccessReview Mapping Surface Broadband Albedo from Satellite Observations: A Review of Literatures on Algorithms and Products
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 990-1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100990
Received: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface albedo is one of the key controlling geophysical parameters in the surface energy budget studies, and its temporal and spatial variation is closely related to the global climate change and regional weather system due to the albedo feedback mechanism. As an efficient
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Surface albedo is one of the key controlling geophysical parameters in the surface energy budget studies, and its temporal and spatial variation is closely related to the global climate change and regional weather system due to the albedo feedback mechanism. As an efficient tool for monitoring the surfaces of the Earth, remote sensing is widely used for deriving long-term surface broadband albedo with various geostationary and polar-orbit satellite platforms in recent decades. Moreover, the algorithms for estimating surface broadband albedo from satellite observations, including narrow-to-broadband conversions, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) angular modeling, direct-estimation algorithm and the algorithms for estimating albedo from geostationary satellite data, are developed and improved. In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature review on algorithms and products for mapping surface broadband albedo with satellite observations and provide a discussion of different algorithms and products in a historical perspective based on citation analysis of the published literature. This paper shows that the observation technologies and accuracy requirement of applications are important, and long-term, global fully-covered (including land, ocean, and sea-ice surfaces), gap-free, surface broadband albedo products with higher spatial and temporal resolution are required for climate change, surface energy budget, and hydrological studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band for Arctic Ship Tracking and Fisheries Management
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 971-989; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100971
Received: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (8253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maritime ships operating on-board illumination at night appear as point sources of light to highly sensitive low-light imagers on-board environmental satellites. Unlike city lights or lights from offshore gas platforms, whose locations remain stationary from one night to the next, lights from ships
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Maritime ships operating on-board illumination at night appear as point sources of light to highly sensitive low-light imagers on-board environmental satellites. Unlike city lights or lights from offshore gas platforms, whose locations remain stationary from one night to the next, lights from ships typically are ephemeral. Fishing boat lights are most prevalent near coastal cities and along the thermal gradients in the open ocean. Maritime commercial ships also operate lights that can be detected from space. Such observations have been made in a limited way via U.S. Department of Defense satellites since the late 1960s. However, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, which carries a new Day/Night Band (DNB) radiometer, offers a vastly improved ability for users to observe commercial shipping in remote areas such as the Arctic. Owing to S-NPP’s polar orbit and the DNB’s wide swath (~3040 km), the same location in Polar Regions can be observed for several successive passes via overlapping swaths—offering a limited ability to track ship motion. Here, we demonstrate the DNB’s improved ability to monitor ships from space. Imagery from the DNB is compared with the heritage low-light sensor, the Operational Linescan System (OLS) on board the Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) satellites, and is evaluated in the context of tracking individual ships in the Polar Regions under both moonlit and moonless conditions. In a statistical sense, we show how DNB observations of ship lights in the East China Sea can be correlated with seasonal fishing activity, while also revealing compelling structures related to regional fishery agreements established between various nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing with Nighttime Lights)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Daily Air Temperature Based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products over the Corn Belt in the US
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 951-970; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100951
Received: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 15 January 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (7192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Air temperature (Ta) is a key input in a wide range of agroclimatic applications. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts (Land Surface Temperature (LST)) products are widely used to estimate daily Ta. However, only daytime LST (Ts-day) or nighttime LST (Ts-night) data have
