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Remote Sens., Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Land use change and reservoir construction alter sediment transport within rivers. These changes [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Parameterization of Spectral Particulate and Phytoplankton Absorption Coefficients in Sognefjord and Trondheimsfjord, Two Contrasting Norwegian Fjord Ecosystems
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060977
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
We present here parameterizations of particulate and phytoplankton absorption coefficients as functions of pigment concentrations (Tchla) in Sognefjord and Trondheimsfjord along the northwestern coast of Norway. The total particulate and non-algal optical densities were measured via quantitative filter technique (QFT) in a spectrophotometer
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We present here parameterizations of particulate and phytoplankton absorption coefficients as functions of pigment concentrations (Tchla) in Sognefjord and Trondheimsfjord along the northwestern coast of Norway. The total particulate and non-algal optical densities were measured via quantitative filter technique (QFT) in a spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. The spectral parameter coefficients A(λ) and E(λ) of the power law describing variations of particulate and phytoplankton absorption coefficients as a function of Tchla, were not only different from those provided for open ocean case 1 waters, but also exhibited differences in the two fjords under investigation. Considering the influence of glacial meltwater leading to increased inorganic sediment load in Sognefjord we investigate differences in two different parameterizations, developed by excluding and including inner Sognefjord stations. Tchla are modelled to test the parameterizations and validated against data from the same cruise and that from a repeated campaign. Being less influenced by non-algal particles parameterizations performed well in Trondheimsfjord and yielded high coefficients of determination (R2) of modelled vs. measured Tchla. In Sognefjord, the modelled vs. measured Tchla resulted in better R2 with parameter coefficients developed excluding the inner-fjord stations influenced by glacial meltwater influx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour)
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Open AccessArticle Physical Retrieval of Land Surface Emissivity Spectra from Hyper-Spectral Infrared Observations and Validation with In Situ Measurements
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060976
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
A fully physical retrieval scheme for land surface emissivity spectra is presented, which applies to high spectral resolution infrared observations from satellite sensors. The surface emissivity spectrum is represented with a suitably truncated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) transform and PCA scores are simultaneously
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A fully physical retrieval scheme for land surface emissivity spectra is presented, which applies to high spectral resolution infrared observations from satellite sensors. The surface emissivity spectrum is represented with a suitably truncated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) transform and PCA scores are simultaneously retrieved with surface temperature and atmospheric parameters. The retrieval methodology has been developed within the general framework of Optimal Estimation and, in this context, is the first physical scheme based on a PCA representation of the emissivity spectrum. The scheme has been applied to IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer) and the retrieved emissivities have been validated with in situ observations acquired during a field experiment carried out in 2017 at Gobabeb (Namib desert) validation station. It has been found that the retrieved emissivity spectra are independent of background information and in good agreement with in situ observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Analytic Network Process and Artificial Neural Network (ANP-ANN) Model for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060975
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Vulnerability assessment is one of the prerequisites for risk analysis in disaster management. Vulnerability to earthquakes, especially in urban areas, has increased over the years due to the presence of complex urban structures and rapid development. Urban vulnerability is a result of human
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Vulnerability assessment is one of the prerequisites for risk analysis in disaster management. Vulnerability to earthquakes, especially in urban areas, has increased over the years due to the presence of complex urban structures and rapid development. Urban vulnerability is a result of human behavior which describes the extent of susceptibility or resilience of social, economic, and physical assets to natural disasters. The main aim of this paper is to develop a new hybrid framework using Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for constructing a composite social, economic, environmental, and physical vulnerability index. This index was then applied to Tabriz City, which is a seismic-prone province in the northwestern part of Iran with recurring devastating earthquakes and consequent heavy casualties and damages. A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to identify and evaluate quantitative vulnerability indicators for generating an earthquake vulnerability map. The classified and standardized indicators were subsequently weighed and ranked using an ANP model to construct the training database. Then, standardized maps coupled with the training site maps were presented as input to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network for producing an Earthquake Vulnerability Map (EVM). Finally, an EVM was produced for Tabriz City and the level of vulnerability in various zones was obtained. South and southeast regions of Tabriz City indicate low to moderate vulnerability, while some zones of the northeastern tract are under critical vulnerability conditions. Furthermore, the impact of the vulnerability of Tabriz City on population during an earthquake was included in this analysis for risk estimation. A comparison of the result produced by EVM and the Population Vulnerability (PV) of Tabriz City corroborated the validity of the results obtained by ANP-ANN. The findings of this paper are useful for decision-makers and government authorities to obtain a better knowledge of a city’s vulnerability dimensions, and to adopt preparedness strategies in the future for Tabriz City. The developed hybrid framework of ANP and ANN Models can easily be replicated and applied to other urban regions around the world for sustainability and environmental management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combining a Two Source Energy Balance Model Driven by MODIS and MSG-SEVIRI Products with an Aggregation Approach to Estimate Turbulent Fluxes over Sparse and Heterogeneous Vegetation in Sahel Region (Niger)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060974
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Estimates of turbulent fluxes (i.e., sensible and latent heat fluxes H and LE) over heterogeneous surfaces is not an easy task. The heterogeneity caused by the contrast in vegetation, hydric and soil conditions can generate a large spatial variability in terms of surface–atmosphere
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Estimates of turbulent fluxes (i.e., sensible and latent heat fluxes H and LE) over heterogeneous surfaces is not an easy task. The heterogeneity caused by the contrast in vegetation, hydric and soil conditions can generate a large spatial variability in terms of surface–atmosphere interactions. This study considered the issue of using a thermal-based two-source energy model (TSEB) driven by MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) observations in conjunction with an aggregation scheme to derive area-averaged H and LE over a heterogeneous watershed in Niamey, Niger (Wankama catchment). Data collected in the context of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) program, including a scintillometry campaign, were used to test the proposed approach. The model predictions of area-averaged turbulent fluxes were compared to data acquired by a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) set up over a transect about 3.2 km-long and spanning three vegetation types (millet, fallow and degraded shrubs). First, H and LE fluxes were estimated at the MSG-SEVIRI grid scale by neglecting explicitly the subpixel heterogeneity. Moreover, the impact of upscaling the model’s inputs was investigated using in-situ input data and three aggregation schemes of increasing complexity based on MODIS products: a simple averaging of inputs at the MODIS resolution scale, another simple averaging scheme that considers scintillometer footprint extent, and the weighted average of inputs based on the footprint weighting function. The H and LE simulated using the footprint weighted method were more accurate than for the two other aggregation rules despite the heterogeneity of the landscape. The statistical values are: correlation coefficient (R) = 0.71, root mean square error (RMSE) = 63 W/m2 and mean bias error (MBE) = −23 W/m2 for H and an R = 0.82, RMSE = 88 W/m2 and MBE = 45 W/m2 for LE. This study opens perspectives for the monitoring of convective and evaporative fluxes over heterogeneous landscape based on medium resolution satellite products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land-Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Land Cover Segmentation of Airborne LiDAR Data Using Stochastic Atrous Network
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060973
