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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story From diapers to agricultural use, from drug release to self-healing concrete, superabsorbent [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering
Materials 2017, 10(3), 243; doi:10.3390/ma10030243
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(3), 218; doi:10.3390/ma10030218
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete,
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Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Preparation Method of Two Polymer Dyes with Low Cytotoxicity
Materials 2017, 10(3), 219; doi:10.3390/ma10030219
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new preparation method of polymer dyes was developed to improve both the grafting degree of the azo dyes onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OMCS) and the water solubility of prepared polymer dyes. Firstly, the coupling compound of two azo edible colorants, sunset yellow (SY)
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A new preparation method of polymer dyes was developed to improve both the grafting degree of the azo dyes onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OMCS) and the water solubility of prepared polymer dyes. Firstly, the coupling compound of two azo edible colorants, sunset yellow (SY) and allura red (AR), was grafted onto OMCS, and then coupled with their diazonium salt. The chemical structure of prepared polymer dyes was determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR, and the results showed that the two azo dyes were successfully grafted onto OMCS. The grafting degree onto OMCS and the water solubility of polymer dyes were tested, and the results showed that they were both improved as expected. The UV-vis spectra analysis results showed that the prepared polymer dyes showed similar color performance with the original azo dyes. Eventually, the cytotoxicity of prepared polymer dyes was tested and compared with the original azo dyes by a cytotoxicity test on human liver cell lines LO2, and the results showed that their grafting onto OMCS significantly reduced the cytotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Screen-Printed Fabrication of PEDOT:PSS/Silver Nanowire Composite Films for Transparent Heaters
Materials 2017, 10(3), 220; doi:10.3390/ma10030220
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A transparent and flexible film heater was fabricated; based on a hybrid structure of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) using a screen printing; which is a scalable production technology. The resulting film integrates the advantages of the two conductive materials;
[...] Read more.
A transparent and flexible film heater was fabricated; based on a hybrid structure of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) using a screen printing; which is a scalable production technology. The resulting film integrates the advantages of the two conductive materials; easy film-forming and strong adhesion to the substrate of the polymer PEDOT:PSS; and high conductivity of the Ag NWs. The fabricated composite films with different NW densities exhibited the transmittance within the range from 82.3% to 74.1% at 550 nm. By applying 40 V potential on the films; a stable temperature from 49 °C to 99 °C was generated within 30 s to 50 s. However; the surface temperature of the pristine PEDOT:PSS film did not increase compared to the room temperature. The composite film with the transmittance of 74.1% could be heated to the temperatures from 41 °C to 99 °C at the driven voltages from 15 V to 40 V; indicating that the film heater exhibited uniform heating and rapid thermal response. Therefore; the PEDOT:PSS/Ag NW composite film is a promising candidate for the application of the transparent and large-scale film heaters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Printable Transparent Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle SCC of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel—Microstructure, Residual Stress and Surface Grinding Effects
Materials 2017, 10(3), 221; doi:10.3390/ma10030221
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in
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The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle All-Aluminum Thin Film Transistor Fabrication at Room Temperature
Materials 2017, 10(3), 222; doi:10.3390/ma10030222
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3) insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO) conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction
[...] Read more.
Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3) insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO) conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction unit. The measurements of transmittance electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) revealed the smooth interfaces between ~2.2-nm-thick Al2O3 layers and ~2.7-nm-thick AZO layers. The devices were entirely composited by aluminiferous materials, that is, their gate and source/drain electrodes were respectively fabricated by aluminum neodymium alloy (Al:Nd) and pure Al, with Al2O3/AZO multilayered channel and AlOx:Nd gate dielectric layer. As a result, the all-aluminum TFT with two Al2O3/AZO heterojunction units exhibited a mobility of 2.47 cm2/V·s and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. All processes were carried out at room temperature, which created new possibilities for green displays industry by allowing for the devices fabricated on plastic-like substrates or papers, mainly using no toxic/rare materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistor)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Water Impact of Syntactic Foams
Materials 2017, 10(3), 224; doi:10.3390/ma10030224
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Syntactic foams are particulate composite materials that are extensively integrated in naval and aerospace structures as core materials for sandwich panels. While several studies have demonstrated the potential of syntactic foams as energy absorbing materials in impact tests, our understanding of their response
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Syntactic foams are particulate composite materials that are extensively integrated in naval and aerospace structures as core materials for sandwich panels. While several studies have demonstrated the potential of syntactic foams as energy absorbing materials in impact tests, our understanding of their response to water impact remains elusive. In this work, we attempt a first characterization of the behavior of a vinyl ester/glass syntactic subject to slamming. High-speed imaging is leveraged to elucidate the physics of water impact of syntactic foam wedges in a free-fall drop tower. From the images, we simultaneously measure the deformation of the wedge and the hydrodynamic loading, thereby clarifying the central role of fluid–structure interaction during water impact. We study two different impact heights and microballoon density to assess the role of impact energy and syntactic foam composition on the slamming response. Our results demonstrate that both these factors have a critical role on the slamming response of syntactic foams. Reducing the density of microballoons might help to reduce the severity of the hydrodynamic loading experienced by the wedge, but this comes at the expense of a larger deformation. Such a larger deformation could ultimately lead to failure for large drop heights. These experimental results offer compelling evidence for the role of hydroelastic coupling in the slamming response of syntactic foams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acceleration of Intended Pozzolanic Reaction under Initial Thermal Treatment for Developing Cementless Fly Ash Based Mortar
Materials 2017, 10(3), 225; doi:10.3390/ma10030225
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C
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Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C for 3 days). A series of experiments consisting of mechanical testing (compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity), X-ray diffraction, and measurements of the heat of hydration, pore structure, and shrinkage were conducted. These tests show that this new fly ash-based mortar has a compressive strength of 15 MPa at 91 days without any silica fume addition or initial thermal treatment. The strength increased to over 50 MPa based on the acceleration of the intensified pozzolanic reaction from the silica fume addition and initial thermal treatment. This is explained by a significant synergistic effect induced by the silica fume. It intensifies the pozzolanic reaction under thermal treatment and provides a space filling effect. This improved material performance can open a new pathway to utilize the industrial by-product of fly ash in cementless construction materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode
Materials 2017, 10(3), 226; doi:10.3390/ma10030226
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between
[...] Read more.
We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□) and high optical transmittance (88.1%) at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Material Related Papers from ICI2016)
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Open AccessArticle Tunable Luminescence in Sr2MgSi2O7:Tb3+, Eu3+Phosphors Based on Energy Transfer
Materials 2017, 10(3), 227; doi:10.3390/ma10030227
Received: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of Tb3+, Eu3+-doped Sr2MgSi2O7 (SMSO) phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Rietveld refinement, photoluminescence spectra (PL), and luminescence decay curves were utilized to characterize each sample’s properties. Intense green emission due to Tb3+ 5D4→7F5 transition
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A series of Tb3+, Eu3+-doped Sr2MgSi2O7 (SMSO) phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Rietveld refinement, photoluminescence spectra (PL), and luminescence decay curves were utilized to characterize each sample’s properties. Intense green emission due to Tb3+ 5D4→7F5 transition was observed in the Tb3+ single-doped SMSO sample, and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was demonstrated to be a diople-diople interaction. A wide overlap between Tb3+ emission and Eu3+ excitationspectraresults in energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+. This has been demonstrated by the emission spectra and decay curves of Tb3+ in SMSO:Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphors. Energy transfer mechanism was determined to be a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. And critical distance of energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions is calculated to be 6.7 Å on the basis of concentration quenching method. Moreover, white light emission was generated via adjusting concentration ratio of Tb3+ and Eu3+ in SMSO:Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphors. All the results indicate that SMSO:Tb3+, Eu3+ is a promising single-component white light emitting phosphor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Evaluation of Dentin Tubule Occlusion for Novel Calcium Lactate Phosphate (CLP) Paste
Materials 2017, 10(3), 228; doi:10.3390/ma10030228
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for
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Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for 30 s and individually treated with Colgate® Pro-Relief™ paste, CLP paste, and double distilled water (ddH2O) by a rubber-cupped handpiece. Dentin disks were analyzed under optical micrographs for pre-treatment, directly after treatment, and 14 days post-treatment. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test were used to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in dentinal tubule diameter. Results: A significant decrease occurred in the mean tubule diameter for dentin disks treated with CLP paste. A decrease was observed from 3.52 ± 0.83 µm to 2.62 ± 0.42 µm right after treatment, further decreasing to 1.71 ± 0.45 µm after immersion in artificial saliva for 14 days (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that the CLP based desensitizing paste has remineralization properties and provides instant and lasting effectiveness in dentinal tubule occlusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Textural, Structural and Biological Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Doped with Zinc at Low Concentrations
Materials 2017, 10(3), 229; doi:10.3390/ma10030229
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work was focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite doped with low concentrations of zinc (Zn:HAp) (0.01 < xZn < 0.05). The incorporation of low concentrations of Zn2+ ions in the hydroxyapatite (HAp) structure was achieved by co-precipitation
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The present work was focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite doped with low concentrations of zinc (Zn:HAp) (0.01 < xZn < 0.05). The incorporation of low concentrations of Zn2+ ions in the hydroxyapatite (HAp) structure was achieved by co-precipitation method. The physico-chemical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and DLS and N2-BET measurements. The results obtained by XRD and FTIR studies demonstrated that doping hydroxyapatite with low concentrations of zinc leads to the formation of a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The XRD studies have also shown that the crystallite size and lattice parameters of the unit cell depend on the substitutions of Ca2+ with Zn2+ in the apatitic structure. Moreover, the FTIR analysis revealed that the water content increases with the increase of zinc concentration. Furthermore, the Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and XPS analyses showed that the elements Ca, P, O, and Zn were found in all the Zn:HAp samples suggesting that the synthesized materials were zinc doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10−xZnx(PO4)6(OH), with 0.01 ≤ xZn ≤ 0.05. Antimicrobial assays on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial strains and HepG2 cell viability assay were carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery
Materials 2017, 10(3), 230; doi:10.3390/ma10030230
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W
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This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(3), 231; doi:10.3390/ma10030231
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are
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The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Surfactant-Free Synthesis of p-Type SnTe Nanoparticles for Thermoelectric Applications
Materials 2017, 10(3), 233; doi:10.3390/ma10030233
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
A facile one-pot aqueous solution method has been developed for the fast and straightforward synthesis of SnTe nanoparticles in more than ten gram quantities per batch. The synthesis involves boiling an alkaline Na2SnO2 solution and a NaHTe solution for short
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A facile one-pot aqueous solution method has been developed for the fast and straightforward synthesis of SnTe nanoparticles in more than ten gram quantities per batch. The synthesis involves boiling an alkaline Na2SnO2 solution and a NaHTe solution for short time scales, in which the NaOH concentration and reaction duration play vital roles in controlling the phase purity and particle size, respectively. Spark plasma sintering of the SnTe nanoparticles produces nanostructured compacts that have a comparable thermoelectric performance to bulk counterparts synthesised by more time- and energy-intensive methods. This approach, combining an energy-efficient, surfactant-free solution synthesis with spark plasma sintering, provides a simple, rapid, and inexpensive route to p-type SnTe nanostructured materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed, Transparent Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors for Sensing Various Solvents
Materials 2017, 10(3), 234; doi:10.3390/ma10030234
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
PDF Full-text (5354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could
[...] Read more.