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Air temperature (Ta) is a key input in a wide range of agroclimatic applications. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts (Land Surface Temperature (LST)) products are widely used to estimate daily Ta. However, only daytime LST (Ts-day) or nighttime LST (Ts-night) data have been used to estimate Tmax/Tmin (daily maximum or minimum air temperature), respectively. The relationship between Tmax and Ts-night, and the one between Tmin and Ts-day has not been studied. In this study, both the ability of Ts-night data to estimate Tmax and the ability of Ts-day data to estimate Tmin were tested and studied in the Corn Belt during the growing season (May–September) from 2008 to 2012, using MODIS daily LST products from both Terra and Aqua. The results show that using Ts-night for estimating Tmax could result in a higher accuracy than using Ts-day for a similar estimate. Combining Ts-day and Ts-night, the estimation of Tmax was improved by 0.19–1.85, 0.37–1.12 and 0.26–0.93 °C for crops, deciduous forest and developed areas, respectively, when compared with using only Ts-day or Ts-night data. The main factors influencing the Ta estimation errors spatially and temporally were analyzed and discussed, such as satellite overpassing time, air masses, irrigation, etc. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Object-Based Crop Species Classification Based on the Combination of Airborne Hyperspectral Images and LiDAR Data
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 922-950; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100922
Received: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 15 January 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (58828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identification of crop species is an important issue in agricultural management. In recent years, many studies have explored this topic using multi-spectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. In this study, we perform dedicated research to propose a framework for mapping crop species by
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Identification of crop species is an important issue in agricultural management. In recent years, many studies have explored this topic using multi-spectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. In this study, we perform dedicated research to propose a framework for mapping crop species by combining hyperspectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in an object-based image analysis (OBIA) paradigm. The aims of this work were the following: (i) to understand the performances of different spectral dimension-reduced features from hyperspectral data and their combination with LiDAR derived height information in image segmentation; (ii) to understand what classification accuracies of crop species can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and LiDAR data in an OBIA paradigm, especially in regions that have fragmented agricultural landscape and complicated crop planting structure; and (iii) to understand the contributions of the crop height that is derived from LiDAR data, as well as the geometric and textural features of image objects, to the crop species’ separabilities. The study region was an irrigated agricultural area in the central Heihe river basin, which is characterized by many crop species, complicated crop planting structures, and fragmented landscape. The airborne hyperspectral data acquired by the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) with a 1 m spatial resolution and the Canopy Height Model (CHM) data derived from the LiDAR data acquired by the airborne Leica ALS70 LiDAR system were used for this study. The image segmentation accuracies of different feature combination schemes (very high-resolution imagery (VHR), VHR/CHM, and minimum noise fractional transformed data (MNF)/CHM) were evaluated and analyzed. The results showed that VHR/CHM outperformed the other two combination schemes with a segmentation accuracy of 84.8%. The object-based crop species classification results of different feature integrations indicated that incorporating the crop height information into the hyperspectral extracted features provided a substantial increase in the classification accuracy. The combination of MNF and CHM produced higher classification accuracy than the combination of VHR and CHM, and the solely MNF-based classification results. The textural and geometric features in the object-based classification could significantly improve the accuracy of the crop species classification. By using the proposed object-based classification framework, a crop species classification result with an overall accuracy of 90.33% and a kappa of 0.89 was achieved in our study area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Land Surface Temperature under Cloudy Skies Using Combined Diurnal Solar Radiation and Surface Temperature Evolution
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 905-921; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100905
Received: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 15 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in the interaction of the land-atmosphere system. However, clouds affect the retrieval of LST data from thermal-infrared remote sensing data. Thus, it is important to determine a method for estimating LSTs at times when the