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Inspired by the success of deep learning techniques in dense-label prediction and the increasing availability of high precision airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, we present a research process that compares a collection of well-proven semantic segmentation architectures based on the deep
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Inspired by the success of deep learning techniques in dense-label prediction and the increasing availability of high precision airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, we present a research process that compares a collection of well-proven semantic segmentation architectures based on the deep learning approach. Our investigation concludes with the proposition of some novel deep learning architectures for generating detailed land resource maps by employing a semantic segmentation approach. The contribution of our work is threefold. (1) First, we implement the multiclass version of the intersection-over-union (IoU) loss function that contributes to handling highly imbalanced datasets and preventing overfitting. (2) Thereafter, we propose a novel deep learning architecture integrating the deep atrous network architecture with the stochastic depth approach for speeding up the learning process, and impose a regularization effect. (3) Finally, we introduce an early fusion deep layer that combines image-based and LiDAR-derived features. In a benchmark study carried out using the Follo 2014 LiDAR data and the NIBIO AR5 land resources dataset, we compare our proposals to other deep learning architectures. A quantitative comparison shows that our best proposal provides more than 5% relative improvement in terms of mean intersection-over-union over the atrous network, providing a basis for a more frequent and improved use of LiDAR data for automatic land cover segmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Irrigation Performance in Large River Basins under Data Scarce Environment—A Case of Kabul River Basin, Afghanistan
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060972
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
The Kabul River basin (KRB) of Afghanistan, a lifeline of around 10 million people, has multiplicity of governance, management, and development-related challenges leading to inequity, inadequacy, and unreliability of irrigation water distribution. Prior to any uplifting intervention, there is a need to evaluate
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The Kabul River basin (KRB) of Afghanistan, a lifeline of around 10 million people, has multiplicity of governance, management, and development-related challenges leading to inequity, inadequacy, and unreliability of irrigation water distribution. Prior to any uplifting intervention, there is a need to evaluate the performance of irrigation system on a long term basis to identify the existing bottlenecks. Although there are several indicators available for the performance evaluation of the irrigation schemes, we used the coefficient of variation (CV) of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in space (basin, sub-basin, and provincial level), relative evapotranspiration (RET), and temporal CV of RET, to assess the equity, adequacy, and reliability of water distribution, respectively, from 2003 to 2013. The ETa was estimated through a surface energy balance system (SEBS) algorithm and the ETa estimates were validated using the advection aridity (AA) method with a R2 value of 0.81 and 0.77 at Nawabad and Sultanpur stations, respectively. The global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) products were used as main inputs to the SEBS. Results show that the mean seasonal sub-based RET values during summer (May–September) (0.37 ± 0.06) and winter (October–April) (0.40 ± 0.08) are below the target values (RET ≥ 0.75) during 2003–2013. The CV of the mean ETa, within sub-basins and provinces for the entire study period, has an equitable distribution of water from October–January (0.09 ± 0.04), whereas the highest inequity (0.24 ± 0.08) in water distribution is during early summer. The range of the CV of the mean ETa (0.04–0.06) on a monthly and seasonal basis shows the unreliability of water supplies in several provinces or sub-basins. The analysis of the temporal CV of mean RET highlights the unreliable water supplies across the entire basin. The maximum ETa during the study period was estimated for the Shamal sub-basin (552 ± 43 mm) while among the provinces, Kunar experienced the highest ETa (544 ± 39 mm). This study highlights the dire need for interventions to improve the irrigation performance in time and space. The proposed methodology can be used as a framework for monitoring and implementing water distribution plans in future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving Geometric Performance for Imagery Captured by Non-Cartographic Optical Satellite: A Case Study of GF-1 WFV Imagery
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060971
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Numerous countries have established their own Earth observing systems (EOSs) for global change research. Data acquisition efforts are generally only concerned with the completion of the mission regardless of the potential to expand into other areas, which reduces the application effectiveness of Earth
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Numerous countries have established their own Earth observing systems (EOSs) for global change research. Data acquisition efforts are generally only concerned with the completion of the mission regardless of the potential to expand into other areas, which reduces the application effectiveness of Earth observation data. This paper explores the cartographic possibility of images being not initially intended for surveying and mapping, and a novel method is proposed to improve the geometric performance. First, the rigorous sensor model (RSM) is recovered from the rational function model (RFM), and then the system errors of the non-cartographic satellite’s imagery are compensated by using the conventional geometric calibration method based on RSM; finally, a new and improved RFM is generated. The advantage of the method over traditional ones is that it divides the errors into static errors and non-static errors for each image during the improvement process. Experiments using images collected with the Gaofen-1 (GF-1) wide-field view (WFV) camera demonstrate that the orientation accuracy of the proposed method is within 1 pixel for both calibration and validation images, and the obvious high-order system errors are eliminated. Moreover, a block adjustment test shows that the vertical accuracy is improved from 21 m to 11 m with four ground control points (GCPs) after compensation, which can fulfill requirements for 1:100,000 stereo mapping in mountainous areas. Generally, the proposed method can effectively improve the geometric potential for images captured by non-cartographic satellite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from LiDAR Height Percentile Metrics and Comparison with MODIS Product in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Area in Eastern Amazonia
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060970
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to
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Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to estimate LAI in a forest with a very dense canopy. In this study, it is assumed that the traditional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived fractional vegetation cover (fCover) has weak relationship with leaf area index in a dense forest. We propose a partial least squares (PLS) regression model using the height percentile metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data to estimate the LAI of a dense forest. Ground inventory and airborne LiDAR data collected in a selectively logged tropical forest area in Eastern Amazonia are used to map LAI from the plot level to the landscape scale. The results indicate that the fCover, derived from the first return or the last return, has no significant correlations with the ground-based LAI. The PLS model evaluated by the leave-one-out validation shows that the estimated LAI is significantly correlated with the ground-based LAI with an R2 of 0.58 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.13. A data comparison indicates that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) LAI underestimates the landscape-level LAI by about 22%. The MODIS quality control data show that in the selected tile, the cloud state is not the primary factor affecting the MODIS LAI performance; rather, the LAI from the main radiative transfer (RT) algorithm contributes much to the underestimation of the LAI in the tropical forest. In addition, the results show that the LiDAR-based LAI has a better response to the logging activities than the MODIS-based LAI, and that the leaf area reduction caused by logging is about 13%. In contrast, the MODIS-based LAI exhibits no apparent spatial correlation with the LiDAR-based LAI. It is suggested that the main algorithm of MODIS should be improved with regard to tropical forests. The significance of this study is the proposal of a framework to produce ground-based LAI using forest inventory data and determine the plot-level LAI at the airborne and satellite scale using LiDAR data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Relation between Convective Rainfall Properties and Antecedent Soil Moisture Heterogeneity Conditions in North Africa
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060969
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Recent observational studies have demonstrated the relevance of soil moisture heterogeneity and the associated thermally-induced circulation on deep convection and rainfall triggering. However, whether this dynamical mechanism further influences rainfall properties—such as rain volume or timing—has yet to be confirmed by observational data.
