Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Materials, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The synergistic combination of the excellent bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) and [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-217
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle A Continuum Model for the Effect of Dynamic Recrystallization on the Stress–Strain Response
Materials 2018, 11(5), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050867
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Austenitic Stainless Steels and High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steels show significant dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during hot forming. In order to design optimal and safe hot-formed products, a good understanding and constitutive description of the material behavior is vital. A new continuum
[...] Read more.
Austenitic Stainless Steels and High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steels show significant dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during hot forming. In order to design optimal and safe hot-formed products, a good understanding and constitutive description of the material behavior is vital. A new continuum model is presented and validated on a wide range of deformation conditions including high strain rate deformation. The model is presented in rate form to allow for the prediction of material behavior in transient process conditions. The proposed model is capable of accurately describing the stress–strain behavior of AISI 316LN in hot forming conditions, also the high strain rate DRX-induced softening observed during hot torsion of HSLA is accurately predicted. It is shown that the increase in recrystallization rate at high strain rates observed in experiments can be captured by including the elastic energy due to the dynamic stress in the driving pressure for recrystallization. Furthermore, the predicted resulting grain sizes follow the power-law dependence with steady state stress that is often reported in literature and the evolution during hot deformation shows the expected trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Recrystallization and Microstructural Evolution in Alloys)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Superhydrophobic Natural and Artificial Surfaces—A Structural Approach
Materials 2018, 11(5), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050866
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since ancient times humans observed animal and plants features and tried to adapt them according to their own needs. Biomimetics represents the foundation of many inventions from various fields: From transportation devices (helicopter, airplane, submarine) and flying techniques, to sports’ wear industry (swimming
[...] Read more.
Since ancient times humans observed animal and plants features and tried to adapt them according to their own needs. Biomimetics represents the foundation of many inventions from various fields: From transportation devices (helicopter, airplane, submarine) and flying techniques, to sports’ wear industry (swimming suits, scuba diving gear, Velcro closure system), bullet proof vests made from Kevlar etc. It is true that nature provides numerous noteworthy models (shark skin, spider web, lotus leaves), referring both to the plant and animal kingdom. This review paper summarizes a few of “nature’s interventions” in human evolution, regarding understanding of surface wettability and development of innovative special surfaces. Empirical models are described in order to reveal the science behind special wettable surfaces (superhydrophobic /superhydrophilic). Materials and methods used in order to artificially obtain special wettable surfaces are described in correlation with plants’ and animals’ unique features. Emphasis is placed on joining superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces, with important applications in cell culturing, microorganism isolation/separation and molecule screening techniques. Bio-inspired wettability is presented as a constitutive part of traditional devices/systems, intended to improve their characteristics and extend performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification to Improve Properties of Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Removal of Crystal Violet by Using Reduced-Graphene-Oxide-Supported Bimetallic Fe/Ni Nanoparticles (rGO/Fe/Ni): Application of Artificial Intelligence Modeling for the Optimization Process
Materials 2018, 11(5), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050865
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reduced-graphene-oxide-supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in this study for the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. This material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, N2-sorption,
[...] Read more.
Reduced-graphene-oxide-supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in this study for the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. This material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, N2-sorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of independent parameters (namely, initial dye concentration, initial pH, contact time, and temperature) on the removal efficiency were investigated via Box–Behnken design (BBD). Artificial intelligence (i.e., artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization) was used to optimize and predict the optimum conditions and obtain the maximum removal efficiency. The zero point of charge (pHZPC) of rGO/Fe/Ni composites was determined by using the salt addition method. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted well to the Freundlich model for the evaluation of the actual behavior of CV adsorption, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 2000.00 mg/g. The kinetic study discloses that the adsorption processes can be satisfactorily described by the pseudo-second-order model. The values of Gibbs free energy change (ΔG0), entropy change (ΔS0), and enthalpy change (ΔH0) demonstrate the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of CV onto rGO/Fe/Ni composites. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle In Vitro Evaluation of 2D-Printed Edible Films for the Buccal Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium
Materials 2018, 11(5), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050864
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Printing technologies have recently emerged in the development of novel drug delivery systems toward personalized medicine, to improve the performance of formulations, existing bioavailability patterns, and patients’ compliance. In the context of two-dimensional printing, this article presents the development of buccal films that
[...] Read more.