A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could replace conventional silicon field effect transistors (FETs) as bio-sensors. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the TFT ZnO channel to sense various liquids, such as polar solvents (ethanol), non-polar solvents (toluene) and deionized (DI) water, which were dropped and adsorbed onto the channel. It is discussed how different dielectric constants of polar/non-polar solvents and DI water were associated with various charge transport properties, demonstrating the main detection mechanisms of the thin-film transistor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bendable and Soft Material Film)
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Open AccessArticle Electrodeposited Organic Layers Formed from Aryl Diazonium Salts for Inhibition of Copper Corrosion
Materials 2017, 10(3), 235; doi:10.3390/ma10030235
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
PDF Full-text (2427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Copper substrates deposed on a gold screen-printed electrode were covered with different aryl diazonium salts by electrodeposition at 0.25 mA for 30 or 300 s. Seven compounds were investigated: 4-aminophenylacetic acid, 4-aminophenethyl alcohol, 4-fluoroaniline, 4-(heptadecafluorooctyl)aniline, 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline. Quantitative monitoring of
[...] Read more.
Copper substrates deposed on a gold screen-printed electrode were covered with different aryl diazonium salts by electrodeposition at 0.25 mA for 30 or 300 s. Seven compounds were investigated: 4-aminophenylacetic acid, 4-aminophenethyl alcohol, 4-fluoroaniline, 4-(heptadecafluorooctyl)aniline, 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline. Quantitative monitoring of the electrodeposition process was carried out by electrogravimetry using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The electrodeposited mass varies between 26 ng/cm2 for 4-fluoroaniline formed during 30 s to 442 ng/cm2 for 4-phenylbutyric acid formed during 300 s. The corrosion inhibition properties of aryl-modified layers have been studied in buffer citrate with pH = 3 or 3.5% NaCl solutions using electrochemical noise (ECN) and Tafel potentiodynamic polarization measurements. A corrosion inhibiting efficiency up to 90% was found. The highest corrosion inhibition was obtained for 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and the lowest for 4-fluoroaniline. A relation between the inhibition efficiency and the chemical nature of the substituents in the protective layer was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of p-Type ZnO:N Films by Oxidizing Zn3N2 Films in Oxygen Plasma at Low Temperature
Materials 2017, 10(3), 236; doi:10.3390/ma10030236
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The oxygen vacancy (VO) is known as the main compensation center in p-type ZnO, which leads to the difficulty of fabricating high-quality p-type ZnO. To reduce the oxygen vacancies, we oxidized Zn3N2 films in oxygen plasma and successfully
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The oxygen vacancy (VO) is known as the main compensation center in p-type ZnO, which leads to the difficulty of fabricating high-quality p-type ZnO. To reduce the oxygen vacancies, we oxidized Zn3N2 films in oxygen plasma and successfully prepared p-type ZnO:N films at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), non-Rutherford backscattering (non-RBS) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectrum, and Hall Effect. The results show that the nitrogen atoms successfully substitute the oxygen sites in the ZnO:N films. The film prepared at room temperature exhibits the highest hole concentration of 6.22 × 1018 cm−3, and the lowest resistivity of 39.47 Ω∙cm. In all ZnO:N films, the VO defects are reduced significantly. At 200 °C, the film holds the lowest value of VO defects and the strongest UV emission. These results imply that oxygen plasma is very efficient in reducing VO defects in p-type ZnO:N films, and could greatly reduce the reaction temperature. This method is significant for the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al–4Ti Master Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(3), 238; doi:10.3390/ma10030238
Received: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The Al–4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys
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The Al–4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al–4Ti master alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites
Materials 2017, 10(3), 239; doi:10.3390/ma10030239
Received: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading
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Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which confirmed the existence of GO and ZnO in the composites. Antibacterial performances of bamboo samples were evaluated by the bacteriostatic circle method. The introduction of ZnO/GO nanocomposites into bamboo yielded ZnO/GO/bamboo materials which exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, Gram-positive) bacteria and high thermal stability. The antimicrobial bamboo would be expected to be a promising material for the application in the furniture, decoration, and construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle The Stability Analysis Method of the Cohesive Granular Slope on the Basis of Graph Theory
Materials 2017, 10(3), 240; doi:10.3390/ma10030240
Received: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper attempted to provide a method to calculate progressive failure of the cohesivefrictional granular geomaterial and the spatial distribution of the stability of the cohesive granular slope. The methodology can be divided into two parts: the characterization method of macro-contact and the
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This paper attempted to provide a method to calculate progressive failure of the cohesivefrictional granular geomaterial and the spatial distribution of the stability of the cohesive granular slope. The methodology can be divided into two parts: the characterization method of macro-contact and the analysis of the slope stability. Based on the graph theory, the vertexes, the edges and the edge sequences are abstracted out to characterize the voids, the particle contact and the macro-contact, respectively, bridging the gap between the mesoscopic and macro scales of granular materials. This paper adopts this characterization method to extract a graph from a granular slope and characterize the macro sliding surface, then the weighted graph is analyzed to calculate the slope safety factor. Each edge has three weights representing the sliding moment, the anti-sliding moment and the braking index of contact-bond, respectively, . The safety factor of the slope is calculated by presupposing a certain number of sliding routes and reducing Weight repeatedly and counting the mesoscopic failure of the edge. It is a kind of slope analysis method from mesoscopic perspective so it can present more detail of the mesoscopic property of the granular slope. In the respect of macro scale, the spatial distribution of the stability of the granular slope is in agreement with the theoretical solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granular Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Structure-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties of Yb3+-Doped Phosphosilicate Glasses Modified by SiO2
Materials 2017, 10(3), 241; doi:10.3390/ma10030241
Received: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses containing different amounts of SiO2 were successfully synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method. The influence mechanism of SiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic properties was investigated systematically using the micro-Raman technique. It was worth noting that
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Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses containing different amounts of SiO2 were successfully synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method. The influence mechanism of SiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic properties was investigated systematically using the micro-Raman technique. It was worth noting that the glass with 26.7 mol % SiO2 possessed the longest fluorescence lifetime (1.51 ms), the highest gain coefficient (1.10 ms·pm2), the maximum Stark splitting manifold of 2F7/2 level (781 cm−1), and the largest scalar crystal-field NJ and Yb3+ asymmetry degree. Micro-Raman spectra revealed that introducing SiO2 promoted the formation of P=O linkages, but broke the P=O linkages when the SiO2 content was greater than 26.7 mol %. Based on the previous 29Si MAS NMR experimental results, these findings further demonstrated that the formation of [SiO6] may significantly affect the formation of P=O linkages, and thus influences the spectroscopic properties of the glass. These results indicate that phosphosilicate glasses may have potential applications as a Yb3+-doped gain medium for solid-state lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Upscaling Cement Paste Microstructure to Obtain the Fracture, Shear, and Elastic Concrete Mechanical LDPM Parameters
Materials 2017, 10(3), 242; doi:10.3390/ma10030242
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Modeling the complex behavior of concrete for a specific mixture is a challenging task, as it requires bridging the cement scale and the concrete scale. We describe a multiscale analysis procedure for the modeling of concrete structures, in which material properties at the
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Modeling the complex behavior of concrete for a specific mixture is a challenging task, as it requires bridging the cement scale and the concrete scale. We describe a multiscale analysis procedure for the modeling of concrete structures, in which material properties at the macro scale are evaluated based on lower scales. Concrete may be viewed over a range of scale sizes, from the atomic scale (10−10 m), which is characterized by the behavior of crystalline particles of hydrated Portland cement, to the macroscopic scale (10 m). The proposed multiscale framework is based on several models, including chemical analysis at the cement paste scale, a mechanical lattice model at the cement and mortar scales, geometrical aggregate distribution models at the mortar scale, and the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) at the concrete scale. The analysis procedure starts from a known chemical and mechanical set of parameters of the cement paste, which are then used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the LDPM concrete parameters for the fracture, shear, and elastic responses of the concrete. Although a macroscopic validation study of this procedure is presented, future research should include a comparison to additional experiments in each scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists
Materials 2017, 10(3), 244; doi:10.3390/ma10030244
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium
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Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS)) were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of ZTO, ITO, and a-Si:H Multilayer Films for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells
Materials 2017, 10(3), 245; doi:10.3390/ma10030245
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young’s modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed
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The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young’s modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO) conductive coatings were prepared. Whereas a characteristic grain–subgrain structure was observed in ITO-1 films, grain growth was suppressed in ITO-2 films. ITO-1 bilayer coatings showed two-step failure under tensile load with cracks propagating along the ITO-1/a-Si:H-interface, whereas channeling cracks in comparable bi- and trilayers based on amorphous ITO-2 run through all constituent layers. A two-step failure is preferable from an application point of view, as it may lead to only a degradation of the performance instead of the ultimate failure of the device. Hence, the results demonstrate the importance of a fine-tuning of film microstructure not only for excellent electrical properties, but also for a high mechanical performance of flexible devices (e.g., a-Si:H based solar cells) during fabrication in a roll-to-roll process or under service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stretchable and Flexible Electronic Materials & Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler
Materials 2017, 10(3), 246; doi:10.3390/ma10030246
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand
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The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0–20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increase in epoxy and filler content. Modulus of elasticity also linearly increased with the increase in filler content, but the use of epoxy content beyond 20 wt. % decreased the modulus of elasticity of the mortar. For epoxy content at 10 wt. %, poor bond strength lower than 0.8 MPa was observed, and adding filler at 20 wt. % adversely affected the bond strength, in contrast to the mortars containing epoxy at 15, 20, 25 wt. %. The results indicate that the sand washing waste can be used as potential filler for epoxy resin mortar to obtain better mechanical properties by adding the optimum level of sand washing waste filler. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethanes with Cross-Linked Siloxane in the Side Chain by Sol-Gel Reactions
Materials 2017, 10(3), 247; doi:10.3390/ma10030247
Received: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of novel polyurethanes containing cross-linked siloxane in the side chain (SPU) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The SPU was composed of 0%–20% N-(n-butyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (HDI-T) modified hexamethylene diisocynate homopolymer. The effects of HDI-T content on both the structure and properties
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A series of novel polyurethanes containing cross-linked siloxane in the side chain (SPU) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The SPU was composed of 0%–20% N-(n-butyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (HDI-T) modified hexamethylene diisocynate homopolymer. The effects of HDI-T content on both the structure and properties of SPU were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical properties tests, gel content test, water contact angle measurement and water absorption test. FT-IR, XPS and XRD results confirmed the successful incorporation of HDI-T onto polyurethanes and the formation of Si–O–Si. The surface roughness and the Si content of SPU enhanced with the increase of HDI-T content. Both crystallization and melting temperature shifted to a lower point after the incorporation of HDI-T. The hydrophobicity, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and pencil hardness overall increased with the increasing of HDI-T content, whereas the thermal stability and the elongation at break of SPU slightly decreased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Necessary Conditions for Nonlinear Ultrasonic Modulation Generation Given a Localized Fatigue Crack in a Plate-Like Structure
Materials 2017, 10(3), 248; doi:10.3390/ma10030248
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
It has been shown that nonlinear ultrasonics can be more sensitive to local incipient defects, such as a fatigue crack, than conventional linear ultrasonics. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in utilizing nonlinear ultrasonics for structural health monitoring and nondestructive testing applications. While
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It has been shown that nonlinear ultrasonics can be more sensitive to local incipient defects, such as a fatigue crack, than conventional linear ultrasonics. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in utilizing nonlinear ultrasonics for structural health monitoring and nondestructive testing applications. While the conditions, which are the necessary conditions that should be satisfied for the generation of nonlinear harmonic components, are extensively studied for distributed material nonlinearity, little work has been done to understand the necessary conditions at the presence of a localized nonlinear source such as a fatigue crack. In this paper, the necessary conditions of nonlinear ultrasonic modulation generation in a plate-like structure are formulated specifically for a localized nonlinear source. Then, the correctness of the formulated necessary conditions is experimentally verified using ultrasounds obtained from aluminum plates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Anisotropy and Field‐induced Slow  Relaxation of Magnetization in Tetracoordinate CoII Compound [Co(CH3‐im)2Cl2]
Materials 2017, 10(3), 249; doi:10.3390/ma10030249
Received: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Static and dynamic magnetic properties of the tetracoordinate CoII complex [Co(CH3‐im)2Cl2], (1, CH3‐im = N‐methyl‐imidazole), studied using thorough analyses of magnetometry, and High‐Frequency and ‐Field EPR (HFEPR) measurements, are reported. The study was supported by ab initio complete active space self‐consistent field (CASSCF)
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Static and dynamic magnetic properties of the tetracoordinate CoII complex [Co(CH3‐im)2Cl2], (1, CH3‐im = N‐methyl‐imidazole), studied using thorough analyses of magnetometry, and High‐Frequency and ‐Field EPR (HFEPR) measurements, are reported. The study was supported by ab initio complete active space self‐consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. It has been revealed that 1 possesses a large magnetic anisotropy with a large rhombicity (magnetometry: D = −13.5 cm−1, E/D = 0.33; HFEPR: D = −14.5(1) cm−1, E/D = 0.16(1)). These experimental results agree well with the theoretical calculations (D = −11.2 cm−1, E/D = 0.18). Furthermore, it has been revealed that 1 behaves as a field‐induced single‐ion magnet with a relatively large spin‐reversal barrier (Ueff = 33.5 K). The influence of the Cl–Co–Cl angle on magnetic anisotropy parameters was evaluated using the CASSCF calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Magnets and related Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Solidification Behavior on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Superalloy Investment Casting
Materials 2017, 10(3), 250; doi:10.3390/ma10030250
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm,
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The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of the Laves phase increases from 0.3% to 1.2%, from 11.7 μm to 23.4 μm, respectively. Meanwhile, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of carbides increase from 0.3% to 0.5%, from 8.1 μm to 9.9 μm, respectively. In addition, the volume fraction of microporosity increases from 0.3% to 2.7%. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength is reduced from 1125.5 MPa to 820.9 MPa, the elongation from 13.3% to 7.7%, and the quality index from 1294.2 MPa to 954.0 MPa, respectively. A typical brittle fracture is observed on the tensile fracture. As the cooling rate decreases, the microstructures become coarser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Roles of Cu in the Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3
Materials 2017, 10(3), 251; doi:10.3390/ma10030251
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Recently, Cu-containing p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials have shown high thermoelectric performances and promising prospects for practical application in low-grade waste heat recovery. However, the position of Cu in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is controversial, and the roles
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Recently, Cu-containing p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials have shown high thermoelectric performances and promising prospects for practical application in low-grade waste heat recovery. However, the position of Cu in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is controversial, and the roles of Cu in the enhancement of thermoelectric performance are still not clear. In this study, via defects analysis and stability test, the possibility of Cu intercalation in p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials has been excluded, and the position of Cu is identified as doping at the Sb sites. Additionally, the effects of Cu dopants on the electrical and thermal transport properties have been systematically investigated. Besides introducing additional holes, Cu dopants can also significantly enhance the carrier mobility by decreasing the Debye screen length and weakening the interaction between carriers and phonons. Meanwhile, the Cu dopants interrupt the periodicity of lattice vibration and bring stronger anharmonicity, leading to extremely low lattice thermal conductivity. Combining the suppression on the intrinsic excitation, a high thermoelectric performance—with a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of around 1.4 at 430 K—has been achieved in Cu0.005Bi0.5Sb1.495Te3, which is 70% higher than the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Nitrogen-Polar (000 1 ¯ ) GaN Grown on c-Plane Sapphire with a High-Temperature AlN Buffer
Materials 2017, 10(3), 252; doi:10.3390/ma10030252
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
We demonstrate growing nitrogen-polar (N-polar) GaN epilayer on c-plane sapphire using a thin AlN buffer layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We have studied the influence of the AlN buffer layer on the polarity, crystalline quality, and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer
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We demonstrate growing nitrogen-polar (N-polar) GaN epilayer on c-plane sapphire using a thin AlN buffer layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We have studied the influence of the AlN buffer layer on the polarity, crystalline quality, and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer and found that the growth temperature of the AlN buffer layer played a critical role in the growth of the GaN epilayer. The low growth temperature of the AlN buffer results in gallium-polar GaN. Even a nitridation process has been conducted. High growth temperature for an AlN buffer layer is required to achieve pure N-polarity, high crystalline quality, and smooth surface morphology for a GaN epilayer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Grown by Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy)
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Open AccessArticle Ductility Improvement of an AZ61 Magnesium Alloy through Two-Pass Submerged Friction Stir Processing
Materials 2017, 10(3), 253; doi:10.3390/ma10030253