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Recent observational studies have demonstrated the relevance of soil moisture heterogeneity and the associated thermally-induced circulation on deep convection and rainfall triggering. However, whether this dynamical mechanism further influences rainfall properties—such as rain volume or timing—has yet to be confirmed by observational data. Here, we analyze 10 years of satellite-based sub-daily soil moisture and precipitation records and explore the potential of strong spatial gradients in morning soil moisture to influence the properties of afternoon rainfall in the North African region, at the 100-km scale. We find that the convective rain systems that form over locally drier soils and anomalously strong soil moisture gradients have a tendency to initiate earlier in the afternoon; they also yield lower volumes of rain, weaker intensity and lower spatial variability. The strongest sensitivity to antecedent soil conditions is identified for the timing of the rain onset; it is found to be correlated with the magnitude of the soil moisture gradient. Further analysis shows that the early initiation of rainfall over dry soils and strong surface gradients yet requires the presence of a very moist boundary layer on that day. Our findings agree well with the expected effects of thermally-induced circulation on rainfall properties suggested by theoretical studies and point to the potential of locally drier and heterogeneous soils to influence convective rainfall development. The systematic nature of the identified effect of soil moisture state on the onset time of rainstorms in the region is of particular relevance and may help foster research on rainfall predictability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land-Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Massive Deformation Datasets for the Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Mauna Loa Volcano (Hawai’i)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060968
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we exploited large DInSAR and GPS datasets to create a 4D image of the magma transfer processes at Mauna Loa Volcano (Island of Hawai’i) from 2005 to 2015. The datasets consist of 23 continuous GPS time series and 307 SAR
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In this work, we exploited large DInSAR and GPS datasets to create a 4D image of the magma transfer processes at Mauna Loa Volcano (Island of Hawai’i) from 2005 to 2015. The datasets consist of 23 continuous GPS time series and 307 SAR images acquired from ascending and descending orbits by ENVISAT (ENV) and COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellites. Our results highlight how the joint use of SAR data acquired from different orbits (thus with different look angles and wavelengths), together with deformation data from GPS networks and geological information can significantly improve the constraints on the geometry and location of the sources responsible for the observed deformation. The analysis of these datasets has been performed by using an innovative method that allows building a complex source configuration. The results suggest that the deformation pattern observed from 2005 to 2015 has been controlled by three deformation sources: the ascent of magma along a conduit, the opening of a dike and the slip along the basal decollement. This confirms that the intrusion of the magma within a tabular system (rift dikes) may trigger the sliding of the SE portion of the volcanic edifice along the basal decollement. This case study confirms that it is now possible to exploit large geodetic datasets to improve our knowledge of volcano dynamics. The same approach could also be easily applied in other geodynamical contexts such as geothermal reservoirs and regions with complex tectonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Tectonic Deformation)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained by Raman Lidar and Comprehensive Analyses with Meteorological Parameters in Xi’an
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060967
Received: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
To evaluate the potential of Raman lidar observations for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV), PWV variations and distribution characteristics were investigated in Xi’an (34.233°N, 108.911°E), and its comparisons with meteorological parameters were also analysed. Comparisons of lidar PWV with radiosonde PWV verified the
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To evaluate the potential of Raman lidar observations for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV), PWV variations and distribution characteristics were investigated in Xi’an (34.233°N, 108.911°E), and its comparisons with meteorological parameters were also analysed. Comparisons of lidar PWV with radiosonde PWV verified the ability and accuracy of using Raman lidars for PWV measurements. The diurnal and monthly variation trends in PWV in different layers are first discussed via the statistical analysis of lidar data from November 2013 to July 2016; different proportions of PWV were found in different layers, and the PWV in each layer presented a slight diurnal change trend and consistent seasonal variation, which was relatively rich in summer, less so in spring and autumn, and relatively deficient in winter. Furthermore, correlation analyses between lidar PWV and meteorological parameters are explored. Water vapor pressure and surface temperature revealed the same inter-seasonal oscillation of PWV, with a correlation coefficient of ~0.90. However, incomplete synchronization was found between PWV and relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Higher humidity appeared in the late summer and the beginning of autumn of each year, which was also the case for precipitation and precipitation efficiency. In addition, atmospheric water vapor density profiles and the obtained PWV by Raman lidar are discussed employing a rainfall case, and a comprehensive analysis with meteorological parameters is undertaken. The intensifying characteristics of vertical change in water vapor and the accumulation of PWV in the lower troposphere can be captured by lidar before the onset of rainfall. In contrast to the obvious diurnal change trend, such meteorological parameters as relative humidity, water vapor pressure, and dew-point temperature difference are accompanied with stable trends with a change rate of close to 0 in the rainfall processes; they also show high correlated variations with lidar PWV. Thus, with the advantage of lidar detection, investigation of water vapor profiles and PWV by Raman lidar, and the comprehensive correlation analyses with synchronic meteorological parameters can prove to be good indications of rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Water Level Changes of Large-Scale Amazon Wetlands Using ALOS2 ScanSAR Differential Interferometry
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060966
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (DInSAR) has been successfully used to estimate water level changes (∂h/∂t) over wetlands and floodplains. Specifically, amongst ALOS PALSAR datasets, the fine-beam stripmap mode has been mostly implemented to estimate ∂h/∂t due to its availability of multitemporal
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Differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (DInSAR) has been successfully used to estimate water level changes (∂h/∂t) over wetlands and floodplains. Specifically, amongst ALOS PALSAR datasets, the fine-beam stripmap mode has been mostly implemented to estimate ∂h/∂t due to its availability of multitemporal images. However, the fine-beam observation mode provides limited swath coverage to study large floodplains and wetlands, such as the Amazon floodplains. Therefore, for the first time, this paper demonstrates that ALOS2 ScanSAR data can be used to estimate the large-scale ∂h/∂t in Amazon floodplains. The basic procedures and challenges of DInSAR processing with ALOS2 ScanSAR data are addressed and final ∂h/∂t maps are generated based on the Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa (SARAL) altimetry’s reference data. This study reveals that the local ∂h/∂t patterns of Amazon floodplains are spatially complex with highly interconnected floodplain channels, but the large-scale (with 350 km swath) ∂h/∂t patterns are simply characterized by river water flow directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Geodesy and Infrastructure Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle The Heterogeneity of Air Temperature in Urban Residential Neighborhoods and Its Relationship with the Surrounding Greenspace
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060965
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The thermal environment in residential areas is directly related to the living quality of residents. Therefore, it is important to understand thermal heterogeneity and ways to regulate temperature in residential neighborhoods. We investigated the spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of air temperatures in