Printing technologies have recently emerged in the development of novel drug delivery systems toward personalized medicine, to improve the performance of formulations, existing bioavailability patterns, and patients’ compliance. In the context of two-dimensional printing, this article presents the development of buccal films that are designed to efficiently deliver a class II compound (diclofenac sodium), according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), to the oral cavity. The preparation of drug-loaded inks was carried out based on solubility studies and evaluation of rheological properties, combining ethanol and propylene glycol as optimal solvents. Deposition of the drug was achieved by increasing the number of printing layers onto edible substrates, to produce formulations with dose variance. Thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the developed films. Drug loading and water uptake studies complemented the initial assessment of the films, and preliminary in vitro studies were conducted to further evaluate their performance. The in vitro release profiles were recorded in simulated saliva, presenting the complete release of the incorporated active in a period of 10 min. The effect of multiple layers on the overall performance of films was completed with in vitro permeation studies, revealing the correlation between the number of printed layers and the apparent permeability coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanomaterials and Their Applications)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Modeling the Effect of Primary and Secondary Twinning on Texture Evolution during Severe Plastic Deformation of a Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel
Materials 2018, 11(5), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050863
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (9468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modeling the effect of deformation twinning and the ensuing twin-twin- and slip-twin-induced hardening is a long-standing problem in computational mechanical metallurgy of materials that deform by both slip and twinning. In this work, we address this effect using the twin volume transfer method,
[...] Read more.
Modeling the effect of deformation twinning and the ensuing twin-twin- and slip-twin-induced hardening is a long-standing problem in computational mechanical metallurgy of materials that deform by both slip and twinning. In this work, we address this effect using the twin volume transfer method, which obviates the need of any cumbersome criterion for twin variant selection. Additionally, this method is capable of capturing, at the same time, secondary or double twinning, which is particularly important for modeling in large strain regimes. We validate our modeling methodology by simulating the behavior of an Fe-23Mn-1.5Al-0.3C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel under large strain conditions, experimentally achieved in this work through equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) for up to two passes in a 90° die following route BC at 300 °C. Each possible twin variant, whether nucleating inside the parent grain or inside a potential primary twin variant was predefined in the initial list of orientations as possible grain of the polycrystal with zero initial volume fraction. A novelty of our approach is to take into account the loss of coherency of the twins with their parent matrix under large strains, obstructing progressively their further growth. This effect has been captured by attenuating growth rates of twins as a function of their rotation away from their perfect twin orientation, dubbed here as “disorientation” with respect to the mother grain’s lattice. The simulated textures and the hardening under tensile strain showed very good agreement with experimental characterization and mechanical testing results. Furthermore, upper-bound Taylor deformation was found to be operational for the TWIP steel deformation when all the above ingredients of twinning are captured, indicating that self-consistent schemes can be bypassed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Review of Tunable Wavelength Selectivity of Metamaterials in Near-Field and Far-Field Radiative Thermal Transport
Materials 2018, 11(5), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050862
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radiative thermal transport of metamaterials has begun to play a significant role in thermal science and has great engineering applications. When the key features of structures become comparable to the thermal wavelength at a particular temperature, a narrowband or wideband of wavelengths can
[...] Read more.
Radiative thermal transport of metamaterials has begun to play a significant role in thermal science and has great engineering applications. When the key features of structures become comparable to the thermal wavelength at a particular temperature, a narrowband or wideband of wavelengths can be created or shifted in both the emission and reflection spectrum of nanoscale metamaterials. Due to the near-field effect, the phenomena of radiative wavelength selectivity become significant. These effects show strong promise for applications in thermophotovoltaic energy harvesting, nanoscale biosensing, and increased energy efficiency through radiative cooling in the near future. This review paper summarizes the recent progress and outlook of both near-field and far-field radiative heat transfer, different design structures of metamaterials, applications of unique thermal and optical properties, and focuses especially on exploration of the tunable radiative wavelength selectivity of nano-metamaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Standard Reference Materials for Cement Paste: Part II-Determination of Mixing Ratios
Materials 2018, 11(5), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050861
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A variety of special concrete structures have been designed for domestic and overseas construction markets that require highly advanced construction technology. Therefore, it is necessary to secure quantitative construction technology and develop a standard reference material (hereinafter: SRM) with consistent flow performance and
[...] Read more.
A variety of special concrete structures have been designed for domestic and overseas construction markets that require highly advanced construction technology. Therefore, it is necessary to secure quantitative construction technology and develop a standard reference material (hereinafter: SRM) with consistent flow performance and quality in order to evaluate the quantitative performance of flowability. On the other hand, the flowability of concrete is influenced greatly by the flowability of the cement paste. In addition, considering the design strength and workability, the mix design was carried out at various mixing ratios, according to the purpose of the site. Therefore, based on the derived components of standard reference materials for cement paste, this paper proposes a mixing ratio for standard reference materials that can uniformly simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste, according to the water–cement ratio (W/C). The results show that yield stress was determined by the ratio of water and glycerol while plastic viscosity was controlled by the limestone content. Finally, the mixing ratio of standard reference materials that can simulate the rheological properties of cement paste by W/C was suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Structural and Catalytic Properties of [CTA]-MCM-41 Silica
Materials 2018, 11(5), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050860
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The [CTA]-MCM-41 hybrid silica is a useful and simply prepared heterogeneous basic catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Here, the effect of hydrothermal treatment during catalyst preparation was investigated, with the aim of improving the structural stability of this catalyst during the reaction. It
[...] Read more.