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Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in the interaction of the land-atmosphere system. However, clouds affect the retrieval of LST data from thermal-infrared remote sensing data. Thus, it is important to determine a method for estimating LSTs at times when the sky is overcast. Based on a one-dimensional heat transfer equation and on the evolution of daily temperatures and net shortwave solar radiation (NSSR), a new method for estimating LSTs under cloudy skies (Tcloud) from diurnal NSSR and surface temperatures is proposed. Validation is performed against in situ measurements that were obtained at the ChangWu ecosystem experimental station in China. The results show that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the actual and estimated LSTs is as large as 1.23 K for cloudy data. A sensitivity analysis to the errors in the estimated LST under clear skies (Tclear) and in the estimated NSSR reveals that the RMSE of the obtained Tcloud is less than 1.5 K after adding a 0.5 K bias to the actual Tclear and 10 percent NSSR errors to the actual NSSR. Tcloud is estimated by the proposed method using Tclear and NSSR products of MSG-SEVIRI for southern Europe. The results indicate that the new algorithm is practical for retrieving the LST under cloudy sky conditions, although some uncertainty exists. Notably, the approach can only be used during the daytime due to the assumption of the variation in LST caused by variations in insolation. Further, if there are less than six Tclear observations on any given day, the method cannot be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Land Development Time Lags in China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Image
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 882-904; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100882
Received: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Chinese real estate industry has experienced rapid growth since China’s economic reform. Along with a booming industry, a third of purchased lands were left undeveloped in the last decade. Knowledge of real estate development time lags between land being purchased and property
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The Chinese real estate industry has experienced rapid growth since China’s economic reform. Along with a booming industry, a third of purchased lands were left undeveloped in the last decade. Knowledge of real estate development time lags between land being purchased and property being occupied can enable policymakers to produce more effective policies and regulations to guide the real estate industry and sustain economic development and social welfare. This paper presents an innovative method to estimate provincial land development time lags in China using DMSP/OLS NTL imagery and real estate statistical data. The results showed that real estate development time lag was common in China during 2000–2010. More than half of the study sites showed development time lags of three years or longer. An Increment of Developed Pixels (IDP) index was established to outline yearly land development completions in China between 2000 and 2010. A Comprehensive Real Estate Price Index (CREPI) was created to explore the causes of the time lags. A strong and positive correlation was found between the real estate development time lags and CREPI values (with r = 0.619, n = 31, p < 0.0005). The results indicated that the land development time lag during the study period was positively correlated to the activity of the local real estate market, the price trend of land and housing properties, and the local economic situation. The results also proved that with the support of statistical data the DMSP/OLS NTL image could offer an economically efficient and reliable solution to estimate the time lag of real estate development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing with Nighttime Lights)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Land Cover Dynamics in Beijing Derived from Landsat 8 Data Using a Spatio-Temporal Contextual Approach
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 865-881; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100865
Received: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (22247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seasonal dynamic land cover maps could provide useful information to ecosystem, water-resource and climate modelers. However, they are rarely mapped more frequent than annually. Here, we propose an approach to map dynamic land cover types with frequently available satellite data. Landsat 8 data
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Seasonal dynamic land cover maps could provide useful information to ecosystem, water-resource and climate modelers. However, they are rarely mapped more frequent than annually. Here, we propose an approach to map dynamic land cover types with frequently available satellite data. Landsat 8 data acquired from nine dates over Beijing within a one-year period were used to map seasonal land cover dynamics. A two-step procedure was performed for training sample collection to get better results. Sample sets were interpreted for each acquisition date of Landsat 8 image. We used the random forest classifier to realize the mapping. Nine sets of experiments were designed to incorporate different input features and use of spatial temporal information into the dynamic land cover classification. Land cover maps obtained with single-date data in the optical spectral region were used as benchmarks. Texture, NDVI and thermal infrared bands were added as new features for improvements. A Markov random field (MRF) model was applied to maintain the spatio-temporal consistency. Classifications with all features from all images were performed, and an MRF model was also applied to the results estimated with all features. The best overall accuracies achieved for each date ranged from 75.31% to 85.61%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of Radarsat-2 and Landsat TM Images for Spatial Parameterization of Manning’s Roughness Coefficient in Hydraulic Modeling
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 836-864; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100836