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The thermal environment in residential areas is directly related to the living quality of residents. Therefore, it is important to understand thermal heterogeneity and ways to regulate temperature in residential neighborhoods. We investigated the spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of air temperatures in 20 residential neighborhoods within the 5th ring road of Beijing, China. We further explored how the variations in air temperature were related to the patterns of the surrounding greenspace at different scales. We found that: (1) large air temperature differences existed among residential neighborhoods, with hourly maximum differences in air temperature reaching 5.30 °C on hot summer days; (2) not only the percentage but also the spatial configuration (e.g., edge density) of greenspace affected the local air temperature; and (3) the effects of spatial greenspace patterns on air temperature were scale dependent and varied by season. For example, increasing the proportion of greenspace in surrounding areas within a 100-m radius and increasing the edge density within radii from 500 to 1000 m could lower air temperatures in summer but not affect air temperatures in winter. In addition, decreasing the edge density of greenspaces within a 100-m radius of the surrounding areas would lead to an increase in air temperature in winter but not affect the air temperature in summer. These results extend our understanding of thermal environments and their relationships with greenspace patterns at the microscale (i.e., residential neighborhoods). They also provide useful information for urban planners to optimize greenspace patterns under better thermal conditions at the neighborhood scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Urban Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of Single-Label and Multi-Label Remote Sensing Image Retrieval Using a Dense Labeling Dataset
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060964
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Benchmark datasets are essential for developing and evaluating remote sensing image retrieval (RSIR) approaches. However, most of the existing datasets are single-labeled, with each image in these datasets being annotated by a single label representing the most significant semantic content of the image.
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Benchmark datasets are essential for developing and evaluating remote sensing image retrieval (RSIR) approaches. However, most of the existing datasets are single-labeled, with each image in these datasets being annotated by a single label representing the most significant semantic content of the image. This is sufficient for simple problems, such as distinguishing between a building and a beach, but multiple labels and sometimes even dense (pixel) labels are required for more complex problems, such as RSIR and semantic segmentation.We therefore extended the existing multi-labeled dataset collected for multi-label RSIR and presented a dense labeling remote sensing dataset termed "DLRSD". DLRSD contained a total of 17 classes, and the pixels of each image were assigned with 17 pre-defined labels. We used DLRSD to evaluate the performance of RSIR methods ranging from traditional handcrafted feature-based methods to deep learning-based ones. More specifically, we evaluated the performances of RSIR methods from both single-label and multi-label perspectives. These results demonstrated the advantages of multiple labels over single labels for interpreting complex remote sensing images. DLRSD provided the literature a benchmark for RSIR and other pixel-based problems such as semantic segmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Seismic Capacity Evaluation Approach for Architectural Heritage Using Finite Element Analysis of Three-Dimensional Model: A Case Study of the Limestone Hall in the Ming Dynasty
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060963
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
A lot of architectural heritage in China are urgently in need to carry out seismic assessment for further conservation. In this paper, a seismic capacity evaluation approach for architectural heritage using finite element analysis with precision three-dimensional data was proposed. The Limestone Hall
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A lot of architectural heritage in China are urgently in need to carry out seismic assessment for further conservation. In this paper, a seismic capacity evaluation approach for architectural heritage using finite element analysis with precision three-dimensional data was proposed. The Limestone Hall of Shaanxi Province was taken as an example. First, low attitude unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry and a close-range photogrammetry camera were used to collect multiple view images to obtain the precision three-dimensional current model of the Limestone. Second, the dimensions of internal structures of Limestone Hall are obtained by means of structural analysis; re-establishing the ideal model of Limestone Hall based on the modeling software. Third, a finite element analysis was conducted to find out the natural frequency and seismic stress in various conditions with the 3D model using ANSYS software. Finally, the seismic capacity analysis results were comprehensively evaluated for the risk assessment and simulation. The results showed that for architectural heritage with a multilayer structure, utilizing photogrammetric surveying and mapping, 3D software modeling, finite element software simulation, and seismic evaluation for simulation was feasible where the precision of the modeling and parameters determine the accuracy of the simulation. The precise degree of the three-dimensional model, the accurate degree of parameter measurement and estimation, the setting of component attributes in the finite element model and the strategy of finite element analysis have an important effect on the result of seismic assessment. The main body structure of the Limestone Hall could resist an VII-degree earthquake at most, and the ridge of the second floor could not resist a V-degree earthquake due to unsupported conditions. The maximum deformation of the Limestone Hall during the earthquake occurred in the tabia layer below the second roof. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing for Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Winter Wheat Production Estimation Based on Environmental Stress Factors from Satellite Observations
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060962
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The rapid and accurate estimation of wheat production at a regional scale is crucial for national food security and sustainable agricultural development. This study developed a new gross primary productivity (GPP) estimation model (denoted as the [ACPM]), based on the effects of light,
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The rapid and accurate estimation of wheat production at a regional scale is crucial for national food security and sustainable agricultural development. This study developed a new gross primary productivity (GPP) estimation model (denoted as the [ACPM]), based on the effects of light, heat, soil moisture, and nitrogen content (N) on the light-use efficiency of winter wheat. The ACPM model used the quantic additivity of the environmental factors to improve the minimum form or multiple multiplication form in the previous model and thus characterized the joint effects of heat, soil moisture, and N on crop photosynthesis performance. The key parameters (i.e., light) were determined from the photosynthetically active radiation product of the Himawari-8 sensor and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation product of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The heat was determined from the land temperature products of MODIS. The soil moisture was obtained from the inversion using a visible and shortwave infrared drought index (VSDI), whereas the N stress of winter wheat was detected using the newly developed modified ratio vegetation index (MRVI), which could accurately obtain the spatiotemporal distribution of the leaf chlorophyll content of winter wheat. The ACPM and two other previous models (named the GPP1 and GPP2 models) were applied on the Himawari-8 and MODIS images in Hengshui City. The evaluation results, based on the ground measurement, indicated that the ACPM models exhibited the best estimate of dry aboveground biomass (DAM) and the wheat yield in Hengshui City, with errors of <10% and <12% for the DAM and yield, respectively. Considering the easy operation of the ACPM model and the accessibility of the corresponding satellite images, the Agriculture Crop Photosynthesis Model (ACPM) can be expected to provide information on the winter wheat shortfalls and surplus ahead of the availability of official statistical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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Open AccessArticle Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of EVI and Its Response to Climatic Factors in Recent 16 years Based on Grey Relational Analysis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060961