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Friction stir processing (FSP) has been considered as a novel technique to refine the grain size and homogenize the microstructure of metallic materials. In this study, two-pass FSP was conducted under water to enhance the cooling rate during processing, and an AZ61 magnesium
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Friction stir processing (FSP) has been considered as a novel technique to refine the grain size and homogenize the microstructure of metallic materials. In this study, two-pass FSP was conducted under water to enhance the cooling rate during processing, and an AZ61 magnesium alloy with fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure was prepared through this method. Compared to the as-cast material, one-pass FSP resulted in grain refinement and the β-Mg17Al12 phase was broken into small particles. Using a smaller stirring tool and an overlapping ratio of 100%, a finer and more uniform microstructure with an average grain size of 4.6 μm was obtained through two-pass FSP. The two-pass FSP resulted in a significant improvement in elongation of 37.2% ± 4.3%, but a slight decrease in strength compared with one-pass FSP alloy. Besides the microstructure refinement, the texture evolution in the stir zone is also considered responsible for the ductility improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wettability and Contact Time on a Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surface
Materials 2017, 10(3), 254; doi:10.3390/ma10030254
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Inspired by the array microstructure of natural superhydrophobic surfaces (lotus leaf and cicada wing), an array microstructure was successfully constructed by high speed wire electrical discharge machining (HS-WEDM) on the surfaces of a 7075 aluminum alloy without any chemical treatment. The artificial surfaces
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Inspired by the array microstructure of natural superhydrophobic surfaces (lotus leaf and cicada wing), an array microstructure was successfully constructed by high speed wire electrical discharge machining (HS-WEDM) on the surfaces of a 7075 aluminum alloy without any chemical treatment. The artificial surfaces had a high apparent contact angle of 153° ± 1° with a contact angle hysteresis less than 5° and showed a good superhydrophobic property. Wettability, contact time, and the corresponding superhydrophobic mechanism of artificial superhydrophobic surface were investigated. The results indicated that the micro-scale array microstructure was an important factor for the superhydrophobic surface, while different array microstructures exhibited different effects on the wettability and contact time of the artificial superhydrophobic surface. The length (L), interval (S), and height (H) of the array microstructure are the main influential factors on the wettability and contact time. The order of importance of these factors is H > S > L for increasing the apparent contact angle and reducing the contact time. The method, using HS-WEDM to fabricate superhydrophobic surface, is simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and can easily control the wettability and contact time on the artificial surfaces by changing the array microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Streptococcus Sanguis Biofilm Architecture and Its Influence on Titanium Corrosion in Enriched Artificial Saliva
Materials 2017, 10(3), 255; doi:10.3390/ma10030255
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
PDF Full-text (4050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bacteria biofilm formation on metals is well-known, while biofilm architecture varies under different conditions. To date, few studies have determined the possible contribution to corrosion of titanium made by biofilm architecture. We investigated the interaction between the oral Streptococcus sanguis biofilm architecture and
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Bacteria biofilm formation on metals is well-known, while biofilm architecture varies under different conditions. To date, few studies have determined the possible contribution to corrosion of titanium made by biofilm architecture. We investigated the interaction between the oral Streptococcus sanguis biofilm architecture and its influence on titanium corrosion in enriched artificial saliva using electrochemical methods and microscopic study. Patchy biofilms were observed on titanium surface after being immersed in solution containing S. sanguis. The thickness and size of the patchy biofilms increased with an increase of immersion time. The extensive pits were clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy, showing that adsorption of S. sanguis on titanium promoted the localized corrosion. The electrochemical results indicated that the corrosion rates were clearly accelerated in the presence of S. sanguis. The low icorr and high Rt in the first 48 h indicated that a typical passive behavior still remained. Our study showed that the pitting corrosion of titanium was mainly attributed to the formation of a self-catalytic corrosion cell by the co-effect of patchy biofilm and organic acid secreted by S. sanguis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(3), 256; doi:10.3390/ma10030256
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation
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Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bilayer Poly(Lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Membrane with Barrier Function and Osteogenesis Promotion for Guided Bone Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(3), 257; doi:10.3390/ma10030257
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one such treatment that reconstructs neo-bone tissue by using a barrier membrane to prevent the invasion of soft tissue and to create a space for guiding new bone growth into the bone defect. Herein, we report a novel
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Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one such treatment that reconstructs neo-bone tissue by using a barrier membrane to prevent the invasion of soft tissue and to create a space for guiding new bone growth into the bone defect. Herein, we report a novel functionally graded bilayer membrane (FGBM) for GBR application. To fabricate the novel membrane, the composites of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and nano-hydroxyapatite were prepared by phase inversion for the dense layer and by electrospinning for another porous layer, and their corresponding properties were evaluated including surface morphology, mechanics, degradability, cell barrier function, and in vitro osteogenic bioactivity. The results showed that PLGA with 5% nHA in dense layer could meet the requirement of mechanical strength and have excellent barrier function even on condition of post-degradation. Furthermore, PLGA with 30% nHA in porous layer could achieve the good physical and chemical properties. In addition, 30% nHA incorporation would enhance the in vitro mineralization, and have superior capabilities of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared to other groups. Therefore, the designed FGBM could potentially serve as a barrier for preferential tissue ingrowth and achieve a desirable therapeutic result for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Nanocomposite Based on Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization
Materials 2017, 10(3), 258; doi:10.3390/ma10030258
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS), were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane (sPEEK). The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles
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Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS), were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane (sPEEK). The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles grown in the sPEEK membrane, showed the plasmon resonance λmax at about 520 nm, which remained stable over a testing period of three months. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was assessed, and the sPEEK membrane roughness, both before and after the synthesis of nanoparticles, was studied by AFM. The XPS measurements confirm Au-3MPS formation in the sPEEK membrane. Moreover, AFM experiments recorded in fluid allowed the production of images of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK composite in water at different pH levels, achieving a better understanding of the membrane behavior in a water environment; the dynamic hydration process of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK membrane was investigated. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed nanocomposite membranes could be promising materials for fuel cell applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Wear and Deformation in Different Configurations of Polyethylene Acetabular Cups Using Micro X-ray Computed Tomography
Materials 2017, 10(3), 259; doi:10.3390/ma10030259
Received: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three
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Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three different batches of ultrahigh-molecular-polyethylene acetabular cups used for hip implants using nondestructive microcomputed tomography. Three different configurations of polyethylene acetabular cups, previously tested under the ISO 14242 parameters, were tested on a hip simulator for an additional 2 million cycles using a modified ISO 14242 load waveform. In this context, a new approach was proposed in order to simulate, on a hip joint simulator, high-demand activities. In addition, the effects of these activities were analyzed in terms of wear and deformations of those polyethylenes by means of gravimetric method and micro X-ray computed tomography. In particular, while the gravimetric method was used for weight loss assessment, microcomputed tomography allowed for acquisition of additional quantitative information about the evolution of local wear and deformation through three-dimensional surface deviation maps for the entire cups’ surface. Experimental results showed that the wear and deformation behavior of these materials change according to different mechanical simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects
Materials 2017, 10(3), 260; doi:10.3390/ma10030260
Received: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that
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Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate
Materials 2017, 10(3), 261; doi:10.3390/ma10030261
Received: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in
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The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Separation of Lead with a Novel Ion Separating Agent Prepared by Clothing a Chitin Whisker on a Potassium Tetratitanate Whisker
Materials 2017, 10(3), 262; doi:10.3390/ma10030262
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Separation of Pb2+ from Cu2+-Pb2+ mixed solution by a newly-developed ion separating agent was examined, which was obtained by clothing chitin whiskers (ChW) on the surface of potassium tetratitanate whiskers (PTW). The separation capability and mechanism of the ion