Received: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vegetation resistance influences water flow in floodplains. Characterization of vegetation for hydraulic modeling includes the description of the spatial variability of vegetation type, height and density. In this research, we explored the use of dual polarized Radarsat-2 wide swath mode backscatter coefficients (σ°)
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Vegetation resistance influences water flow in floodplains. Characterization of vegetation for hydraulic modeling includes the description of the spatial variability of vegetation type, height and density. In this research, we explored the use of dual polarized Radarsat-2 wide swath mode backscatter coefficients (σ°) and Landsat 5 TM to derive spatial hydraulic roughness. The spatial roughness parameterization included four steps: (i) land use classification from Landsat 5 TM; (ii) establishing a relationship between σ° statistics and vegetation parameters; (iii) relative surface roughness (Ks) determination from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter temporal variability; (iv) derivation of the spatial distribution of the spatial hydraulic roughness both from Manning’s roughness coefficient look up table (LUT) and relative surface roughness. Hydraulic simulations were performed using the FLO-2D hydrodynamic model to evaluate model performance under three different hydraulic modeling simulations results with different Manning’s coefficient parameterizations, which includes SWL1, SWL2 and SWL3. SWL1 is simulated water levels with optimum floodplain roughness (np) with channel roughness nc = 0.03 m−1/3/s; SWL2 is simulated water levels with calibrated values for both floodplain roughness np = 0.65 m−1/3/s and channel roughness nc = 0.021 m−1/3/s; and SWL3 is simulated water levels with calibrated channel roughness nc and spatial Manning’s coefficients as derived with aid of relative surface roughness. The model performance was evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) and coefficient of determination (R2), based on water levels measured at a gauging station in the wetland. The overall performance of scenario SWL1 was characterized with E = 0.75 and R2 = 0.95, which was improved in SWL2 to E = 0.95 and R2 = 0.99. When spatially distributed Manning values derived from SAR relative surface values were parameterized in the model, the model also performed well and yielding E = 0.97 and R2 = 0.98. Improved model performance using spatial roughness shows that spatial roughness parameterization can support flood modeling and provide better flood wave simulation over the inundated riparian areas equally as calibrated models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Developing in situ Non-Destructive Estimates of Crop Biomass to Address Issues of Scale in Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 808-835; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100808
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (53063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ground-based estimates of aboveground wet (fresh) biomass (AWB) are an important input for crop growth models. In this study, we developed empirical equations of AWB for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa, by combining several in situ non-spectral and spectral predictors. The non-spectral predictors
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Ground-based estimates of aboveground wet (fresh) biomass (AWB) are an important input for crop growth models. In this study, we developed empirical equations of AWB for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa, by combining several in situ non-spectral and spectral predictors. The non-spectral predictors included: crop height (H), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR), leaf area index (LAI), and fraction of vegetation cover (FVC). The spectral predictors included 196 hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) from 350 to 2500 nm. The models for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa included H and HNBs in the near infrared (NIR); H, FAPAR, and HNBs in the NIR; H and HNBs in the visible and NIR; and FVC and HNBs in the visible; respectively. In each case, the non-spectral predictors were the most important, while the HNBs explained additional and statistically significant predictors, but with lower variance. The final models selected for validation yielded an R2 of 0.84, 0.59, 0.91, and 0.86 for rice, maize, cotton, and alfalfa, which when compared to models using HNBs alone from a previous study using the same spectral data, explained an additional 12%, 29%, 14%, and 6% in AWB variance. These integrated models will be used in an up-coming study to extrapolate AWB over 60 × 60 m transects to evaluate spaceborne multispectral broad bands and hyperspectral narrowbands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Dense Tropical Submontane Rainforest Using Airborne Laser Scanner Data
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 788-807; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100788
Received: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
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Abstract
Successful implementation of projects under the REDD+ mechanism, securing payment for storing forest carbon as an ecosystem service, requires quantification of biomass. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a relevant technology to enhance estimates of biomass in tropical forests. We present the analysis and