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) is a major source of rivers, catchment areas, and ecological barriers in the northeast of China, related to the nation’s ecological security and improvement of the ecological environment. Therefore, studying the response of vegetation to climate change
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The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) is a major source of rivers, catchment areas, and ecological barriers in the northeast of China, related to the nation’s ecological security and improvement of the ecological environment. Therefore, studying the response of vegetation to climate change has become an important part of current global change research. Since existing studies lack detailed descriptions of the response of vegetation to different climatic factors using the method of grey correlation analysis based on pixel, the temporal and spatial patterns and trends of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) are analyzed in the growing season in IMAR from 2000 to 2015 based on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) EVI data. Combined with the data of air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation in the study area, the grey relational analysis (GRA) method is used to study the time lag of EVI to climate change, and the study area is finally zoned into different parts according to the driving climatic factors for EVI on the basis of lag analysis. The driving zones quantitatively show the characteristics of temporal and spatial differences in response to different climatic factors for EVI. The results show that: (1) The value of EVI generally features in spatial distribution, increasing from the west to the east and the south to the north. The rate of change is 0.22/10°E from the west to the east, 0.28/10°N from the south to the north; (2) During 2000–2015, the EVI in IMAR showed a slightly upward trend with a growth rate of 0.021/10a. Among them, the areas with slight and significant improvement accounted for 21.1% and 7.5% of the total area respectively, ones with slight and significant degradation being 24.6% and 4.3%; (3) The time lag analysis of climatic factors for EVI indicates that vegetation growth in the study area lags behind air temperature by 1–2 months, relative humidity by 1–2 months, and precipitation by one month respectively; (4) During the growing season, the EVI of precipitation driving zone (21.8%) in IMAR is much larger than that in the air temperature driving zone (8%) and the relative humidity driving zone (11.6%). The growth of vegetation in IMAR generally has the closest relationship with precipitation. The growth of vegetation does not depend on the change of a single climatic factor. Instead, it is the result of the combined action of multiple climatic factors and human activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observations for Addressing Global Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Variability of Microwave Scattering in a Stochastic Ensemble of Measured Rain Drops
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060960
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
While it has been proved that multiple scattering in the microwave frequencies has to be accounted for in precipitation retrieval algorithms, the effects of the random arrangements of drops in space has seldom been investigated. The fact is, a single rain drop size
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While it has been proved that multiple scattering in the microwave frequencies has to be accounted for in precipitation retrieval algorithms, the effects of the random arrangements of drops in space has seldom been investigated. The fact is, a single rain drop size distribution (RDSD) corresponds with many actual 3D distributions of those rain drops and each of those may a priori absorb and scatter radiation in a different way. Each spatial configuration is equivalent to any other in terms of the RDSD function, but not in terms of radiometric characteristics, both near and far from field, because of changes in the relative phases among the particles. Here, using the T-matrix formalism, we investigate the radiometric variability of two ensembles of 50 different 3D, stochastically-derived configurations from two consecutive measured RDSDs with 30 and 31 drops, respectively. The results show that the random distribution of drops in space has a measurable but apparently small effect in the scattering calculations with the exception of the asymmetry factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Precipitation)
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Open AccessArticle The Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) Based on Bi-Parabolic NDVI-Ts Space and Gradient-Based Structural Similarity (GSSIM) for Long-Term Drought Assessment Across Shaanxi Province, China (2000–2016)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060959
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Traditional NDVI-Ts space is triangular or trapezoidal, but Liu et al. (2015) discovered that the NDVI-Ts space was bi-parabolic when the study area was covered with low biomass vegetation. Moreover, the numerical value of the indicator was considered in most of
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Traditional NDVI-Ts space is triangular or trapezoidal, but Liu et al. (2015) discovered that the NDVI-Ts space was bi-parabolic when the study area was covered with low biomass vegetation. Moreover, the numerical value of the indicator was considered in most of the study when the drought conditions in the space domain were evaluated. In addition, quantitatively assessing the spatial-temporal changes of the drought was not enough. In this study, first, we used MODIS NDVI and Ts data to reexamine if the NDVI-Ts space with “time” and a single pixel domain is bi-parabolic in the Shaanxi province of China, which is vegetated with low biomass to high biomass. This is compared with the triangular NDVI-Ts space and one of the well-known drought indexes called the temperature-vegetation index (TVX). The results demonstrated that dry and wet edges exhibited a parabolic shape again in scatter plots of Ts and NDVI in the Shaanxi province, which was linear in the triangular NDVI-Ts space. The Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDIc) was obtained from bi-parabolic NDVI-Ts andTVDIt was obtained from the triangular NDVI-Ts space and TVX were compared with 10-cm depth relative soil moisture. By estimating the 10-cm depth soil moisture, TVDIc was better than TVDIt, which were all apparently better than TVX. Second, combined with MODIS data, the drought conditions of the study area were assessed by TVDIc between 2000 to 2016. Spatially, the drought in the Shaanxi Province between 2000 to 2016 were mainly distributed in the northwest, North Shaanxi, and the North and East Guanzhong plain. The drought area of the Shaanxi province accounted for 31.95% in 2000 and 27.65% in 2016, respectively. Third, we quantitatively evaluated the variation of the drought status by using Gradient-based Structural Similarity (GSSIM) methods. The area of the drought conditions significantly changed and moderately changed at 5.34% and 40.22%, respectively, between 2000 and 2016. Finally, the possible reasons for drought change were discussed. The change of precipitation, temperature, irrigation, destruction or betterment of vegetation, and the enlargement of opening mining, etc., can lead to the variations of drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Surface Fluxes)
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Open AccessArticle Influences of Environmental Loading Corrections on the Nonlinear Variations and Velocity Uncertainties for the Reprocessed Global Positioning System Height Time Series of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060958
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Mass redistribution of the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial water storage generates crustal displacements which can be predicted by environmental loading models and observed by the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this paper, daily height time series of 235 GPS stations derived from a