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Separation of Pb2+ from Cu2+-Pb2+ mixed solution by a newly-developed ion separating agent was examined, which was obtained by clothing chitin whiskers (ChW) on the surface of potassium tetratitanate whiskers (PTW). The separation capability and mechanism of the ion separating agent (ChW-PTW) was determined, based on the difference of the adsorption isotherm pattern and the adsorption kinetics model between ChW and PTW on Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption process of ChW could be described by Freundlish isotherm. The adsorption affinity of Cu2+ (kF = 0.085·g−1) on ChW was greater than Pb2+ (kF = 0.077 g−1). The adsorption pattern of PTW was inclined to the Langmuir isotherm, and Pb2+ (kL = 310.59 L·mmol−1) could be obviously more easily adsorbed on PTW than Cu2+ (kL = 25.85 L·mmol−1). The experimental data both fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics. The reaction rate of Pb2+ (k2 = 4.442 for ChW and k2 = 0.846 for PTW) was greater than that of Cu2+ on both ChW and PTW, while the diffusion rate of intra-particles of PTW was much higher than ChW. The adsorption model of ChW and PTW could illustrate well the separation mechanism of ChW-PTW and allowed for relevant results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Verification of the Seismic Performance of a Rigidly Connected Modular System Depending on the Shape and Size of the Ceiling Bracket
Materials 2017, 10(3), 263; doi:10.3390/ma10030263
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Modular systems have been mostly researched in relatively low-rise structures but, lately, their applications to mid- to high-rise structures began to be reviewed, and research interest in new modularization subjects has increased. The application of modular systems to mid- to high-rise structures requires
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Modular systems have been mostly researched in relatively low-rise structures but, lately, their applications to mid- to high-rise structures began to be reviewed, and research interest in new modularization subjects has increased. The application of modular systems to mid- to high-rise structures requires the structural stability of the frame and connections that consist of units, and the evaluation of the stiffness of structures that are combined in units. However, the combination of general units causes loss of the cross-section of columns or beams, resulting in low seismic performance and hindering installation works in the field. In addition, the evaluation of a frame considering such a cross-sectional loss is not easy. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a joint that is stable and easy to install. In the study, a rigidly connected modular system was proposed as a moment-resisting frame for a unit modular system, and their joints were developed and their performances were compared. The proposed system changed the ceiling beam into a bracket type to fasten bolts. It can be merged with other seismic force-resisting systems. To verify the seismic performance of the proposed system, a cyclic loading test was conducted, and the rigidly connected joint performance and integrated behavior at the joint of modular units were investigated. From the experimental results, the maximum resisting force of the proposed connection exceeded the theoretical parameters, indicating that a rigid joint structural performance could be secured. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires
Materials 2017, 10(3), 264; doi:10.3390/ma10030264
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present
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This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Violet Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) from a Conjugated Polymer (PFO-co-pX) in Solution
Materials 2017, 10(3), 265; doi:10.3390/ma10030265
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
The optical of conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(2,5-p-xylene)] also known as [(PFO-co-pX), ADS145UV], dissolved in a few solvents, has been measured. The absorption, emission spectra, and quantum yield have been investigated by using a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer, respectively. The properties of Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE)
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The optical of conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(2,5-p-xylene)] also known as [(PFO-co-pX), ADS145UV], dissolved in a few solvents, has been measured. The absorption, emission spectra, and quantum yield have been investigated by using a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer, respectively. The properties of Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) of conjugated PFO-co-pX polymer under different conditions such as solvent type, concentration, and pumping energy have been examined by using the tripled frequency of a Nd:YAG laser as a source of pumping. The relation between output energy and pumping energy for the samples with different concentrations in three solvents has been studied. In addition, efficiency and optical gain from the ASE were measured. Additionally, the stability of this polymer as a laser material was investigated. Among the host of conjugated polymer lasers obtained by optical pumping, this conjugated polymer has exhibited only one ASE band under a wide range of concentrations and pump power values. This is most likely due to the steric hindrance by the copolymer segment pX (2,5-p-xylene). This investigation has provided new insights into the excited state dynamics of conjugated polymer materials and has shown that this new conjugated polymer is quite efficient in the violet region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle BPPO-Based Anion Exchange Membranes for Acid Recovery via Diffusion Dialysis
Materials 2017, 10(3), 266; doi:10.3390/ma10030266
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
To reduce the environmental impact of acids present in various industrial wastes, improved and robust anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are highly desired. Moreover, they should exhibit high retention of salts, fast acid permeation and they should be able to operate with low energy
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To reduce the environmental impact of acids present in various industrial wastes, improved and robust anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are highly desired. Moreover, they should exhibit high retention of salts, fast acid permeation and they should be able to operate with low energy input. In this work, AEMs are prepared using a facile solution-casting from brominated poly-(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) and increasing amounts of 2-phenylimidazole (PI). Neither quaternary ammonium salts, nor ionic liquids and silica-containing compounds are involved in the synthesis. The prepared membranes showed an ion exchange capacity of 1.1–1.8 mmol/g, a water uptake of 22%–47%, a linear expansion ratio of 1%–6% and a tensile strength of 0.83–10.20 MPa. These membranes have potential for recovering waste acid via diffusion dialysis, as the acid dialysis coefficient (UH) at room temperature for HCl is in the range of 0.006–0.018 m/h while the separation factor (S) is in the range of 16–28, which are higher than commercial DF-120B membranes (UH = 0.004 m/h, S = 24). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Sintering Temperature on Structural, Dielectric, and Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic YFeO3 Ceramics Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2017, 10(3), 267; doi:10.3390/ma10030267
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid reaction method, phase-pure YFeO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity
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Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid reaction method, phase-pure YFeO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity YFeO3 ceramics can be prepared using SPS, while the results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies resulting from transformation from Fe3+ to Fe2+ is low. The relative density of the 1000 °C-sintered sample is as high as 97.7%, which is much higher than those of the samples sintered at other temperatures. The present dielectric and magnetic properties are much better than those of the samples fabricated by conventional methods. These findings indicate that the YFeO3 ceramics prepared by the low temperature solid reaction and SPS methods possess excellent dielectric and magnetic properties, making them suitable for potential applications involving magnetic storage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inducing Stable α + β Microstructures during Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Using Intensified Intrinsic Heat Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(3), 268; doi:10.3390/ma10030268
Received: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Selective laser melting is a promising powder-bed-based additive manufacturing technique for titanium alloys: near net-shaped metallic components can be produced with high resource-efficiency and cost savings [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing Adsorption Performance of Granular Activated Carbon with Permittivity
Materials 2017, 10(3), 269; doi:10.3390/ma10030269
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
A number of studies have achieved the consensus that microwave thermal technology can regenerate the granular activated carbon (GAC) more efficiently and energy-conservatively than other technologies. In particular, in the microwave heating industry, permittivity is a crucial parameter. This paper developed two equivalent
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A number of studies have achieved the consensus that microwave thermal technology can regenerate the granular activated carbon (GAC) more efficiently and energy-conservatively than other technologies. In particular, in the microwave heating industry, permittivity is a crucial parameter. This paper developed two equivalent models to establish the relationship between effective complex permittivity and pore volume of the GAC. It is generally based on Maxwell-Garnett approximation (MGA) theory. With two different assumptions in the model, two quantificational expressions were derived, respectively. Permittivity measurements and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) testing had been introduced in the experiments. Results confirmed the two expressions, which were extremely similar. Theoretical and experimental graphs were matched. This paper set up a bridge which links effective complex permittivity and pore volume of the GAC. Furthermore, it provides a potential and convenient method for the rapid assisted characterization of the GAC in its adsorption performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Elastic Deformation of a Point-Sharp Indenter on Nanoindentation Behavior
Materials 2017, 10(3), 270; doi:10.3390/ma10030270
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
The effect of the elastic deformation of a point-sharp indenter on the relationship between the indentation load P and penetration depth h (P-h curve) is examined through the numerical analysis of conical indentations simulated with the finite element method [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle KDP Aqueous Solution-in-Oil Microemulsion for Ultra-Precision Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of KDP Crystal
Materials 2017, 10(3), 271; doi:10.3390/ma10030271
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
A novel functional KH2PO4 (KDP) aqueous solution-in-oil (KDP aq/O) microemulsion system for KDP crystal ultra-precision chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) was prepared. The system, which consisted of decanol, Triton X-100, and KH2PO4 aqueous solution, was available at room temperature.