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Successful implementation of projects under the REDD+ mechanism, securing payment for storing forest carbon as an ecosystem service, requires quantification of biomass. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a relevant technology to enhance estimates of biomass in tropical forests. We present the analysis and results of modeling aboveground biomass (AGB) in a Tanzanian rainforest utilizing data from a small-footprint ALS system and 153 field plots with an area of 0.06–0.12 ha located on a systematic grid. The study area is dominated by steep terrain, a heterogeneous forest structure and large variation in AGB densities with values ranging from 43 to 1147 Mg·ha−1, which goes beyond the range that has been reported in existing literature on biomass modeling with ALS data in the tropics. Root mean square errors from a 10-fold cross-validation of estimated values were about 33% of a mean value of 462 Mg·ha−1. Texture variables derived from a canopy surface model did not result in improved models. Analyses showed that (1) variables derived from echoes in the lower parts of the canopy and (2) canopy density variables explained more of the AGB density than variables representing the height of the canopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A GEOBIA Methodology for Fragmented Agricultural Landscapes
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 767-787; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100767
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
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Abstract
Very high resolution remotely sensed images are an important tool for monitoring fragmented agricultural landscapes, which allows farmers and policy makers to make better decisions regarding management practices. An object-based methodology is proposed for automatic generation of thematic maps of the available classes
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Very high resolution remotely sensed images are an important tool for monitoring fragmented agricultural landscapes, which allows farmers and policy makers to make better decisions regarding management practices. An object-based methodology is proposed for automatic generation of thematic maps of the available classes in the scene, which combines edge-based and superpixel processing for small agricultural parcels. The methodology employs superpixels instead of pixels as minimal processing units, and provides a link between them and meaningful objects (obtained by the edge-based method) in order to facilitate the analysis of parcels. Performance analysis on a scene dominated by agricultural small parcels indicates that the combination of both superpixel and edge-based methods achieves a classification accuracy slightly better than when those methods are performed separately and comparable to the accuracy of traditional object-based analysis, with automatic approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential of X-Band TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed SAR Data for the Assessment of Physical Soil Parameters
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 747-766; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100747
Received: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of X-band SAR measurements (COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) made over bare soils for the estimation of soil moisture and surface geometry parameters at a semi-arid site in Tunisia (North Africa). Radar signals acquired with
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The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of X-band SAR measurements (COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) made over bare soils for the estimation of soil moisture and surface geometry parameters at a semi-arid site in Tunisia (North Africa). Radar signals acquired with different configurations (HH and VV polarizations, incidence angles of 26° and 36°) are statistically compared with ground measurements (soil moisture and roughness parameters). The radar measurements are found to be highly sensitive to the various soil parameters of interest. A linear relationship is determined for the radar signals as a function of volumetric soil moisture, and a logarithmic correlation is observed between the radar signals and three surface roughness parameters: the root mean square height (Hrms), the parameter Zs = Hrms2/l (where l is the correlation length) and the parameter Zg = Hrms × (Hrms/l)α (where α is the power of the surface height correlation function). The highest dynamic sensitivity is observed for Zg at high incidence angles. Finally, the performance of different physical and semi-empirical backscattering models (IEM, Baghdadi-calibrated IEM and Dubois models) is compared with SAR measurements. The results provide an indication of the limits of validity of the IEM and Dubois models, for various radar configurations and roughness conditions. Considerable improvements in the IEM model performance are observed using the Baghdadi-calibrated version of this model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Angular Dependency of Hyperspectral Measurements over Wheat Characterized by a Novel UAV Based Goniometer
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 725-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100725
Received: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (1561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we present a hyperspectral flying goniometer system, based on a rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a spectrometer mounted on an active gimbal. We show that this approach may be used to collect multiangular hyperspectral data over vegetated environments.