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Mass redistribution of the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial water storage generates crustal displacements which can be predicted by environmental loading models and observed by the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this paper, daily height time series of 235 GPS stations derived from a homogeneously reprocessed Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and corresponding loading displacements predicted by the Deutsche GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) are compared to assess the effects of loading corrections on the nonlinear variations of GPS time series. Results show that the average root mean square (RMS) of vertical displacements due to atmospheric, nontidal oceanic, hydrological, and their combined effects are 3.2, 0.6, 2.7, and 4.0 mm, respectively. Vertical annual signals of loading and GPS are consistent in amplitude but different in phase systematically. The average correlation coefficient between loading and GPS height time series is 0.6. RMS of the GPS height time series are reduced by 20% on average. Moreover, an investigation of 208 CMONOC stations with observing time spans of ~4.6 years shows that environmental loading corrections lead to an overestimation of the GPS velocity uncertainty by about 1.4 times on average. Nevertheless, by using a common mode component filter through principal component analysis, the dilution of velocity precision due to environmental loading corrections can be compensated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Tectonic Deformation)
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Open AccessArticle Aerosol and Meteorological Parameters Associated with the Intense Dust Event of 15 April 2015 over Beijing, China
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060957
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The northeastern parts of China, including Beijing city, the capital of China, were hit by an intense dust storm on 15 April 2015. The present paper discusses aerosol and meteorological parameters associated with this dust storm event. The back trajectory clearly shows that
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The northeastern parts of China, including Beijing city, the capital of China, were hit by an intense dust storm on 15 April 2015. The present paper discusses aerosol and meteorological parameters associated with this dust storm event. The back trajectory clearly shows that the dust originated from Inner Mongolia, the border of China, and Mongolia regions. Pronounced changes in aerosol and meteorological parameters along the dust track were observed. High aerosol optical depth (AOD) with low Ångström exponent (AE) are characteristics of coarse-mode dominated dust particles in the wavelength range 440–870 nm during the dusty day. During dust storm, dominance of coarse aerosol concentrations is observed in the aerosol size distribution (ASD). The single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved from AERONET station shows increase with higher wavelength on the dusty day, and is found to be higher compared to the days prior to and after the dust event, supported with high values of the real part and decrease in the imaginary part of the refractive index (RI). With regard to meteorological parameters, during the dusty day, CO volume mixing ratio (COVMR) is observed to decrease, from the surface up to mid-altitude, compared with the non-dusty days due to strong winds. O3 volume mixing ratio (O3VMR) enhances at the increasing altitudes (at the low-pressure levels), and decreases near the surface at the pressure levels 500–925 hPa during the dust event, compared with the non-dusty periods. An increase in the H2O mass mixing ratio (H2OMMR) is observed during dusty periods at the higher altitudes equivalent to the pressure levels 500 and 700 hPa. The mid-altitude relative humidity (RH) is observed to decrease at the pressure levels 700 and 925 hPa during sand storm days. With the onset of the dust storm event, the RH reduces at the surface level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Variability of MODIS Phenological Indices in the Temperate Rainforest of Northern Patagonia
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060956
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Western Patagonia harbors unique and sparsely studied terrestrial ecosystems that are threatened by land use changes and exposure to basin-scale climatic variability. We assessed the performance of two satellite vegetation indices derived from MODIS–Terra, EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation
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Western Patagonia harbors unique and sparsely studied terrestrial ecosystems that are threatened by land use changes and exposure to basin-scale climatic variability. We assessed the performance of two satellite vegetation indices derived from MODIS–Terra, EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), over the northern and southern sectors of the Chiloé Island System (CIS) to advance our understanding of vegetation dynamics in the region. Then we examined their time-varying relationships with two climatic indices indicative of tropical and extratropical influence, the ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation) and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) index, respectively. The 17-year time series showed that only EVI captured the seasonal pattern characteristic of temperate regions, with low (high) phenological activity during Autumn-Winter (Spring–Summer). NDVI saturated during the season of high productivity and failed to capture the seasonal cycle. Temporal patterns in productivity showed a weakened seasonal cycle during the past decade, particularly over the northern sector. We observed a non-stationary association between EVI and both climatic indices. Significant co-variation between EVI and the Niño–Southern Oscillation index in the annual band persisted from 2001 until 2008–2009; annual coherence with AAO prevailed from 2013 onwards and the 2009–2012 period was characterized by coherence between EVI and both climate indices over longer temporal scales. Our results suggest that the influence of large-scale climatic variability on local weather patterns drives phenological responses in the northern and southern regions of the CIS. The imprint of climatic variability on patterns of primary production across the CIS may be underpinned by spatial differences in the anthropogenic modification of this ecosystem, as the northern sector is strongly modified by forestry and agriculture. We highlight the need for field validation of satellite indices around areas of high biomass and high endemism, located in the southern sector of the island, in order to enhance the utility of satellite vegetation indices in the conservation and management of austral ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multitemporal Remote Sensing for Forestry)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach for the Short-Term Forecast of the Effective Cloud Albedo
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060955
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The increasing use of renewable energies as a source of electricity has led to a fundamental transition of the power supply system. The integration of fluctuating weather-dependent energy sources into the grid already has a major impact on its load flows. As a
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The increasing use of renewable energies as a source of electricity has led to a fundamental transition of the power supply system. The integration of fluctuating weather-dependent energy sources into the grid already has a major impact on its load flows. As a result, the interest in forecasting wind and solar radiation with a sufficient accuracy over short time periods (<4 h) has grown. In this study, the short-term forecast of the effective cloud albedo based on optical flow estimation methods is investigated. The optical flow method utilized here is TV-L1 from the open source library OpenCV. This method uses a multi-scale approach to capture cloud motions on various spatial scales. After the clouds are displaced, the solar surface radiation will be calculated with SPECMAGIC NOW, which computes the global irradiation spectrally resolved from satellite imagery. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution of satellite measurements, the effective cloud albedo and thus solar radiation can be forecasted from 5 min up to 4 h with a resolution of 0.05°. The validation results of this method are very promising, and the RMSE of the 30-min, 60-min, 90-min and 120-min forecast equals 10.47%, 14.28%, 16.87% and 18.83%, respectively. The paper gives a brief description of the method for the short-term forecast of the effective cloud albedo. Subsequently, evaluation results will be presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Sensitivity of High Arctic Permafrost Terrain Demonstrated by Widespread Ice-Wedge Thermokarst on Banks Island
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060954
