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Future Internet, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2014), Pages 597-799

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Geography Geo-Wiki in the Classroom: Using Crowdsourcing to Enhance Geographical Teaching
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 597-611; doi:10.3390/fi6040597
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool used to derive information, based on satellite imagery, to validate and enhance global land cover. Around 5000 users are registered, who contribute to different campaigns to collect data across various domains (e.g., agriculture, biomass, human impact, etc.).
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Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool used to derive information, based on satellite imagery, to validate and enhance global land cover. Around 5000 users are registered, who contribute to different campaigns to collect data across various domains (e.g., agriculture, biomass, human impact, etc.). However, seeing the Earth’s surface from above does not provide all of the necessary information for understanding what is happening on the ground. Instead, we need to enhance this experience with local knowledge or with additional information, such as geo-located photographs of surface features with annotation. The latest development in enhancing Geo-Wiki in this context has been achieved through collaboration with the University of Waterloo to set up a separate branch called Geography Geo-Wiki for use in undergraduate teaching. We provide the pedagogical objectives for this branch and describe two modules that we have introduced in first and third year Physical Geography classes. The majority of the feedback was positive and in, many cases, was part of what the student liked best about the course. Future plans include the development of additional assignments for the study of environmental processes using Geo-Wiki that would engage students in a manner that is very different from that of conventional teaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NeoGeography and WikiPlanning 2014)
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Open AccessArticle From Raw Data to Meaningful Information: A Representational Approach to Cadastral Databases in Relation to Urban Planning
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 612-639; doi:10.3390/fi6040612
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digesting the data hose that cities are constantly producing is complex; data is usually structured with different criteria, which makes comparative analysis of multiple cities challenging. However, the publicly available data from the Spanish cadaster contains urban information in a documented format with
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Digesting the data hose that cities are constantly producing is complex; data is usually structured with different criteria, which makes comparative analysis of multiple cities challenging. However, the publicly available data from the Spanish cadaster contains urban information in a documented format with common semantics for the whole territory, which makes these analyses possible. This paper uses the information about the 3D geometry of buildings, their use and their year of construction, stored in cadastral databases, to study the relation between the built environment (what the city is) and the urban plan (what the city wants to become), translating the concepts of the cadastral data into the semantics of the urban plan. Different representation techniques to better understand the city from the pedestrians’ point of view and to communicate this information more effectively are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantic Geographic Information System (Semantic GIS))
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Open AccessArticle Towards a Conceptual Framework for WikiGIS
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 640-672; doi:10.3390/fi6040640
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
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Abstract
As an emerging complex concept, GeoDesign requires an innovative theoretical basis, tools, supports and practices. For this reason, we propose a new concept, “WikiGIS”, designed to answer some dimensions of the GeoDesign process. WikiGIS focuses on the needs of GeoDesign, but we leave
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As an emerging complex concept, GeoDesign requires an innovative theoretical basis, tools, supports and practices. For this reason, we propose a new concept, “WikiGIS”, designed to answer some dimensions of the GeoDesign process. WikiGIS focuses on the needs of GeoDesign, but we leave the door open for future improvement when tested in other areas that may have additional needs. WikiGIS is built on Web 2.0 technologies—and primarily on wiki—to manage the tracking of participants’ editing (i.e., managing the contributions history). It also offers GIS functions for geoprocessing and a design-based approach for sketching proposals. One of the main strengths of WikiGIS is its ability to manage the traceability of contributions with an easy and dynamical access, data quality and deltification. The core of this paper consists of presenting a conceptual framework for WikiGIS using UML diagrams. A user interface is presented later to show how our WikiGIS proposal works. This interface is simply a means to illustrate the concepts underlying WikiGIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NeoGeography and WikiPlanning 2014)
Open AccessArticle The ARCOMEM Architecture for Social- and Semantic-Driven Web Archiving
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 688-716; doi:10.3390/fi6040688
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
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Abstract
The constantly growing amount ofWeb content and the success of the SocialWeb lead to increasing needs for Web archiving. These needs go beyond the pure preservationo of Web pages. Web archives are turning into “community memories” that aim at building a better understanding
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The constantly growing amount ofWeb content and the success of the SocialWeb lead to increasing needs for Web archiving. These needs go beyond the pure preservationo of Web pages. Web archives are turning into “community memories” that aim at building a better understanding of the public view on, e.g., celebrities, court decisions and other events. Due to the size of the Web, the traditional “collect-all” strategy is in many cases not the best method to build Web archives. In this paper, we present the ARCOMEM (From Future Internet 2014, 6 689 Collect-All Archives to Community Memories) architecture and implementation that uses semantic information, such as entities, topics and events, complemented with information from the Social Web to guide a novel Web crawler. The resulting archives are automatically enriched with semantic meta-information to ease the access and allow retrieval based on conditions that involve high-level concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archiving Community Memories)