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In this study we present a hyperspectral flying goniometer system, based on a rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a spectrometer mounted on an active gimbal. We show that this approach may be used to collect multiangular hyperspectral data over vegetated environments. The pointing and positioning accuracy are assessed using structure from motion and vary from σ = 1° to 8° in pointing and σ = 0.7 to 0.8 m in positioning. We use a wheat dataset to investigate the influence of angular effects on the NDVI, TCARI and REIP vegetation indices. Angular effects caused significant variations on the indices: NDVI = 0.83–0.95; TCARI = 0.04–0.116; REIP = 729–735 nm. Our analysis highlights the necessity to consider angular effects in optical sensors when observing vegetation. We compare the measurements of the UAV goniometer to the angular modules of the SCOPE radiative transfer model. Model and measurements are in high accordance (r2 = 0.88) in the infrared region at angles close to nadir; in contrast the comparison show discrepancies at low tilt angles (r2 = 0.25). This study demonstrates that the UAV goniometer is a promising approach for the fast and flexible assessment of angular effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Simple Fusion Method for Image Time Series Based on the Estimation of Image Temporal Validity
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 704-724; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100704
Received: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-spatial-resolution satellites usually have the constraint of a low temporal frequency, which leads to long periods without information in cloudy areas. Furthermore, low-spatial-resolution satellites have higher revisit cycles. Combining information from high- and low- spatial-resolution satellites is thought a key factor for studies
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High-spatial-resolution satellites usually have the constraint of a low temporal frequency, which leads to long periods without information in cloudy areas. Furthermore, low-spatial-resolution satellites have higher revisit cycles. Combining information from high- and low- spatial-resolution satellites is thought a key factor for studies that require dense time series of high-resolution images, e.g., crop monitoring. There are several fusion methods in the bibliography, but they are time-consuming and complicated to implement. Moreover, the local evaluation of the fused images is rarely analyzed. In this paper, we present a simple and fast fusion method based on a weighted average of two input images (H and L), which are weighted by their temporal validity to the image to be fused. The method was applied to two years (2009–2010) of Landsat and MODIS (MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer) images that were acquired over a cropped area in Brazil. The fusion method was evaluated at global and local scales. The results show that the fused images reproduced reliable crop temporal profiles and correctly delineated the boundaries between two neighboring fields. The greatest advantages of the proposed method are the execution time and ease of use, which allow us to obtain a fused image in less than five minutes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Groundwater Variations from Satellite Gravimetry and Hydrological Models: A Comparison with in-situ Measurements in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 686-703; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100686
Received: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
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Abstract
Aimed at mapping time variations in the Earth’s gravity field, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is applicable to access terrestrial water storage (TWS), which mainly includes groundwater, soil moisture (SM), and snow. In this study, SM and accumulated snow
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Aimed at mapping time variations in the Earth’s gravity field, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is applicable to access terrestrial water storage (TWS), which mainly includes groundwater, soil moisture (SM), and snow. In this study, SM and accumulated snow water equivalent (SWE) are simulated by the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land surface models (LSMs) and then used to isolate groundwater anomalies from GRACE-derived TWS in Pennsylvania and New York States of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The monitoring well water-level records from the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Climate Response Network from January 2005 to December 2011 are used for validation. The groundwater results from different combinations of GRACE products (from three institutions, CSR, GFZ and JPL) and GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH and VIC) are compared and evaluated with in-situ measurements. The intercomparison analysis shows that the solution obtained through removing averaged simulated SM and SWE of the three LSMs from the averaged GRACE-derived TWS of the three centers would be the most robust to reduce the noises, and increase the confidence consequently. Although discrepancy exists, the GRACE-GLDAS estimated groundwater variations generally agree with in-situ observations. For monthly scales, their correlation coefficient reaches 0.70 at 95% confidence level with the RMSE of the differences of 2.6 cm. Two-tailed Mann-Kendall trend test results show that there is no significant groundwater gain or loss in this region over the study period. The GRACE time-variable field solutions and GLDAS simulations provide precise and reliable data sets in illustrating the regional groundwater storage variations, and the application will be meaningful and invaluable when applied to the data-poor regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Dedicated to Geographical Conditions Monitoring)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Yu, Q., et al. Narrowband Bio-Indicator Monitoring of Temperate Forest Carbon Fluxes in Northeastern China. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 8986-9013
