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Future Internet, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This figure describes a collaborative intrusion detection network (CIDN) environment, which allows [...] Read more.
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Future Internet in 2017
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010007
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Future Internet maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Recent Advances on Cellular D2D Communications
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010010
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communications have attracted a great deal of attention fromresearchers in recent years.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle A New Lightweight Watchdog-Based Algorithm for Detecting Sybil Nodes in Mobile WSNs
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010001
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Wide-spread deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) necessitates special attention to security issues, amongst which Sybil attacks are the most important ones. As a core to Sybil attacks, malicious nodes try to disrupt network operations by creating several fabricated IDs. Due to energy
[...] Read more.
Wide-spread deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) necessitates special attention to security issues, amongst which Sybil attacks are the most important ones. As a core to Sybil attacks, malicious nodes try to disrupt network operations by creating several fabricated IDs. Due to energy consumption concerns in WSNs, devising detection algorithms which release the sensor nodes from high computational and communicational loads are of great importance. In this paper, a new computationally lightweight watchdog-based algorithm is proposed for detecting Sybil IDs in mobile WSNs. The proposed algorithm employs watchdog nodes for collecting detection information and a designated watchdog node for detection information processing and the final Sybil list generation. Benefiting from a newly devised co-presence state diagram and adequate detection rules, the new algorithm features low extra communication overhead, as well as a satisfactory compromise between two otherwise contradictory detection measures of performance, True Detection Rate (TDR) and False Detection Rate (FDR). Extensive simulation results illustrate the merits of the new algorithm compared to a couple of recent watchdog-based Sybil detection algorithms. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle An Anonymous Offline RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010002
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract
As more and more items are tagged with RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, grouping-proof technology is widely utilized to provide a coexistence evidence for a group of related items. Due to the wireless channel used in RFID systems, a security risk exists in
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As more and more items are tagged with RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, grouping-proof technology is widely utilized to provide a coexistence evidence for a group of related items. Due to the wireless channel used in RFID systems, a security risk exists in the communication between the reader and tags. How to ensure the tag’s information security and to generate reliable grouping-proof becomes a hot research topic. To protect the privacy of tags, the verification of grouping-proof is traditionally executed by the verifier, and the reader is only used to collect the proof data. This approach can cause the reader to submit invalid proof data to the verifier in the event of DoP (Deny of Proof) attack. In this paper, an ECC-based, off-line anonymous grouping-proof protocol (EAGP) is proposed. The protocol authorizes the reader to examine the validity of grouping-proof without knowing the identities of tags. From the security and performance analysis, the EAGP can protect the security and privacy of RFID tags, and defence impersonation and replay attacks. Furthermore, it has the ability to reduce the system overhead caused by the invalid submission of grouping-proofs. As a result, the proposed EAGP equips practical application values. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Virtual Learning Architecture Enhanced by Fog Computing and Big Data Streams
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010004
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, virtual learning environments are gaining more and more momentum, considering both the technologies deployed in their support and the sheer number of terminals directly or indirectly interacting with them. This essentially means that every day, more and more smart devices
[...] Read more.
In recent years, virtual learning environments are gaining more and more momentum, considering both the technologies deployed in their support and the sheer number of terminals directly or indirectly interacting with them. This essentially means that every day, more and more smart devices play an active role in this exemplary Web of Things scenario. This digital revolution, affecting education, appears clearly intertwined with the earliest forecasts of the Internet of Things, envisioning around 50 billions heterogeneous devices and gadgets to be active by 2020, considering also the deployment of the fog computing paradigm, which moves part of the computational power to the edge of the network. Moreover, these interconnected objects are expected to produce more and more significant streams of data, themselves generated at unprecedented rates, sometimes to be analyzed almost in real time. Concerning educational environments, this translates to a new type of big data stream, which can be labeled as educational big data streams. Here, pieces of information coming from different sources (such as communications between students and instructors, as well as students’ tests, etc.) require accurate analysis and mining techniques in order to retrieve fruitful and well-timed insights from them. This article presents an overview of the current state of the art of virtual learning environments and their limitations; then, it explains the main ideas behind the paradigms of big data streams and of fog computing, in order to introduce an e-learning architecture integrating both of them. Such an action aims to enhance the ability of virtual learning environments to be closer to the needs of all the actors in an educational scenario, as demonstrated by a preliminary implementation of the envisioned architecture. We believe that the proposed big stream and fog-based educational framework may pave the way towards a better understanding of students’ educational behaviors and foster new research directions in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
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Open AccessArticle Elastic Scheduling of Scientific Workflows under Deadline Constraints in Cloud Computing Environments
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010005
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
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Abstract
Scientific workflow applications are collections of several structured activities and fine-grained computational tasks. Scientific workflow scheduling in cloud computing is a challenging research topic due to its distinctive features. In cloud environments, it has become critical to perform efficient task scheduling resulting in
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Scientific workflow applications are collections of several structured activities and fine-grained computational tasks. Scientific workflow scheduling in cloud computing is a challenging research topic due to its distinctive features. In cloud environments, it has become critical to perform efficient task scheduling resulting in reduced scheduling overhead, minimized cost and maximized resource utilization while still meeting the user-specified overall deadline. This paper proposes a strategy, Dynamic Scheduling of Bag of Tasks based workflows (DSB), for scheduling scientific workflows with the aim to minimize financial cost of leasing Virtual Machines (VMs) under a user-defined deadline constraint. The proposed model groups the workflow into Bag of Tasks (BoTs) based on data dependency and priority constraints and thereafter optimizes the allocation and scheduling of BoTs on elastic, heterogeneous and dynamically provisioned cloud resources called VMs in order to attain the proposed method’s objectives. The proposed approach considers pay-as-you-go Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds having inherent features such as elasticity, abundance, heterogeneity and VM provisioning delays. A trace-based simulation using benchmark scientific workflows representing real world applications, demonstrates a significant reduction in workflow computation cost while the workflow deadline is met. The results validate that the proposed model produces better success rates to meet deadlines and cost efficiencies in comparison to adapted state-of-the-art algorithms for similar problems. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Investigating the Influence of Special On–Off Attacks on Challenge-Based Collaborative Intrusion Detection Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010006
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
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Abstract
Intrusions are becoming more complicated with the recent development of adversarial techniques. To boost the detection accuracy of a separate intrusion detector, the collaborative intrusion detection network (CIDN) has thus been developed by allowing intrusion detection system (IDS) nodes to exchange data with
[...] Read more.