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A novel functional KH2PO4 (KDP) aqueous solution-in-oil (KDP aq/O) microemulsion system for KDP crystal ultra-precision chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) was prepared. The system, which consisted of decanol, Triton X-100, and KH2PO4 aqueous solution, was available at room temperature. The functional KDP aq/O microemulsion system was systematically studied and applied as polishing solution to KDP CMP technology. In this study, a controlled deliquescent mechanism was proposed for KDP polishing with the KDP aq/O microemulsion. KDP aqueous solution, the chemical etchant in the polishing process, was caged into the micelles in the microemulsion, leading to a limitation of the reaction between the KDP crystal and KDP aqueous solution only if the microemulsion was deformed under the effect of the external force. Based on the interface reaction dynamics, KDP aqueous solutions with different concentrations (cKDP) were applied to replace water in the traditional water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion. The practicability of the controlled deliquescent mechanism was proved by the decreasing material removal rate (MRR) with the increasing of the cKDP. As a result, the corrosion pits on the KDP surface were avoided to some degree. Moreover, the roughnesses of KDP with KDP aq/O microemulsion (cKDP was changed from 10 mM to 100 mM) as polishing solutions were smaller than that with the W/O microemulsion. The smallest surface root-mean-square roughness of 1.5 nm was obtained at a 30 mmol/L KDP aq solution, because of the most appropriate deliquescent rate and MRR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Structural Evolution during Milling, Annealing, and Rapid Consolidation of Nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al Powder
Materials 2017, 10(3), 272; doi:10.3390/ma10030272
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Structural changes during the deformation-induced synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al alloy powder via high-energy ball milling followed by annealing and rapid consolidation by spark plasma sintering were investigated. Reduction in crystallite size was observed during the synthesis, which was associated with the lattice expansion
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Structural changes during the deformation-induced synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al alloy powder via high-energy ball milling followed by annealing and rapid consolidation by spark plasma sintering were investigated. Reduction in crystallite size was observed during the synthesis, which was associated with the lattice expansion and rise in dislocation density, reflecting the generation of the excess grain boundary interfacial energy and the excess free volume. Subsequent annealing led to the exponential growth of the crystallites with a concomitant drop in the dislocation density. The rapid consolidation of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline alloy powder by the spark plasma sintering, on the other hand, showed only a limited grain growth due to the reduction of processing time for the consolidation by about 95% when compared to annealing at the same temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Strain Effect on Electronic Structure and Work Function in α-Fe2O3 Films
Materials 2017, 10(3), 273; doi:10.3390/ma10030273
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
We investigate the electronic structure and work function modulation of α-Fe2O3 films by strain based on the density functional method. We find that the band gap of clean α-Fe2O3 films is a function of the strain and
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We investigate the electronic structure and work function modulation of α-Fe2O3 films by strain based on the density functional method. We find that the band gap of clean α-Fe2O3 films is a function of the strain and is influenced significantly by the element termination on the surface. The px and py orbitals keep close to Fermi level and account for a pronounced narrowing band gap under compressive strain, while unoccupied dz2 orbitals from conduction band minimum draw nearer to Fermi level and are responsible for the pronounced narrowing band gap under tensile strain. The spin polarized surface state, arising from localized dangling-bond states, is insensitive to strain, while the bulk band, especially for pz orbital, arising from extended Bloch states, is very sensitive to strain, which plays an important role for work function decreasing (increasing) under compressive (tensile) strain in Fe termination films. In particular, the work function in O terminated films is insensitive to strain because pz orbitals are less sensitive to strain than that of Fe termination films. Our findings confirm that the strain is an effective means to manipulate electronic structures and corrosion potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns before and after Fire
Materials 2017, 10(3), 274; doi:10.3390/ma10030274
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after
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Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after fire, to evaluate the degradation of bearing capacity due to fire exposure. Six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests at room temperature and the other six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests after a fire exposure. The main parameters of the specimens include the wall thickness of the steel tube (steel content) and the type of concrete materials. Several parameters as obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, deformation capacity, and failure characteristics of the specimens. Meanwhile, rate of loss of bearing capacity of specimens exposed to fire were calculated based on the standards EC4 and CECS28:90. The results show that concrete material has a large influence on the rate of loss of bearing capacity in the case of a relatively lower steel ratio. While steel content has little effect on the rate of loss of bearing capacity of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns after fire, it has a relatively large influence on the loss rate of bearing capacity of the RACFST columns. The loss of bearing capacity of the specimens from the experiment is more serious than that from the calculation. As the calculated values are less conservative, particular attention should be given to the application of recycled aggregate concrete in actual structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Sensitized Corrosion of the 5383-H116 Al-Mg Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(3), 275; doi:10.3390/ma10030275
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the effects of heat treatment and sensitized corrosion on the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy were investigated for temperatures ranging from 100 to 450 °C. The results show that the heat treatment temperature is the main factor that causes changes to the
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In this study, the effects of heat treatment and sensitized corrosion on the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy were investigated for temperatures ranging from 100 to 450 °C. The results show that the heat treatment temperature is the main factor that causes changes to the microstructure and mechanical strength of the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy, inducing β-phase (Al3Mg2) precipitation in the form of a continuous layer along the grain boundaries. Intergranular corrosion was caused by the β-phase of the grain boundary precipitation, and the corrosion susceptibility of the recrystallized structure was significantly higher than the corrosion susceptibility of the recovered structure. According to the conductivity values detected, β-phase precipitation can enhance the 5383-H116 Al-Mg alloy conductivity, with the response due to structural dislocation density being higher than that due to the recrystallized structure. As such, the β-phase precipitation after sensitization is more significant than the β-phase precipitation prior to the sensitization, such that after sensitization, the conductivity rises to a significantly higher level than that exhibited by the recrystallization structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Material Related Papers from ICI2016)
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Open AccessArticle Behaviour of Corroded Single Stud Shear Connectors
Materials 2017, 10(3), 276; doi:10.3390/ma10030276
Received: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the effect of corrosion on the static behavior of stud shear connectors was investigated. An innovative test setup for single stud shear connectors was designed and established. Two series of specimens having different stud diameters were fabricated and tested. The
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In this study, the effect of corrosion on the static behavior of stud shear connectors was investigated. An innovative test setup for single stud shear connectors was designed and established. Two series of specimens having different stud diameters were fabricated and tested. The test specimens were firstly corroded to different corrosion rates by the electronic accelerating method. Static loading tests were then performed to obtain the load-slip curves and ultimate strengths of the corroded test specimens. The actual corrosion rates were measured from the studs obtained from the tested specimens. The test results were compared with the push out test specimens having similar corrosion rates. It is shown that the test results obtained from the single stud shear connectors are conservative compared with the corroded push test specimens, which prove the validation of the single stud shear connector test method. The effect of corrosion on the behavior of stud shear connectors was also presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of the Composition of Ru100−xAlx (x = 50, 55, 60, 67) Thin Films on Their Thermal Stability
Materials 2017, 10(3), 277; doi:10.3390/ma10030277
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
RuAl thin films possess a high potential as a high temperature stable metallization for surface acoustic wave devices. During the annealing process of the Ru-Al films, Al2O3 is formed at the surface of the films even under high vacuum conditions,
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RuAl thin films possess a high potential as a high temperature stable metallization for surface acoustic wave devices. During the annealing process of the Ru-Al films, Al 2 O 3 is formed at the surface of the films even under high vacuum conditions, so that the composition of a deposited Ru 50 Al 50 film is shifted to a Ru-rich alloy. To compensate for this effect, the Al content is systematically increased during the deposition of the Ru-Al films. Three Al-rich alloys—Ru 45 Al 55 , Ru 40 Al 60 and Ru 33 Al 67 —were analyzed concerning their behavior after high temperature treatment under high vacuum and air conditions in comparison to the initial Ru 50 Al 50 sample. Although the films’ cross sections show a more homogeneous structure in the case of the Al-rich films, the RuAl phase formation is reduced with increasing Al content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets
Materials 2017, 10(3), 279; doi:10.3390/ma10030279
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder
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Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Cladding)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Tensile and Compressive Properties of an Extruded AZ91 Rod by the Combined Use of Torsion Deformation and Aging Treatment
Materials 2017, 10(3), 280; doi:10.3390/ma10030280
Received: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
In this study, AZ91 magnesium alloy rods were used to investigate the effects of torsion deformation on microstructure and subsequent aging behavior. Extruded AZ91 rod has a uniform microstructure and typical fiber texture. Torsion deformation can generate a gradient microstructure on the cross-section
