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Viruses, Volume 3, Issue 3 (March 2011), Pages 172-277

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle An Efficient Method for Generating Poxvirus Recombinants in the Absence of Selection
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 217-232; doi:10.3390/v3030217
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 22 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 9 March 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (310 KB)
Abstract
The use of selectable markers (ecogpt) and selection pressures to aid in detection of poxvirus (Vaccinia, VV) recombinants has been implicated in the unintended introduction of second site mutations. We have reinvestigated the use of the helper virus system described by
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The use of selectable markers (ecogpt) and selection pressures to aid in detection of poxvirus (Vaccinia, VV) recombinants has been implicated in the unintended introduction of second site mutations. We have reinvestigated the use of the helper virus system described by Scheiflinger et al. [1] and adapted by Yao and Evans [2] which produces recombinants at a high frequency in the absence of any selection, at a rate of 6–100%. Our system uses fowlpox virus (FPV) as the infectious helper virus which in infected cells provides the enzymatic apparatus for transcription and replication of a purified, transfected VV genome and for recombination with a second transfected PCR generated DNA fragment. To optimize the system, a PCR DNA fragment was generated that contained poxvirus promoter driven gfp and lacZ genes inserted within the coding sequences of the viral thymidine kinase gene. This PCR fragment was co-transfected together with VV genomic DNA. Recombinant VV was identified by plaquing the mixture on cells non-permissive for FPV and selection of green fluorescent or LacZ positive recombinant vaccinia plaques. The system was optimized using FPV permissive cells (CEF) and non-permissive cells (A549, CV-1) for both the initial infection/transfection and the subsequent selection. Up to 70% of the progeny vaccinia virus contained the gfp/LacZ insertion. In order to test for the presence of FPV/VV intertypic recombinants or other unintended mutations, recombinant wtVV (RwtVV) was regenerated from the gfp/LacZ viruses and evaluated by RFLP analysis and pathogenesis in animals. While all RwtVVs were viable in cell culture, in many of the RwtVV isolates, RFLP differences were noted and while some recombinant viruses exhibited wild type behavior in mice, a wide range of virulence indicative of unintended changes suggests that mutants created by “rescue” systems require careful analysis particularly before use for in vivo studies employing animal models. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Dynactin Complex Enhances the Speed of Microtubule-Dependent Motions of Adenovirus Both Towards and Away from the Nucleus
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 233-253; doi:10.3390/v3030233
Received: 10 February 2011 / Accepted: 28 February 2011 / Published: 9 March 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1718 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Unlike transport vesicles or organelles, human adenovirus (HAdV) directly binds to the microtubule minus end-directed motor dynein for transport to the nucleus. The dynein cofactor dynactin enhances nuclear transport of HAdV and boosts infection. To determine if dynactin has a specific role in
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Unlike transport vesicles or organelles, human adenovirus (HAdV) directly binds to the microtubule minus end-directed motor dynein for transport to the nucleus. The dynein cofactor dynactin enhances nuclear transport of HAdV and boosts infection. To determine if dynactin has a specific role in cytoplasmic trafficking of incoming HAdV on microtubules, we used live cell spinning disc confocal microscopy at 25 Hz acquisition frequency and automated tracking of single virus particles at 20–50 nm spatial resolution. Computational dissection by machine-learning algorithms extracted specific motion patterns of viral trajectories. We found that unperturbed cells supported two kinds of microtubule-dependent motions, directed motions (DM) and fast drifts (FD). DM had speeds of 0.2 to 2 µm/s and run lengths of 0.4 up to 7 µm, while FD were slower and less extensive at 0.02 to 0.4 µm/s and 0.05 to 2.5 µm. Dynactin interference by overexpression of p50/dynamitin or a coiled-coil domain of p150/Glued reduced the speeds and amounts of both center- and periphery-directed DM but not FD, and inhibited infection. These results indicate that dynactin enhances adenovirus infection by increasing the speed and efficiency of dynein-mediated virus motion to the nucleus, and, surprisingly, also supports a hereto unknown motor activity for virus transport to the cell periphery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Viral Infections)

Review

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Open AccessReview Bacteriophage Assembly
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 172-203; doi:10.3390/v3030172
Received: 5 January 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 14 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB)
Abstract
Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage
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Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophage Assembly)
Open AccessReview The Cytoskeleton in Papillomavirus Infection
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 260-271; doi:10.3390/v3030260
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 1 March 2011 / Accepted: 2 March 2011 / Published: 10 March 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (139 KB)
Abstract
Cytoskeleton defines the shape and structural organization of the cell. Its elements participate in cell motility, intracellular transport and chromosome movement during mitosis. Papillomaviruses (PV) are strictly epitheliotropic and induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy. Like
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Cytoskeleton defines the shape and structural organization of the cell. Its elements participate in cell motility, intracellular transport and chromosome movement during mitosis. Papillomaviruses (PV) are strictly epitheliotropic and induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy. Like many other viruses, PV use the host cytoskeletal components for several steps during their life cycle. Prior to internalization, PV particles are transported along filopodia to the cell body. Following internalization, retrograde transport along microtubules via the dynein motor protein complex is observed. In addition, viral minichromosomes depend on the host cell machinery for partitioning of viral genomes during mitosis, which may be affected by oncoproteins E6 and E7 of high-risk human PV types. This mini-review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of papillomavirus’ interactions with the host cell cytoskeletal elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Viral Infections)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCommentary A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 204-216; doi:10.3390/v3030204
Received: 19 January 2011 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 28 February 2011 / Published: 8 March 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (144 KB)
Abstract
HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important
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HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Editorial)
Open AccessCommentary A New Role for the HTLV-1 p8 Protein: Increasing Intercellular Conduits and Viral Cell-to-Cell Transmission
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 254-259; doi:10.3390/v3030254
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 2 March 2011 / Accepted: 2 March 2011 / Published: 9 March 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (186 KB)
Abstract
Retroviruses like HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can be transmitted efficiently by direct contact between infected and target cells. For HIV-1, various modes of cell-to-cell transfer have been reported, including virological synapses, polysynapses, filopodial bridges, and nanotube-like structures. So far, only synapses and biofilms have
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Retroviruses like HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can be transmitted efficiently by direct contact between infected and target cells. For HIV-1, various modes of cell-to-cell transfer have been reported, including virological synapses, polysynapses, filopodial bridges, and nanotube-like structures. So far, only synapses and biofilms have been described for HTLV-1 transmission. Recently, Van Prooyen et al. [1] identified an additional mode of HTLV-1 transmission through cellular conduits induced by the viral accessory protein p8. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Editorial)
Open AccessCommentary Paradoxical Interplay of Viral and Cellular Functions
Viruses 2011, 3(3), 272-277; doi:10.3390/v3030272
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 3 March 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (157 KB)
Abstract
Some cellular editing functions can restrict the replication of some viruses but contribute to completion of the life cycle of others. A recent study has identified an isoform of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 1 (ADAR 1) as required for embryogenesis,
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Some cellular editing functions can restrict the replication of some viruses but contribute to completion of the life cycle of others. A recent study has identified an isoform of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 1 (ADAR 1) as required for embryogenesis, and as a restriction factor for a number of important RNA virus pathogens [1]. The dual implication of key cellular functions in the innate immunity against viruses, or, paradoxically, as mediators of virus replication is interpreted in the light of the concept of virus-host coevolution and tinkering proposed for general evolution by François Jacob decades ago. Full article

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