Intrusions are becoming more complicated with the recent development of adversarial techniques. To boost the detection accuracy of a separate intrusion detector, the collaborative intrusion detection network (CIDN) has thus been developed by allowing intrusion detection system (IDS) nodes to exchange data with each other. Insider attacks are a great threat for such types of collaborative networks, where an attacker has the authorized access within the network. In literature, a challenge-based trust mechanism is effective at identifying malicious nodes by sending challenges. However, such mechanisms are heavily dependent on two assumptions, which would cause CIDNs to be vulnerable to advanced insider attacks in practice. In this work, we investigate the influence of advanced on–off attacks on challenge-based CIDNs, which can respond truthfully to one IDS node but behave maliciously to another IDS node. To evaluate the attack performance, we have conducted two experiments under a simulated and a real CIDN environment. The obtained results demonstrate that our designed attack is able to compromise the robustness of challenge-based CIDNs in practice; that is, some malicious nodes can behave untruthfully without a timely detection. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Decision Framework for Choosing Telecommunication Technologies in Limited-Resource Settings
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010008
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Remote areas with sparse population, disaster areas in the aftermath, and refugee camps all require communication that is not forthcoming from commercial vendors. Numerous communication system options are available, but with widely varying cost and efficacy. The goal of this work is to
[...] Read more.
Remote areas with sparse population, disaster areas in the aftermath, and refugee camps all require communication that is not forthcoming from commercial vendors. Numerous communication system options are available, but with widely varying cost and efficacy. The goal of this work is to discuss a framework in which to consider appropriate telecommunications technology. The framework approaches sustainable development as a business, under the assumption that social/technical/environmental sustainability requires economic sustainability. The framework incorporates well known and accepted business canvas as a roadmap. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interventions are then considered in terms of their value proposition, markets, and perhaps most important for the realm of sustainable development, the key partners. To illustrate how the framework applies, we consider three case studies and then apply the resultant principles to the consideration of these ICT projects. The case studies are chosen for their diversity. Furthermore, after verifying the decision framework, recommendations are made for three ongoing intervention projects in limited-resource settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in the Digital Environment 2017)
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Open AccessArticle A Velocity-Aware Handover Trigger in Two-Tier Heterogeneous Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010009
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
The unexpected change in user equipment (UE) velocity is recognized as the primary explanation for poor handover quality. In order to resolve this issue, while limiting ping-pong (PP) events we carefully and dynamically optimized handover parameters for each UE unit according to its
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The unexpected change in user equipment (UE) velocity is recognized as the primary explanation for poor handover quality. In order to resolve this issue, while limiting ping-pong (PP) events we carefully and dynamically optimized handover parameters for each UE unit according to its velocity and the coverage area of the access point (AP). In order to recognize any variations in velocity, we applied Allan variance (AVAR) to the received signal strength (RSS) from the serving AP. To assess our approach, it was essential to configure a heterogeneous network context (LTE-WiFi) and interconnect Media-Independent Handover (MIH) and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) for seamless handover. Reproduction demonstrated that our approach does not only result in a gain in relatively accurate velocity but in addition reduces the number of PP and handover failures (HOFs). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review of Latest Advances in 3GPP Standardization: D2D Communication in 5G Systems and Its Energy Consumption Models
Future Internet 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10010003
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential part of the future fifth generation (5G) system that can be seen as a “network of networks,” consisting of multiple seamlessly-integrated radio access technologies (RATs). Public safety communications, autonomous driving, socially-aware networking, and infotainment services are example
[...] Read more.
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential part of the future fifth generation (5G) system that can be seen as a “network of networks,” consisting of multiple seamlessly-integrated radio access technologies (RATs). Public safety communications, autonomous driving, socially-aware networking, and infotainment services are example use cases of D2D technology. High data rate communications and use of several active air interfaces in the described network create energy consumption challenges for both base stations and the end user devices. In this paper, we review the status of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization, which is the most important standardization body for 5G systems. We define a set of application scenarios for D2D communications in 5G networks. We use the recent models of 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) and WiFi interfaces in analyzing the power consumption from both the infrastructure and user device perspectives. The results indicate that with the latest radio interfaces, the best option for energy saving is the minimization of active interfaces and sending the data with the best possible data rate. Multiple recommendations on how to exploit the results in future networks are given. Full article
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