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In this study, AZ91 magnesium alloy rods were used to investigate the effects of torsion deformation on microstructure and subsequent aging behavior. Extruded AZ91 rod has a uniform microstructure and typical fiber texture. Torsion deformation can generate a gradient microstructure on the cross-section of the rod. After torsion, from the center to the edge in the cross-section of the rod, both stored dislocations and area fraction of {10-12} twins gradually increase, and the basal pole of the texture tends to rotate in the ED direction. Direct aging usually generates coarse discontinuous precipitates and fine continuous precipitates simultaneously. Both twin structures and dislocations via torsion deformation can be effective microstructures for the nucleation of continuous precipitates during subsequent aging. Thus, aging after torsion can promote continuous precipitation and generate gradient precipitation characteristics. Both aging treatment and torsion deformation can reduce yield asymmetry, and torsion deformation enhances the aging hardening effect by promoting continuous precipitation. Therefore, combined use of torsion deformation and aging treatment can effectively enhance the yield strength and almost eliminate the yield asymmetry of the present extruded AZ91 rod. Finally, the relevant mechanisms are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure Evolution of TiC Particles In Situ, Synthesized by Laser Cladding
Materials 2017, 10(3), 281; doi:10.3390/ma10030281
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a TiC reinforcement metal matrix composite coating is produced using nickel and graphite mixing powder on the surface ofTi-6Al-4V alloy by laser radiation. The microstructure of the coatings is investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS. Results show that most of
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In this paper, a TiC reinforcement metal matrix composite coating is produced using nickel and graphite mixing powder on the surface ofTi-6Al-4V alloy by laser radiation. The microstructure of the coatings is investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS. Results show that most of the TiC phase is granular, with a size of several micrometers, and a few of the TiC phases are petals or flakes. At the cross-section of the coatings, a few special TiC patterns are found and these TiC patterns do not always occur at the observed cross-section. The even distribution of the TiC phase in the coatings confirms that the convection of the laser-melted pool leads to the homogenization of titanium atoms from the molten substrate, and carbon atoms from the preplace powder layer, by the mass transfer. The characteristics of the TiC pattern confirm that the morphology and distribution of the primary TiC phase could be influenced by convection. Two main reasons for this are that the density of the TiC phase is lower than the liquid melt, and that the primary TiC phase precipitates from the pool with a high convection speed at high temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Sludge Dewaterability by Ultrasound-Initiated Cationic Polyacrylamide with Microblock Structure: The Role of Surface-Active Monomers
Materials 2017, 10(3), 282; doi:10.3390/ma10030282
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cationic polyacrylamides have been employed widely to improve sludge dewatering performance, but the cationic units are randomly distributed in the molecular chain, which restricts the further enhancement of dewaterability. Common template technology to prepare block copolymers requiring a huge number of templates reduces
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Cationic polyacrylamides have been employed widely to improve sludge dewatering performance, but the cationic units are randomly distributed in the molecular chain, which restricts the further enhancement of dewaterability. Common template technology to prepare block copolymers requiring a huge number of templates reduces the polymer purity and molecular weight. Here, we adopted the surface-active monomer benzyl dimethyl 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC) to synthesize cationic microblocky polyacrylamide initiated by ultrasound. The reactivity ratio of monomers suggested that novel cationic monomer BDMDAC had higher homopolymerization ability, and was thus more prone to forming a microblock structure. The statistical analysis of sequence-length distribution indicated that the number and length of cationic segments increased in the PAB molecules. In addition, the characteristic results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provided evidence for the synthesis of copolymer with cationic microblocks. Finally, the results of dewatering tests demonstrated that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved by adding the synthesized novel flocculants, and the sludge-specific resistance to filtration, filter cake moisture content and residual turbidity all reached a minimum (68.7%, 5.4 × 1012 m·kg−1, and 2.6 NTU, respectively) at 40 mg·L−1. The PAB flocs were large, compact, difficult to break, and easy to regrow. Furthermore, PAB was more effective in the removal of protein from soluble extracellular polymeric substances (SEPSs). In summary, this study provides a novel solution to synthesize cationic microblock polyacrylamide for improving sludge dewatering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design Optimization and Structural Performance Evaluation of Plate Girder Bridge Constructed Using a Turn-Over Process
Materials 2017, 10(3), 283; doi:10.3390/ma10030283
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate
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A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate superstructures, due to their cost advantages. However, research on the performance enhancements of the I-type girder in two- or three- girder plate bridges is lacking. One of the most important performance improvement technologies for the I-type girder is the “preflex” method. In the preflex method, the specimen is inverted during the construction process to apply prestressed cambering to the specimen by using self-weight. However, a problem with the preflex construction method is difficulty with inverting the girder/plate system during the concrete curing process. Therefore, a new inverting system called Turn-Over (TO) wheel was proposed. Using TO wheels, wider variations to the I-type girder design can be achieved. Using this TO construction method, various cross sectional designs of girder plate systems can be considered due to its easiness in inverting the girder/plate system. In this study, the location of concrete confinement sections between the steel I-beams and concrete plates was varied in an I-girder cross-sectional design. Design parameters included effective height, flange thickness, flange width, confining concrete section width, etc. From this study, the optimum cross-sectional design of the I-girder/concrete plate system was achieved. Then, a single 20 m TO girder/plate system and two 20 m TO girder bridges were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance. From the test, failure behavior, load carrying capacity, crack pattern, etc., are obtained. The results are discussed in detail in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Morphology Evolution on the Fracture Surface and Fracture Mechanisms of Multiphase Nanostructured ZrCu-Base Alloys
Materials 2017, 10(3), 284; doi:10.3390/ma10030284
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
A multiphase nanostructured ZrCu-base bulk alloy which showed a unique microstructure consisting of sub-micrometer scale Zr2Cu solid solution, nano-sized twinned plate-like ZrCu martensite (ZrCu (M)), and retained ZrCu (B2) austenite was fabricated by copper mold casting. The observation of periodic morphology
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A multiphase nanostructured ZrCu-base bulk alloy which showed a unique microstructure consisting of sub-micrometer scale Zr2Cu solid solution, nano-sized twinned plate-like ZrCu martensite (ZrCu (M)), and retained ZrCu (B2) austenite was fabricated by copper mold casting. The observation of periodic morphology evolution on the fracture surface of the multiphase nanostructured ZrCu-base alloys has been reported, which suggested a fluctuant local stress intensity along the crack propagation. It is necessary to investigate the compressive deformation behavior and the fracture mechanism of the multiphase alloy and the relation to the unique microstructures. The results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the deformation and fracture mechanisms of multiphase hybrid nanostructured ZrCu-based alloys and give guidance on how to improve the ductility/toughness of bulk ZrCu-based alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle High-Temperature Hot Air/Silane Coupling Modification of Wood Fiber and Its Effect on Properties of Wood Fiber/HDPE Composites
Materials 2017, 10(3), 286; doi:10.3390/ma10030286
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA) treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability) of modified
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The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA) treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability) of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF) through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The effect of HTHA treatment conditions—such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate—on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The main findings indicated that HTHA treatment could promote the hydration of mPWF and improve the mechanical properties of WPCs. Treatment temperature strongly affected the mechanical properties and moisture adsorption characteristics of the prepared composites. With the increase of treated temperature and feed rate, the number of hydroxyl groups, holocellulose content, and the pH of mPWF decreased. The degree of crystallinity and thermal stability and the storage modulus of the prepared composites of mPWF increased. However, dimensional stability and water absorption of WPCs significantly reduced. The best mechanical properties enhancement was observed with treatment temperature at 220 °C. This study demonstrated the feasibility for the application of an HTHA treatment in the WPC production industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Native Defects on Transport Properties in Non-Stoichiometric CoSb3
Materials 2017, 10(3), 287; doi:10.3390/ma10030287
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
The effect of native defects originated by a non-stoichiometric variation of composition in CoSb3 on I-V curves and Hall effect was investigated. Hysteretic and a non-linear behavior of the  I-V curves at cryogenic temperatures were observed; the non-linear behavior originated from the
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The effect of native defects originated by a non-stoichiometric variation of composition in CoSb3 on I-V curves and Hall effect was investigated. Hysteretic and a non-linear behavior of the  I-V curves at cryogenic temperatures were observed; the non-linear behavior originated from the Poole-Frenkel effect, a field-dependent ionization mechanism that lowers Coulomb barriers and increases emission of charge carriers, and the hysteresis was attributed to the drastic decrease of specific heat which produces Joule heating at cryogenic temperatures. CoSb3 is a narrow gap semiconductor and slight variation in the synthesis process can lead to either n- or p-type conduction. The Sb-deficient CoSb3 presented an n-type conduction. Using a single parabolic model and assuming only acoustic-phonon scattering the charge transport properties were calculated at 300 K. From this model, a carrier concentration of 1.18 × 1018 cm−3 and a Hall factor of 1.18 were calculated. The low mobility of charge carriers, 19.11 cm2/V·s, and the high effective mass of the electrons, 0.66 m0, caused a high resistivity value of 2.75 × 10−3 Ω·m. The calculated Lorenz factor was 1.50 × 10−8 V2/K2, which represents a decrease of 38% over the degenerate limit value (2.44 × 10−8 V2/K2). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Light-Cured Dental Materials according to Different Sample Preparation Methods
Materials 2017, 10(3), 288; doi:10.3390/ma10030288
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Dental light-cured resins can undergo different degrees of polymerization when applied in vivo. When polymerization is incomplete, toxic monomers may be released into the oral cavity. The present study assessed the cytotoxicity of different materials, using sample preparation methods that mirror clinical conditions.