The [CTA]-MCM-41 hybrid silica is a useful and simply prepared heterogeneous basic catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Here, the effect of hydrothermal treatment during catalyst preparation was investigated, with the aim of improving the structural stability of this catalyst during the reaction. It was observed that the hydrothermal step led to the formation of a material with a higher degree of organization and a greater wall thickness, which improved its structural stability. However, the catalyst prepared using this treatment presented lower catalytic activity, due to the presence of fewer active sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Silica Catalysts)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming (SESR) of Biomass in a Fluidised-Bed Reactor Using Combined Multifunctional Particles
Materials 2018, 11(5), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050859
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The performance of combined CO2-sorbent/catalyst particles for sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR), prepared via a simple mechanical mixing protocol, was studied using a spout-fluidised bed reactor capable of continuous solid fuel (biomass) feeding. The influence of particle size (300–500 and 710–1000
[...] Read more.
The performance of combined CO2-sorbent/catalyst particles for sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR), prepared via a simple mechanical mixing protocol, was studied using a spout-fluidised bed reactor capable of continuous solid fuel (biomass) feeding. The influence of particle size (300–500 and 710–1000 µm), CaO loading (60–100 wt %), Ni-loading (10–40 wt %) and presence of dicalcium silicate support (22.6 wt %) on SESR process performance were investigated. The combined particles were characterised by their density, porosity and CO2 carrying capacity with the analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). All experiments were conducted with continuous oak biomass feeding at a rate of 0.9 g/min ± 10%, and the reactor was operated at 660 ± 5 °C, 1 atm and 20 ± 2 vol % steam which corresponds to a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.2:1. Unsupported combined particles containing 21.0 wt % Ni and 79 wt % CaO were the best performing sorbent/catalyst particle screened in this study, when accounting for the cost of Ni and the improvement in H2 produced by high Ni content particles. SESR tests with these combined particles produced 61 mmol H2/gbiomass (122 g H2/kgbiomass) at a purity of 61 vol %. Significant coke formation within the feeding tube and on the surfaces of the particles was observed which was attributed to the low steam to carbon ratio utilised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle An Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Composites at Room Temperature
Materials 2018, 11(5), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050858
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) fiber reinforced composites were made at indoor temperatures. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the CBPC composites were studied. The CBPC matrix of aluminum phosphate binder, metakaolin, and magnesia with different Si/P ratios was prepared.
[...] Read more.
In this study, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) fiber reinforced composites were made at indoor temperatures. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the CBPC composites were studied. The CBPC matrix of aluminum phosphate binder, metakaolin, and magnesia with different Si/P ratios was prepared. The results show that when the Si/P ratio was 1.2, and magnesia content in the CBPC was 15%, CBPC reached its maximum flexural strength. The fiber reinforced CBPC composites were prepared by mixing short polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers or unidirectional continuous carbon fiber sheets. Flexural strength and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined, and the microstructures of specimens were analyzed by scanning electron micrography, X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray computed tomography. The flexural performance of continuous carbon fiber reinforced CBPC composites was better than that of PVA fiber composites. The elastic modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the fiber composites were measured through dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that fiber reinforced CBPC composites are an inorganic polymer viscoelastic material with excellent damping properties. The reaction of magnesia and phosphate in the matrix of CBPC formed a different mineral, newberyite, which was beneficial to the development of the CBPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Studies on Fiber Deformation and Formability in Thermoforming Process Using a Fast-Cure Carbon Prepreg: Effect of Stacking Sequence and Mold Geometry
Materials 2018, 11(5), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050857
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (4125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fast-cure carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg was thermoformed against a replicated automotive roof panel mold (square-cup) to investigate the effect of the stacking sequence of prepreg layers with unidirectional and plane woven fabrics and mold geometry with different drawing angles and depths on the
[...] Read more.
A fast-cure carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg was thermoformed against a replicated automotive roof panel mold (square-cup) to investigate the effect of the stacking sequence of prepreg layers with unidirectional and plane woven fabrics and mold geometry with different drawing angles and depths on the fiber deformation and formability of the prepreg. The optimum forming condition was determined via analysis of the material properties of epoxy resin. The non-linear mechanical properties of prepreg at the deformation modes of inter- and intra-ply shear, tensile and bending were measured to be used as input data for the commercial virtual forming simulation software. The prepreg with a stacking sequence containing the plain-woven carbon prepreg on the outer layer of the laminate was successfully thermoformed against a mold with a depth of 20 mm and a tilting angle of 110°. Experimental results for the shear deformations at each corner of the thermoformed square-cup product were compared with the simulation and a similarity in the overall tendency of the shear angle in the path at each corner was observed. The results are expected to contribute to the optimization of parameters on materials, mold design and processing in the thermoforming mass-production process for manufacturing high quality automotive parts with a square-cup geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers and Their Composite Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Polymer Plugging Gel for the Fractured Strata and Its Application
Materials 2018, 11(5), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050856
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (16868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Well leakage of fractured strata is a tricky problem while drilling. This unwieldy problem is usually caused by the poor formation of the cementing degree, the staggered-mesh of the fracture, and the low bearing capacity of the formation, which can also lead to
[...] Read more.
