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Viruses 2009, 1(3), 832-851; doi:10.3390/v1030832
Review

Interferon Response and Viral Evasion by Members of the Family Rhabdoviridae

1, 2 and 1,3,*
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19438, USA 2 Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA 3 Jefferson Vaccine Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19438, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 9 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferon Antiviral Response and Viral Evasion)
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Abstract

Like many animal viruses, those of the Rhabdoviridae family, are able to antagonize the type I interferon response and cause disease in mammalian hosts. Though these negative-stranded RNA viruses are very simple and code for as few as five proteins, they have been seen to completely abrogate the type I interferon response early in infection. In this review, we will discuss the viral organization and type I interferon evasion of rhabdoviruses, focusing on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV). Despite their structural similarities, VSV and RABV have completely different mechanisms by which they avert the host immune response. VSV relies on the matrix protein to interfere with host gene transcription and nuclear export of anti-viral mRNAs. Alternatively, RABV uses its phosphoprotein to interfere with IRF-3 phosphorylation and STAT1 signaling. Understanding the virus-cell interactions and viral proteins necessary to evade the immune response is important in developing effective vaccines and therapeutics for this viral family.
Keywords: rhabdovirus; interferon; rabies virus; vesicular stomatitis virus rhabdovirus; interferon; rabies virus; vesicular stomatitis virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Faul, E.J.; Lyles, D.S.; Schnell, M.J. Interferon Response and Viral Evasion by Members of the Family Rhabdoviridae. Viruses 2009, 1, 832-851.

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