Open AccessArticle Using Multilevel Analysis to Examine the Relationship between Upper Secondary Students Internet Safety Awareness, Social Background and Academic Aspirations
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 717-734; doi:10.3390/fi6040717
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 18 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since 2009, most Norwegian students in upper secondary have had access to their own personal computer at school. Hence, with the increased access to technology, the importance of online connectedness has increased for adolescents’ social interaction and communication. It is, therefore, important to
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Since 2009, most Norwegian students in upper secondary have had access to their own personal computer at school. Hence, with the increased access to technology, the importance of online connectedness has increased for adolescents’ social interaction and communication. It is, therefore, important to identify and understand the concept of Internet safety among upper secondary school students. A total of 4216 students from 238 classrooms in 23 upper secondary schools completed an Internet safety assessment. The aim of the study was to operationalize and measure Internet safety in a school context, and to further examine the factors predicting students’ Internet safety awareness and responsibility. Our analysis revealed substantial variation in Internet safety awareness between schools, classrooms and students. Overall, the findings indicate that students’ social backgrounds are determining for their development and understanding of Internet safety awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Inequalities)
Open AccessArticle Public Involvement in Taking Legislative Action as to the Spatial Development of the Tourist Sector in Greece—The “OpenGov” Platform Experience
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 735-759; doi:10.3390/fi6040735
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 23 October 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By the Aarhus Convention (1998) it is recognized the right of citizens to get access to and influence decision-making in respect to issues affecting the state of the environment. More specifically, in Article 8 it is stated that public authorities are forced to
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By the Aarhus Convention (1998) it is recognized the right of citizens to get access to and influence decision-making in respect to issues affecting the state of the environment. More specifically, in Article 8 it is stated that public authorities are forced to engage public participation when preparing regulations or legally binding rules that have a significant environmental impact. Towards this end, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and their applications have considerably expanded the potential of planners and decision makers to interact with stakeholders and the public and engage them in participatory processes through ICTs-enabled platforms. The focus of the present paper is on the context of public consultation in taking legislative action as to the spatial development of the tourist sector in Greece. It consists of three parts: the first part, where the context of engaging the public in governmental decision-making in Greece is discussed, following the Open Government Partnership (OGP) initiative; the second part, presenting the steps of the “OpenGov” online platform, designed for gathering public knowledge to further improve legislative efforts and policy; and the third part, elaborating on the experience gained by the use of the “OpenGov” platform for decision-making on the spatial development of the tourist sector in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NeoGeography and WikiPlanning 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 760-772; doi:10.3390/fi6040760
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 27 November 2014
PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview
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Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in Cybercrime and Cybercrime Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle Inside Technology: Opening the Black Box of Health-Website Configuration and Content Management
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 773-799; doi:10.3390/fi6040773
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 22 November 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the existing divide related to Internet skills and types of Internet use, it is safe to assume that a large proportion of the population uses the Internet for health purposes in a partially productive fashion. We suggest that in addition to user
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Given the existing divide related to Internet skills and types of Internet use, it is safe to assume that a large proportion of the population uses the Internet for health purposes in a partially productive fashion. We suggest that in addition to user characteristics, another factor that inhibits productive Internet use, and thus contributes to the existing gap, is related to the ways in which the technology is configured. The goal of this study was to explore the processes that webmasters and content managers use for constructing and producing, or selecting content, for health websites. Interviews conducted with 23 website builders and managers of websites that represent public and non-public health organizations revealed that they do not plan or conduct activities for content needs elicitation, either in the design stage or on an ongoing basis. Rather, these professionals rely on a “self-embodiment” standard, whereby their and their cohorts’ expectations determine the quality and functionality of the websites’ structure and content. Hence, target groups beyond their social sphere are disregarded, and instead of new opportunities, new cleavages are created. We recommended that government, public and non-public stakeholders work to establish construction standards, to ensure that health websites meet the needs of varied end-user populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Inequalities)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries
Future Internet 2014, 6(4), 673-687; doi:10.3390/fi6040673
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able
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Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Inequalities)

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