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 684-685; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100684
Received: 29 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 9 January 2015
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Abstract
Due to a technical error at the Editorial Office, Figure 8 of manuscript [1] is missing in the published paper. The correct version of the figure is reproduced below. We apologize for any inconvenience caused to authors or readers of Remote Sensing.[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Missing Passive Microwave Sensors on Multi-Satellite Precipitation Retrieval Algorithm
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 668-683; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100668
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 9 January 2015
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Abstract
The impact of one or two missing passive microwave (PMW) input sensors on the end product of multi-satellite precipitation products is an interesting but obscure issue for both algorithm developers and data users. On 28 January 2013, the Version-7 TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis
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The impact of one or two missing passive microwave (PMW) input sensors on the end product of multi-satellite precipitation products is an interesting but obscure issue for both algorithm developers and data users. On 28 January 2013, the Version-7 TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products were reproduced and re-released by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center because the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager-Sounder-F16 (SSMIS-F16) input data were unintentionally disregarded in the prior retrieval. Thus, this study investigates the sensitivity of TMPA algorithm results to missing PMW sensors by intercomparing the “early” and “late” Version-7 TMPA real-time (TMPA-RT) precipitation estimates (i.e., without and with AMSU-B, SSMIS-F16 sensors) with an independent high-density gauge network of 200 tipping-bucket rain gauges over the Chinese Jinghe river basin (45,421 km2). The retrieval counts and retrieval frequency of various PMW and Infrared (IR) sensors incorporated into the TMPA system were also analyzed to identify and diagnose the impacts of sensor availability on the TMPA-RT retrieval accuracy. Results show that the incorporation of AMSU-B and SSMIS-F16 has substantially reduced systematic errors. The improvement exhibits rather strong seasonal and topographic dependencies. Our analyses suggest that one or two single PMW sensors might play a key role in affecting the end product of current combined microwave-infrared precipitation estimates. This finding supports algorithm developers’ current endeavor in spatiotemporally incorporating as many PMW sensors as possible in the multi-satellite precipitation retrieval system called Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement mission (IMERG). This study also recommends users of satellite precipitation products to switch to the newest Version-7 TMPA datasets and the forthcoming IMERG products whenever they become available. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Behling, R., et al. Automated Spatiotemporal Landslide Mapping over Large Areas Using RapidEye Time Series Data. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 8026-8055
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 666-667; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100666
Received: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 8 January 2015
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Abstract
Due to a technical error at the Editorial Office, Figure 7 of manuscript [1] was missing in the published paper. The correct version is reproduced below. We apologize for any inconvenience caused to authors or readers of Remote Sensing.[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Practical Split-Window Algorithm for Estimating Land Surface Temperature from Landsat 8 Data
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 647-665; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100647
Received: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 8 January 2015
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Abstract
This paper developed a practical split-window (SW) algorithm to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) aboard Landsat 8. The coefficients of the SW algorithm were determined based on atmospheric water vapor sub-ranges, which were obtained through a modified split-window
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This paper developed a practical split-window (SW) algorithm to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) aboard Landsat 8. The coefficients of the SW algorithm were determined based on atmospheric water vapor sub-ranges, which were obtained through a modified split-window covariance–variance ratio method. The channel emissivities were acquired from newly released global land cover products at 30 m and from a fraction of the vegetation cover calculated from visible and near-infrared images aboard Landsat 8. Simulation results showed that the new algorithm can obtain LST with an accuracy of better than 1.0 K. The model consistency to the noise of the brightness temperature, emissivity and water vapor was conducted, which indicated the robustness of the new algorithm in LST retrieval. Furthermore, based on comparisons, the new algorithm performed better than the existing algorithms in retrieving LST from TIRS data. Finally, the SW algorithm was proven to be reliable through application in different regions. To further confirm the credibility of the SW algorithm, the LST will be validated in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Remote Sensing in 2014
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 627-646; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100627
Received: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 7 January 2015
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Abstract
The editors of the Remote Sensing office would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle The Ground-Based Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Landsat 8 OLI