Well leakage of fractured strata is a tricky problem while drilling. This unwieldy problem is usually caused by the poor formation of the cementing degree, the staggered-mesh of the fracture, and the low bearing capacity of the formation, which can also lead to a narrow and even unsafe window of drilling fluid density. For fractured strata, the normal plugging material has the disadvantages of unsuitable size and low strength, resulting in unsuccessful first time plugging and an increase in cost. Therefore, we developed a polymer plugging gel for the fractured strata, named XNGJ-3. XNGJ-3 is mainly made of an acrylamide monomer and is accompanied by the reactive monomers of carboxyl and hydroxyl as ingredients. XNGJ-3 has a low viscosity before gelling. At 80 °C it becomes gelled, and the gelling time was controlled within the required time of the practical application. These conditions are beneficial for making the plugging material enter the crossing fracture smoothly and occlude the fracture. XNGJ-3 also has a good deformability and can avoid being damaged during the process of fracture closure. The well leakage simulated experiment revealed that the bearing capacity of this material can reach 21 MPa and the inverse bearing capacity can reach 20 MPa. These strengths are more than twice that of common polymer plugging gels. Finally, three leaked wells in the fractured strata of the Sichuan Basin were used to verify the plugging effect of XNGJ-3. Compared with other common plugging materials, XNGJ-3 has the advantages of having a higher success rate of first time plugging, a lower economic cost, a shorter work time, and so forth, which indicate that this plugging material has a good engineering application value in dealing with well leakage of fractured strata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Modified Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network Model Based on Genetic Algorithm to Predict the Flow Behavior of 5754 Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(5), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050855
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to predict flow behavior and find the optimum hot working processing parameters for 5754 aluminum alloy, the experimental flow stress data obtained from the isothermal hot compression tests on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation apparatus, with different strain rates (0.1–10 s–1)
[...] Read more.
In order to predict flow behavior and find the optimum hot working processing parameters for 5754 aluminum alloy, the experimental flow stress data obtained from the isothermal hot compression tests on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation apparatus, with different strain rates (0.1–10 s–1) and temperatures (300–500 °C), were used to construct the constitutive models of the strain-compensation Arrhenius (SA) and back propagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN). In addition, an optimized BP–ANN model based on the genetic algorithm (GA) was established. Furthermore, the predictability of the three models was evaluated by the statistical indicators, including the correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results showed that the R of the SA model, BP–ANN model, and ANN–GA model were 0.9918, 0.9929, and 0.9999, respectively, while the AARE of these models was found to be 3.2499–5.6774%, 0.0567–5.4436% and 0.0232–1.0485%, respectively. The prediction error of the SA model was high at 400 °C. It was more accurate to use the BP–ANN model to determine the flow behavior compared to the SA model. However, the BP–ANN model had more instability at 300 °C and a true strain in the range of 0.4–0.6. When compared with the SA model and BP–ANN model, the ANN–GA model had a more efficient and more accurate prediction ability during the whole deformation process. Furthermore, the dynamic softening characteristic was analyzed by the flow curves. All curves showed that 5754 aluminum alloy showed the typical rheological characteristics. The flow stress rose rapidly with increasing strain until it reached a peak. After this, the flow stress remained constant, which demonstrates a steady flow softening phenomenon. Besides, the flow stress and the required variables to reach the steady state deformation increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Influence of the External Signal Modulation Waveform and Frequency on the Performance of a Photonic Forced Oscillator
Materials 2018, 11(5), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050854
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Photonic crystals have been an object of interest because of their properties to inhibit certain wavelengths and allow the transmission of others. Using these properties, we designed a photonic structure known as photodyne formed by two porous silicon one-dimensional photonic crystals with an
[...] Read more.