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Ice-wedge networks underlie polygonal terrain and comprise the most widespread form of massive ground ice in continuous permafrost. Here, we show that climate-driven thaw of hilltop ice-wedge networks is rapidly transforming uplands across Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Change detection using
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Ice-wedge networks underlie polygonal terrain and comprise the most widespread form of massive ground ice in continuous permafrost. Here, we show that climate-driven thaw of hilltop ice-wedge networks is rapidly transforming uplands across Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Change detection using high-resolution WorldView images and historical air photos, coupled with 32-year Landsat reflectance trends, indicate broad-scale increases in ponding from ice-wedge thaw on hilltops, which has significantly affected at least 1500 km2 of Banks Island and over 3.5% of the total upland area. Trajectories of change associated with this upland ice-wedge thermokarst include increased micro-relief, development of high-centred polygons, and, in areas of poor drainage, ponding and potential initiation of thaw lakes. Millennia of cooling climate have favoured ice-wedge growth, and an absence of ecosystem disturbance combined with surface denudation by solifluction has produced high Arctic uplands and slopes underlain by ice-wedge networks truncated at the permafrost table. The thin veneer of thermally-conductive mineral soils strongly links Arctic upland active-layer responses to summer warming. For these reasons, widespread and intense ice-wedge thermokarst on Arctic hilltops and slopes contrast more muted responses to warming reported in low and subarctic environments. Increasing field evidence of thermokarst highlights the inherent climate sensitivity of the Arctic permafrost terrain and the need for integrated approaches to monitor change and investigate the cascade of environmental consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Dynamic Permafrost Regions)
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Open AccessArticle Side-Scan Sonar Image Mosaic Using Couple Feature Points with Constraint of Track Line Positions
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060953
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
To obtain large-scale seabed surface image, this paper proposes a side-scan sonar (SSS) image mosaic method using couple feature points (CFPs) with constraint of track line positions. The SSS geocoded images are firstly used to form a coarsely mosaicked one and the overlapping
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To obtain large-scale seabed surface image, this paper proposes a side-scan sonar (SSS) image mosaic method using couple feature points (CFPs) with constraint of track line positions. The SSS geocoded images are firstly used to form a coarsely mosaicked one and the overlapping areas between adjacent strip images can be determined based on geographic information. Inside the overlapping areas, the feature point (FP) detection and registration operation are adopted for both strips. According to the detected CFPs and track line positions, an adjustment model is established to accommodate complex local distortions as well as ensure the global stability. This proposed method effectively solves the problem of target ghosting or dislocation and no accumulated errors arise in the mosaicking process. Experimental results show that the finally mosaicked image correctly reflects the object distribution, which is meaningful for understanding and interpreting seabed topography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Undersea Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Using Google Earth Engine to Map Complex Shade-Grown Coffee Landscapes in Northern Nicaragua
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060952
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Shade-grown coffee (shade coffee) is an important component of the forested tropics, and is essential to the conservation of forest-dependent biodiversity. Despite its importance, shade coffee is challenging to map using remotely sensed data given its spectral similarity to forested land. This paper
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Shade-grown coffee (shade coffee) is an important component of the forested tropics, and is essential to the conservation of forest-dependent biodiversity. Despite its importance, shade coffee is challenging to map using remotely sensed data given its spectral similarity to forested land. This paper addresses this challenge in three districts of northern Nicaragua, here leveraging cloud-based computing techniques within Google Earth Engine (GEE) to integrate multi-seasonal Landsat 8 satellite imagery (30 m), and physiographic variables (temperature, topography, and precipitation). Applying a random forest machine learning algorithm using reference data from two field surveys produced a 90.5% accuracy across ten classes of land cover, with an 82.1% and 80.0% user’s and producer’s accuracy respectively for shade-grown coffee. Comparing classification accuracies obtained from five datasets exploring different combinations of non-seasonal and seasonal spectral data as well as physiographic data also revealed a trend of increasing accuracy when seasonal data were included in the model and a significant improvement (7.8–20.1%) when topographical data were integrated with spectral data. These results are significant in piloting an open-access and user-friendly approach to mapping heterogeneous shade coffee landscapes with high overall accuracy, even in locations with persistent cloud cover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Tropical Forest Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation and Analysis of All-Day Atmospheric Water Vapor Content over Xi’an Using Raman Lidar and Sunphotometer Measurements
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060951
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
All-day atmospheric water vapor content measurements determined by Raman lidar and a sunphotometer were combined to investigate the all-day variation characteristics in the water vapor distribution in Xi’an, China (34.233°N, 108.911°E). To enhance the daytime lidar performance, the wavelet threshold de-noising method is
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All-day atmospheric water vapor content measurements determined by Raman lidar and a sunphotometer were combined to investigate the all-day variation characteristics in the water vapor distribution in Xi’an, China (34.233°N, 108.911°E). To enhance the daytime lidar performance, the wavelet threshold de-noising method is used to filter out the strong solar background light, and effective denoised results are demonstrated with the following optimization: wavelet sym6, the improved threshold function, and the improved threshold selection. The denoised system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the water vapor daytime measurement is validated, with an enhancement of ~3.4 times up to a height of 3 km compared to that of the original signal. The time series of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio profiles and the obtained precipitable water vapor (PWV) measured by Raman lidar are used to reveal the temporal and spatial variations in water vapor, and the comparisons with the total column water vapor content (TCWV) measured by a sunphotometer validate the daytime variation trend of the water vapor. All-day continuous observations clearly present a consistent variation trend in the water vapor between the sunphotometer and Raman lidar measurements. The correlation analysis between TCWV and PWV at the layers below 850 hPa and below 700 hPa yields a good positive correlation coefficient (>0.75), indicating that PWV determination in the bottom layer by Raman lidar can directly reflect the variations in the total water vapor content. Moreover, different diurnal variation trends in water vapor are also observed, that is, a downward trend from the afternoon to the night, or a tendency of being high in the morning and afternoon and low at noon, demonstrating the high temporal-spatial variation characteristics of water vapor and close correlation with weather changes. The results reflected and validated that the diurnal variation in water vapor is complicated and can be an indicator of the weather to a certain extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Estimation of Wheat Phenotyping Traits Using Ground and Aerial Imagery
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060950
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
This study evaluates an aerial and ground imaging platform for assessment of canopy development in a wheat field. The dependence of two canopy traits, height and vigour, on fertilizer treatment was observed in a field trial comprised of ten varieties of spring wheat.