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 600-626; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100600
Received: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (3157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the vicarious calibration results of Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using the reflectance-based approach at test sites in Nevada, California, Arizona, and South Dakota, USA. Additional data were obtained using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site, which is a suite
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This paper presents the vicarious calibration results of Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using the reflectance-based approach at test sites in Nevada, California, Arizona, and South Dakota, USA. Additional data were obtained using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site, which is a suite of instruments located at Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA. The results for the top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance show an average difference of −2.7, −0.8, 1.5, 2.0, 0.0, 3.6, 5.8, and 0.7% in OLI bands 1–8 as compared to an average of all of the ground-based measurements. The top-of-atmosphere spectral reflectance shows an average difference of 1.6, 1.3, 2.0, 1.9, 0.9, 2.1, 3.1, and 2.1% from the ground-based measurements. Except for OLI band 7, the spectral radiance results are generally within ±5% of the design specifications, and the reflectance results are generally within ±3% of the design specifications. The results from the data collected during the tandem Landsat 7 and 8 flight in March 2013 indicate that ETM+ and OLI agree to each other to within ±2% in similar bands in top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance, and to within ±4% in top-of-atmosphere spectral reflectance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landsat-8 Sensor Characterization and Calibration)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Positional Errors on Soft Classification Accuracy Assessment: A Simulation Analysis
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 579-599; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100579
Received: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
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Abstract
Validating or accessing the accuracy of soft classification maps has rapidly developed over the past few years. This assessment employs a soft error matrix as generalized from the traditional, hard classification error matrix. However, the impact of positional error on the soft classification
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Validating or accessing the accuracy of soft classification maps has rapidly developed over the past few years. This assessment employs a soft error matrix as generalized from the traditional, hard classification error matrix. However, the impact of positional error on the soft classification is uncertain and whether the well-accepted half-pixel registration accuracy is suitable for the soft classification accuracy assessment is unknown. In this paper, a simulation analysis was conducted to examine the influence of positional error on the overall accuracy (OA) and kappa in soft classification accuracy assessment under different landscape conditions (i.e., spatial characteristics and spatial resolutions). Results showed that with positional error ranging from 0 to 3 soft pixels, the OA-error varied from 0 to 44.6 percent while the kappa-error varied from 0 to 93.7 percent. Landscape conditions with smaller mean patch size (MPS) and greater fragmentation produced greater positional error impact on the accuracy measures at spatial resolutions of 1 and 2 unit distances. However, this trend did not hold for spatial resolutions of 5 and 10 unit distances. A half of a pixel was not sufficient to keep the overall accuracy error and kappa error under 10 percent. The results indicate that for soft classification accuracy assessment the requirement for registration accuracy is higher and depends greatly on the landscape characteristics. There is a great need to consider positional error for validating soft classification maps of different spatial resolutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A One Year Landsat 8 Conterminous United States Study of Cirrus and Non-Cirrus Clouds
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 564-578; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70100564
Received: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
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The first year of available Landsat 8 data over the conterminous United States (CONUS), composed of 11,296 acquisitions sensed over more than 11 thousand million 30 m pixel locations, was analyzed comparing the spatial and temporal incidence of 30 m cloud and cirrus
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The first year of available Landsat 8 data over the conterminous United States (CONUS), composed of 11,296 acquisitions sensed over more than 11 thousand million 30 m pixel locations, was analyzed comparing the spatial and temporal incidence of 30 m cloud and cirrus states available in the standard Landsat 8 Level 1 product suite. This comprehensive data analysis revealed that on average over a year of CONUS observations (i) 35.9% were detected with high confidence cloud, with spatio-temporal patterns similar to those observed by previous Landsat 5 and 7 cloud analyses; (ii) 28.2% were high confidence cirrus; (iii) 20.1% were both high confidence cloud and high confidence cirrus; and (iv) 6.9% were detected as high confidence cirrus but low confidence cloud. The results illustrate the potential of the 30 m cloud and cirrus states available in the standard Landsat 8 Level 1 product suite but imply that the historical CONUS Landsat archive has about 7% of undetected cirrus contaminated pixels. Systematic cloud detection commission errors over a minority of highly reflective exposed soil/sand surfaces were found and it is recommended that caution be taken when using the currently available Landsat 8 cloud data over similar surfaces. Full article
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