Photonic crystals have been an object of interest because of their properties to inhibit certain wavelengths and allow the transmission of others. Using these properties, we designed a photonic structure known as photodyne formed by two porous silicon one-dimensional photonic crystals with an air defect between them. When the photodyne is illuminated with appropriate light, it allows us to generate electromagnetic forces within the structure that can be maximized if the light becomes localized inside the defect region. These electromagnetic forces allow the microcavity to oscillate mechanically. In the experiment, a chopper was driven by a signal generator to modulate the laser light that was used. The driven frequency and the signal modulation waveform (rectangular, sinusoidal or triangular) were changed with the idea to find optimal conditions for the structure to oscillate. The microcavity displacement amplitude, velocity amplitude and Fourier spectrum of the latter and its frequency were measured by means of a vibrometer. The mechanical oscillations are modeled and compared with the experimental results and show good agreement. For external frequency values of 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the best option was a sinusoidal waveform, which gave higher photodyne displacements and velocity amplitudes. Nonetheless, for an external frequency of 15 Hz, the best option was the rectangular waveform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Composite Coatings
Materials 2018, 11(5), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050853
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings with different Ni contents were fabricated by low-pressure cold spray (LPCS) technology. The effects of the Ni content on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the composite coatings
[...] Read more.
Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings with different Ni contents were fabricated by low-pressure cold spray (LPCS) technology. The effects of the Ni content on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the composite coatings were primarily composed of metallic-phase Zn and Ni and ceramic-phase Al2O3. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy results show that the Al2O3 content of the composite coatings gradually decreased with increasing of Ni content. The cross-sectional morphology revealed thick, dense coatings with a wave-like stacking structure. The process of depositing Zn and Ni particles and Al2O3 particles by the LPCS method was examined, and the deposition mechanism was demonstrated to be mechanical interlocking. The bond strength, micro hardness and friction coefficient of the coatings did not obviously change when the Ni content varied. The presence of Al2O3 and Ni increased the wear resistance of the composite coatings, which was higher than that of pure Zn coatings, and the wear mechanism was abrasive and adhesive wear. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Progress in the Development of SERS-Active Substrates Based on Metal-Coated Porous Silicon
Materials 2018, 11(5), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050852
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present work gives an overview of the developments in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with metal-coated porous silicon used as an active substrate. We focused this review on the research referenced to SERS-active materials based on porous silicon, beginning from the patent application
[...] Read more.
The present work gives an overview of the developments in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with metal-coated porous silicon used as an active substrate. We focused this review on the research referenced to SERS-active materials based on porous silicon, beginning from the patent application in 2002 and enclosing the studies of this year. Porous silicon and metal deposition technologies are discussed. Since the earliest studies, a number of fundamentally different plasmonic nanostructures including metallic dendrites, quasi-ordered arrays of metallic nanoparticles (NPs), and metallic nanovoids have been grown on porous silicon, defined by the morphology of this host material. SERS-active substrates based on porous silicon have been found to combine a high and well-reproducible signal level, storage stability, cost-effective technology and handy use. They make it possible to identify and study many compounds including biomolecules with a detection limit varying from milli- to femtomolar concentrations. The progress reviewed here demonstrates the great prospects for the extensive use of the metal-coated porous silicon for bioanalysis by SERS-spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SERS-Active Substrates)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Preparation Nano-Structure Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Functional Film on the Cellulose Insulation Polymer and Its Effect on the Breakdown Voltage and Hydrophobicity Properties
Materials 2018, 11(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050851
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (10867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellulose insulation polymer is an important component of oil-paper insulation, which is widely used in power transformer. The weight of the cellulose insulation polymer materials is as high as tens of tons in the larger converter transformer. Excellent performance of oil-paper insulation is
[...] Read more.
Cellulose insulation polymer is an important component of oil-paper insulation, which is widely used in power transformer. The weight of the cellulose insulation polymer materials is as high as tens of tons in the larger converter transformer. Excellent performance of oil-paper insulation is very important for ensuring the safe operation of larger converter transformer. An effective way to improve the insulation and the physicochemical property of the oil impregnated insulation pressboard/paper is currently a popular research topic. In this paper, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) functional film was coated on the cellulose insulation pressboard by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering to improve its breakdown voltage and the hydrophobicity properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the nano-structure PTFE functional film was successfully fabricated on the cellulose insulation pressboard surface. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) present that the nanoscale size PTFE particles were attached to the pressboard surface and it exists in the amorphous form. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the sputtered pressboard surface is still rough. The rough PTFE functional film and the reduction of the hydrophilic hydroxyl of the surface due to the shielding effect of PTFE improve the breakdown and the hydrophobicity properties of the cellulose insulation pressboard obviously. This paper provides an innovative way to improve the performance of the cellulose insulation polymer. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Polysulfobetaines in Aqueous Solution and in Thin Film Geometry
Materials 2018, 11(5), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050850
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polysulfobetaines in aqueous solution show upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behavior. We investigate here the representative of this class of materials, poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-methacrylamidopropyl) ammonio propane sulfonate) (PSPP), with respect to: (i) the dynamics in aqueous solution above
[...] Read more.