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This study evaluates an aerial and ground imaging platform for assessment of canopy development in a wheat field. The dependence of two canopy traits, height and vigour, on fertilizer treatment was observed in a field trial comprised of ten varieties of spring wheat. A custom-built mobile ground platform (MGP) and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were deployed at the experimental site for standard red, green and blue (RGB) image collection on five occasions. Meanwhile, reference field measurements of canopy height and vigour were manually recorded during the growing season. Canopy level estimates of height and vigour for each variety and treatment were computed by image analysis. The agreement between estimates from each platform and reference measurements was statistically analysed. Estimates of canopy height derived from MGP imagery were more accurate (RMSE = 3.95 cm, R2 = 0.94) than estimates derived from UAV imagery (RMSE = 6.64 cm, R2 = 0.85). In contrast, vigour was better estimated using the UAV imagery (RMSE = 0.057, R2 = 0.57), compared to MGP imagery (RMSE = 0.063, R2 = 0.42), albeit with a significant fixed and proportional bias. The ability of the platforms to capture differential development of traits as a function of fertilizer treatment was also investigated. Both imaging methodologies observed a higher median canopy height of treated plots compared with untreated plots throughout the season, and a greater median vigour of treated plots compared with untreated plots exhibited in the early growth stages. While the UAV imaging provides a high-throughput method for canopy-level trait determination, the MGP imaging captures subtle canopy structures, potentially useful for fine-grained analyses of plants. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Assessing Single-Polarization and Dual-Polarization TerraSAR-X Data for Surface Water Monitoring
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060949
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Three synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data classification methodologies were used to assess the ability of single-polarization and dual-polarization TerraSAR-X (TSX) data to classify surface water, including open water, ice, and flooded vegetation. Multi-polarization SAR observations contain more information than single-polarization SAR, but the
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Three synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data classification methodologies were used to assess the ability of single-polarization and dual-polarization TerraSAR-X (TSX) data to classify surface water, including open water, ice, and flooded vegetation. Multi-polarization SAR observations contain more information than single-polarization SAR, but the availability of multi-polarization data is much lower, which limits the temporal monitoring capabilities. The study area is a principally natural landscape centered on a seasonally flooding river, in which four TSX dual-co-polarized images were acquired between the months of April and June 2016. Previous studies have shown that single-polarization SAR is useful for analyzing surface water extent and change using grey-level thresholding. The H-Alpha–Wishart decomposition, adapted to dual-polarization data, and the Kennaugh Element Framework were used to classify areas of water and flooded vegetation. Although grey-level thresholding was able to identify areas of water and non-water, the percentage of seasonal change was limited, indicating an increase in water area from 8% to 10%, which is in disagreement with seasonal trends. The dual-polarization methods show a decrease in water over the season and indicate a decrease in flooded vegetation, which agrees with expected seasonal variations. When comparing the two dual-polarization methods, a clear benefit of the Kennaugh Elements Framework is the ability to classify change in the transition zones of ice to open water, open water to marsh, and flooded vegetation to land, using the differential Kennaugh technique. The H-Alpha–Wishart classifier was not able to classify ice, and misclassified fields and ice as water. Although single-polarization SAR was effective in classifying open water, the findings of this study confirm the advantages of dual-polarization observations, with the Kennaugh Element Framework being the best performing classification framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ten Years of TerraSAR-X—Scientific Results)
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Open AccessArticle A Ship Detector Applying Principal Component Analysis to the Polarimetric Notch Filter
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060948
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Ship detection using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Polarimetry can provide information regarding the scattering mechanisms of targets, which helps discriminate between ships and sea clutter. This enhancement is particularly valuable when we
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Ship detection using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Polarimetry can provide information regarding the scattering mechanisms of targets, which helps discriminate between ships and sea clutter. This enhancement is particularly valuable when we aim at detecting smaller vessels in rough sea states. This work exploits a ship detector called the Geometrical Perturbation-Polarimetric Notch Filter (GP-PNF), and it is aimed at improving its performance especially when less polarimetric images are available (e.g., dual-polarimetric data). The idea is to design a new polarimetric feature vector containing more features that are renowned to allow separation between ships and sea clutter. Then, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is further used to reduce the dimensionality of the new feature space. Experiments on four real Sentinel-1 datasets are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and compare it against other ship detectors. Analyses of the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only reduce the false alarms significantly, but also enhance the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR) so that it can more effectively detect weaker ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Target Detection in Marine Environment)
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