Polysulfobetaines in aqueous solution show upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behavior. We investigate here the representative of this class of materials, poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-methacrylamidopropyl) ammonio propane sulfonate) (PSPP), with respect to: (i) the dynamics in aqueous solution above the cloud point as function of NaBr concentration; and (ii) the swelling behavior of thin films in water vapor as function of the initial film thickness. For PSPP solutions with a concentration of 5 wt.%, the temperature dependence of the intensity autocorrelation functions is measured with dynamic light scattering as function of molar mass and NaBr concentration (0–8 mM). We found a scaling of behavior for the scattered intensity and dynamic correlation length. The resulting spinodal temperatures showed a maximum at a certain (small) NaBr concentration, which is similar to the behavior of the cloud points measured previously by turbidimetry. The critical exponent of susceptibility depends on NaBr concentration, with a minimum value where the spinodal temperature is maximum and a trend towards the mean-field value of unity with increasing NaBr concentration. In contrast, the critical exponent of the correlation length does not depend on NaBr concentration and is lower than the value of 0.5 predicted by mean-field theory. For PSPP thin films, the swelling behavior was found to depend on film thickness. A film thickness of about 100 nm turns out to be the optimum thickness needed to obtain fast hydration with H2O. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature-Responsive Polymers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Layer-by-Layer Heparinization of the Cell Surface by Using Heparin-Binding Peptide Functionalized Human Serum Albumin
Materials 2018, 11(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050849
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Layer-by-layer heparinization of therapeutic cells prior to transplantation is an effective way to inhibit the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions (IBMIRs), which are the major cause of early cell graft loss during post-transplantation. Here, a conjugate of heparin-binding peptide (HBP) and human serum albumin
[...] Read more.
Layer-by-layer heparinization of therapeutic cells prior to transplantation is an effective way to inhibit the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions (IBMIRs), which are the major cause of early cell graft loss during post-transplantation. Here, a conjugate of heparin-binding peptide (HBP) and human serum albumin (HSA), HBP-HSA, was synthesized by using heterobifunctional crosslinker. After the first heparin layer was coated on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of the HBP-polyethylene glycol-phospholipid conjugate, HBP-HSA and heparin were then applied to the cell surface sequentially to form multiple layers. The immobilization and retention of heparin were analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively, and the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was further evaluated by cell viability assay. Results indicated that heparin was successfully introduced to the cell surface in a layer-by-layer way and retained for at least 24 h, while the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was negligible at the working concentration. Accordingly, this conjugate provides a promising method for co-immobilization of heparin and HSA to the cell surface under physiological conditions with improved biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Energy Storage Analysis of a Mixed R161/MOF-5 Nanoparticle Nanofluid Based on Molecular Simulations
Materials 2018, 11(5), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050848
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermal properties of refrigerants can be modified by adding porous nanoparticles into them. Here, molecular simulations, including molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo, were employed to study the thermal energy storage properties of an R161/MOF-5 nanofluid. The results show that the
[...] Read more.
The thermal properties of refrigerants can be modified by adding porous nanoparticles into them. Here, molecular simulations, including molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo, were employed to study the thermal energy storage properties of an R161/MOF-5 nanofluid. The results show that the thermodynamic energy change of MOF-5 nanoparticles is linear to the temperature. The adsorption heat calculated by grand canonical Monte Carlo is close to that calculated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. Additionally, a negative enhancement of the thermal energy storage capacity of the R161/MOF-5 nanofluid is found near the phase transition area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Renewable Energy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Band Structures and Transport Properties of High-Performance Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Materials by First Principles
Materials 2018, 11(5), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050847
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (6513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Half-Heusler (HH) compounds, with a valence electron count of 8 or 18, have gained popularity as promising high-temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials due to their excellent electrical properties, robust mechanical capabilities, and good high-temperature thermal stability. With the help of first-principles calculations, great progress
[...] Read more.
Half-Heusler (HH) compounds, with a valence electron count of 8 or 18, have gained popularity as promising high-temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials due to their excellent electrical properties, robust mechanical capabilities, and good high-temperature thermal stability. With the help of first-principles calculations, great progress has been made in half-Heusler thermoelectric materials. In this review, we summarize some representative theoretical work on band structures and transport properties of HH compounds. We introduce how basic band-structure calculations are used to investigate the atomic disorder in n-type MNiSb (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) compounds and guide the band engineering to enhance TE performance in p-type FeRSb (R = V, Nb) based systems. The calculations on electrical transport properties, especially the scattering time, and lattice thermal conductivities are also demonstrated. The outlook for future research directions of first-principles calculations on HH TE materials is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Half-Heusler, Silicide and Zintl-type Thermoelectric Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Void Formation/Elimination and Viscoelastic Response of Polyphenylsilsesquioxane Monolith
Materials 2018, 11(5), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050846
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (4437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PhSiO3/2) particles as an organic-inorganic hybrid were prepared using sol-gel method, and monolithic samples were obtained via a warm-pressing. The reaction mechanism of particles’ polymerization and transformation to the monolith under the warm-press were investigated using solid state 29Si
[...] Read more.
Polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PhSiO3/2) particles as an organic-inorganic hybrid were prepared using sol-gel method, and monolithic samples were obtained via a warm-pressing. The reaction mechanism of particles’ polymerization and transformation to the monolith under the warm-press were investigated using solid state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer, thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA), mass spectrometer (MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Transparent and void-free monoliths are successfully obtained by warm-pressing above 180 °C. Both the terminal –OH groups on particles’ surface and warm-pressing are necessary for preparation of void-free PhSiO3/2 monolith. From the load-displacement measurement at various temperatures, a viscoelastic deformation is seen for PhSiO3/2 monolith with voids. On the other hand, an elastic deformation is seen for void-free PhSiO3/2 monolith, and the void-free monolith shows much higher breakdown voltage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Photovoltaic Performance Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells Based on Combined Ratios of Three Species of Europium-Doped Phosphors
Materials 2018, 11(5), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050845
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (4187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a scheme for the enhancement of silicon solar cells in terms of luminescent emission band and photovoltaic performance. The proposed devices are coated with an luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer comprising three species of europium (Eu)-doped phosphors mixed within a silicate
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a scheme for the enhancement of silicon solar cells in terms of luminescent emission band and photovoltaic performance. The proposed devices are coated with an luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer comprising three species of europium (Eu)-doped phosphors mixed within a silicate film (SiO2) using a spin-on film deposition. The three species of phosphor were mixed at ratios of 0.5:1:1.5, 1:1:1, or 1.5:1:0.5 in weight percentage (wt %). The total quantity of Eu-doped phosphors in the silicate solution was fixed at 3 wt %. The emission wavelengths of the Eu-doped phosphors were as follows: 518 nm (specie-A), 551 nm (specie-B), and 609 nm (specie-C). We examined the extended luminescent emission bands via photoluminescence measurements at room temperature. Closely matching the luminescent emission band to the high responsivity band of the silicon semiconductor resulted in good photovoltaic performance. Impressive improvements in efficiency were observed in all three samples: 0.5:1:1.5 (20.43%), 1:1:1 (19.67%), 1.5:1:0.5 (16.81%), compared to the control with a layer of pure SiO2 (13.80%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2018)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection
Materials 2018, 11(5), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050844
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (5774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet
[...] Read more.
The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr2 and cubic A15-Nb3X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nbss and Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Application of Globular Water-Atomized Iron Powders for Additive Manufacturing by a LENS Technique
Materials 2018, 11(5), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050843
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (5000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The water-atomized ATOMET 28, 1001, 4701, and 4801 powders, manufactured by Rio Tinto Metal Powders, were used for additive manufacturing by a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) technique. Their overall morphology was globular and rounded with a size distribution from about 20 to
[...] Read more.
The water-atomized ATOMET 28, 1001, 4701, and 4801 powders, manufactured by Rio Tinto Metal Powders, were used for additive manufacturing by a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) technique. Their overall morphology was globular and rounded with a size distribution from about 20 to 200 µm. Only the ATOMET 28 powder was characterized by a strong inhomogeneity of particle size and irregular polyhedral shape of powder particles with sharp edges. The powders were pre-sieved to a size distribution from 40 to 150 µm before LENS processing. One particular sample—LENS-fabricated from the ATOMET 28 powder—was characterized by the largest cross-sectional (2D) porosity of 4.2% and bulk porosity of 3.9%, the latter determined by microtomography measurements. In contrast, the cross-sectional porosities of bulk, solid, nearly cubic LENS-fabricated samples from the other ATOMET powders exhibited very low porosities within the range 0.03–0.1%. Unexpectedly, the solid sample—LENS-fabricated from the reference, a purely spherical Fe 99.8 powder—exhibited a porosity of 1.1%, the second largest after that of the pre-sieved, nonspherical ATOMET 28 powder. Vibrations incorporated mechanically into the LENS powder feeding system substantially improved the flow rate vs. feeding rate dependence, making it completely linear with an excellent coefficient of fit, R2 = 0.99. In comparison, the reference powder Fe 99.8 always exhibited a linear dependence of the powder flow rate vs. feeding rate, regardless of vibrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Materials Processing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Laser-Welded Crossed Nitinol Wires
Materials 2018, 11(5), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050842
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (10638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laser welding has been considered to be one of the most promising joining processes for Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Presently, there is still a limited understanding about how laser welding affects the microstructure and the resultant corrosion behaviors. This work aimed to reveal
[...] Read more.
Laser welding has been considered to be one of the most promising joining processes for Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Presently, there is still a limited understanding about how laser welding affects the microstructure and the resultant corrosion behaviors. This work aimed to reveal the microstructural factors that influence the corrosion resistance of laser-welded crossed Nitinol joints. The microstructures within various zones of the joints were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the corrosion behaviors of the joints in 0.9% NaCl and Hank’s solutions were studied. The base metal exhibits a single austenite (B2) phase and the highest corrosion resistance. The phase constituent of the fusion zone is the coexistence of the B2 matrix and some precipitates (T2Ni, TiNi3, and Ti3Ni4 particles), resulting in a slight decrease in corrosion resistance. The heat affected zone (HAZ) shows the austenite matrix but with the precipitation of R-phase, which considerably reduces the corrosion potential, making it the weakest zone. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle TiO2-ZnO Binary Oxide Systems: Comprehensive Characterization and Tests of Photocatalytic Activity
Materials 2018, 11(5), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050841
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of TiO2-ZnO binary oxide systems with various molar ratios of TiO2 and ZnO were prepared using a sol-gel method. The influence of the molar ratio and temperature of calcination on the particle sizes, morphology, crystalline structure, surface composition,
[...] Read more.
A series of TiO2-ZnO binary oxide systems with various molar ratios of TiO2 and ZnO were prepared using a sol-gel method. The influence of the molar ratio and temperature of calcination on the particle sizes, morphology, crystalline structure, surface composition, porous structure parameters, and thermal stability of the final hybrids was investigated. Additionally, to confirm the presence of characteristic surface groups of the material, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was applied. It was found that the crystalline structure, porous structure parameters, and thermal stability were determined by the molar ratio of TiO2 to ZnO and the calcination process for the most part. A key element of the study was an evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-ZnO hybrids with respect to the decomposition of C.I. Basic Blue 9, C.I. Basic Red 1, and C.I. Basic Violet 10 dyes. It was found that the TiO2-ZnO material obtained with a molar ratio of TiO2:ZnO = 9:1 and calcined at 600 °C demonstrates high photocatalytic activity in the degradation of the three organic dyes when compared with pristine TiO2. Moreover, an attempt was made to describe equilibrium aspects by applying the Langmuir-Hinsherlwood equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Oxide-Based Materials: From Synthesis to Application)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives
Materials 2018, 11(5), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050840
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM,
[...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Microstructural Evolution in High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(5), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050839
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (9880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To study the microstructural evolution in high-strain-rate shear deformation of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests of hat-shaped specimens have been conducted using a split Hopkinson pressure bar combined with the “strain-frozen” technique. A localized shear band is induced in
[...] Read more.
To study the microstructural evolution in high-strain-rate shear deformation of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests of hat-shaped specimens have been conducted using a split Hopkinson pressure bar combined with the “strain-frozen” technique. A localized shear band is induced in Ti-55511 alloy in these tests. The experimental results demonstrate that the flow stress in hat-shaped specimens remains constant (about 600 MPa) and is independent of punching depth. The width of the adiabatic shear band increases with increasing punching depth and tends to saturate at 30 μm, and the estimation of the adiabatic shear band (ASB) width in hat-shaped (HS) specimens has been modified. Relying on the experimental results, thermal softening has a minor effect on the onset of the adiabatic shear band and dynamic recrystallization formation, and the nucleation mechanism for dynamic recrystallization is strain-induced boundary migration and subgrain rotation and coalescence. In addition, we suggest the concept of adhesive fracture as the dynamic failure mechanism for Ti-55511 alloy. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle 2.45 GHz Microwave Processing and Its Influence on Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Materials 2018, 11(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050838
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (4453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the production of fiber-reinforced composite materials, liquid resin is introduced into the fiber material and cured, i.e., hardened. An elevated temperature is needed for this curing. Microwave curing of composites has been investigated for some time, but it has mostly been done
[...] Read more.
During the production of fiber-reinforced composite materials, liquid resin is introduced into the fiber material and cured, i.e., hardened. An elevated temperature is needed for this curing. Microwave curing of composites has been investigated for some time, but it has mostly been done using small domestic or laboratory equipment. However, no investigation has been carried out using an industrial-sized chamber-microwave for glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP). Here, we show that microwave curing produces laminates of the same quality as oven-cured ones. The study shows that, if the process is done right, GFRP samples can be produced with an industrial scale microwave. Even if not fully cured, microwave samples show a glass transition temperature measured with DMA (Tg-DMA) that is comparable to the Tg-DMA according to the proposed cure cycle on the data sheet. Specific microwave-cured configurations show better inter-laminar shear strength than oven specimens. The results show that microwave-based heat introduction can be a beneficial curing method for GFRP laminates. A microwave-optimized process is faster and leads to better mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top