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Dental light-cured resins can undergo different degrees of polymerization when applied in vivo. When polymerization is incomplete, toxic monomers may be released into the oral cavity. The present study assessed the cytotoxicity of different materials, using sample preparation methods that mirror clinical conditions. Composite and bonding resins were used and divided into four groups according to sample preparation method: uncured; directly cured samples, which were cured after being placed on solidified agar; post-cured samples were polymerized before being placed on agar; and “removed unreacted layer” samples had their oxygen-inhibition layer removed after polymerization. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an agar diffusion test, MTT assay, and confocal microscopy. Uncured samples were the most cytotoxic, while removed unreacted layer samples were the least cytotoxic (p < 0.05). In the MTT assay, cell viability increased significantly in every group as the concentration of the extracts decreased (p < 0.05). Extracts from post-cured and removed unreacted layer samples of bonding resin were less toxic than post-cured and removed unreacted layer samples of composite resin. Removal of the oxygen-inhibition layer resulted in the lowest cytotoxicity. Clinicians should remove unreacted monomers on the resin surface immediately after restoring teeth with light-curing resin to improve the restoration biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations in Cantilever Beam Bending Experiments of Single Crystals
Materials 2017, 10(3), 289; doi:10.3390/ma10030289
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The mechanical behavior of single crystalline, micro-sized copper is investigated in the context of cantilever beam bending experiments. Particular focus is on the role of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) during bending-dominated load conditions and their impact on the characteristic bending size effect. Three
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The mechanical behavior of single crystalline, micro-sized copper is investigated in the context of cantilever beam bending experiments. Particular focus is on the role of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) during bending-dominated load conditions and their impact on the characteristic bending size effect. Three different sample sizes are considered in this work with main variation in thickness. A gradient extended crystal plasticity model is presented and applied in a three-dimensional finite-element (FE) framework considering slip system-based edge and screw components of the dislocation density vector. The underlying mathematical model contains non-standard evolution equations for GNDs, crystal-specific interaction relations, and higher-order boundary conditions. Moreover, two element formulations are examined and compared with respect to size-independent as well as size-dependent bending behavior. The first formulation is based on a linear interpolation of the displacement and the GND density field together with a full integration scheme whereas the second is based on a mixed interpolation scheme. While the GND density fields are treated equivalently, the displacement field is interpolated quadratically in combination with a reduced integration scheme. Computational results indicate that GND storage in small cantilever beams strongly influences the evolution of statistically stored dislocations (SSDs) and, hence, the distribution of the total dislocation density. As a particular example, the mechanical bending behavior in the case of a physically motivated limitation of GND storage is studied. The resulting impact on the mechanical bending response as well as on the predicted size effect is analyzed. Obtained results are discussed and related to experimental findings from the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Multiscale Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Quasi-Static Indentation Response of Inkjet Printed Sandwich Structures under Various Indenter Geometries
Materials 2017, 10(3), 290; doi:10.3390/ma10030290
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this investigation was to determine the quasi-static indentation response and failure mode in three-dimensional (3D) printed trapezoidal core structures, and to characterize the energy absorbed by the structures. In this work, the trapezoidal sandwich structure was designed in the following
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The objective of this investigation was to determine the quasi-static indentation response and failure mode in three-dimensional (3D) printed trapezoidal core structures, and to characterize the energy absorbed by the structures. In this work, the trapezoidal sandwich structure was designed in the following two ways. Firstly, the trapezoidal core along with its facesheet was 3D printed as a single element comprising a single material for both core and facesheet (type A); Secondly, the trapezoidal core along with facesheet was 3D printed, but with variation in facesheet materials (type B). Quasi-static indentation was carried out using three different indenters, namely standard hemispherical, conical, and flat indenters. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to capture brittle cracking in the specimens during indentation. The major failure modes were found to be brittle failure and quasi-brittle fractures. The measured indentation energy was at a maximum when using a conical indenter at 9.40 J and 9.66 J and was at a minimum when using a hemispherical indenter at 6.87 J and 8.82 J for type A and type B series specimens respectively. The observed maximum indenter displacements at failure were the effect of material variations and composite configurations in the facesheet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Brittle Failure of Different Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Cytotoxicity of Fucoidan-Cisplatin Nanoparticles for Macrophage and Tumor Cells
Materials 2017, 10(3), 291; doi:10.3390/ma10030291
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Fucoidan, an anionic, sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweed, is known to exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory functions. To develop an immune protection and chemotherapeutic agent, fucoidan-cisplatin nanoparticles (FCNPs) were designed. FCNPs were prepared by mixing cisplatin with fucoidan solution or fucoidan with cisplatin solution,
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Fucoidan, an anionic, sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweed, is known to exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory functions. To develop an immune protection and chemotherapeutic agent, fucoidan-cisplatin nanoparticles (FCNPs) were designed. FCNPs were prepared by mixing cisplatin with fucoidan solution or fucoidan with cisplatin solution, followed by dialysis to remove trace elements. The nanoparticles, comprising 10 mg of fucoidan and 2 mg of cisplatin, which exhibited the highest cisplatin content and loading efficiency during the production process, were named as Fu100Cis20. The cisplatin content, cisplatin loading efficiency, nanoparticle size, and zeta potential of Fu100Cis20 were 18.9% ± 2.7%, 93.3% ± 7.8%, 181.2 ± 21.0 nm, and −67.4 ± 2.3 mV, respectively. Immune protection assay revealed that Fu100Cis20-treated RAW264.7 cells were protected from the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Furthermore, antitumor assay indicated that Fu100Cis20-treated HCT-8 cells showed stronger cytotoxicity than those treated with cisplatin alone. These results suggested that fucoidan-based nanoparticles exhibited suitable particle size and high drug encapsulation, and that Fu100Cis20 has potential application in both immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Laser Shock Processing on Morphologies and Mechanical Properties of ANSI 304 Stainless Steel Weldments Subjected to Cavitation Erosion
Materials 2017, 10(3), 292; doi:10.3390/ma10030292
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, roughness tester, micro hardness tester, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The morphological microstructures were characterized. Cumulative mass loss,
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Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, roughness tester, micro hardness tester, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The morphological microstructures were characterized. Cumulative mass loss, incubation period, erosion rate, and damaged surface areas were monitored during cavitation erosion. Surface roughness, micro-hardness, and residual stress were measured in different zones. Results showed that LSP could improve the damage of morphological microstructures and mechanical properties after cavitation erosion. The compressive residual stresses were generated during the process of LSP, which was an effective guarantee for the improvement of the above mentioned properties. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optimizing Polymer Infusion Process for Thin Ply Textile Composites with Novel Matrix System
Materials 2017, 10(3), 293; doi:10.3390/ma10030293
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
For mass production of structural composites, use of different textile patterns, custom preforming, room temperature cure high performance polymers and simplistic manufacturing approaches are desired. Woven fabrics are widely used for infusion processes owing to their high permeability but their localised mechanical performance
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For mass production of structural composites, use of different textile patterns, custom preforming, room temperature cure high performance polymers and simplistic manufacturing approaches are desired. Woven fabrics are widely used for infusion processes owing to their high permeability but their localised mechanical performance is affected due to inherent associated crimps. The current investigation deals with manufacturing low-weight textile carbon non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) composites with a room temperature cure epoxy and a novel liquid Methyl methacrylate (MMA) thermoplastic matrix, Elium®. Vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI) process is chosen as a cost effective manufacturing technique. Process parameters optimisation is required for thin NCFs due to intrinsic resistance it offers to the polymer flow. Cycles of repetitive manufacturing studies were carried out to optimise the NCF-thermoset (TS) and NCF with novel reactive thermoplastic (TP) resin. It was noticed that the controlled and optimised usage of flow mesh, vacuum level and flow speed during the resin infusion plays a significant part in deciding the final quality of the fabricated composites. The material selections, the challenges met during the manufacturing and the methods to overcome these are deliberated in this paper. An optimal three stage vacuum technique developed to manufacture the TP and TS composites with high fibre volume and lower void content is established and presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels
Materials 2017, 10(3), 294; doi:10.3390/ma10030294
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (12155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21)N, in wt %) was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel
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Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21)N, in wt %) was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles on Wool Powder and Their Catalytic Application
Materials 2017, 10(3), 295; doi:10.3390/ma10030295
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ on wool powder (WP) under heating conditions. Wool powder not only reduced Au ions to AuNPs, but also provided a support for as-synthesized AuNPs. WPs were treated under different concentrations of Au ions, and corresponding optical
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ on wool powder (WP) under heating conditions. Wool powder not only reduced Au ions to AuNPs, but also provided a support for as-synthesized AuNPs. WPs were treated under different concentrations of Au ions, and corresponding optical features and morphologies of the treated WPs were investigated by UV-VIS diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also employed to characterize the WP treated with AuNPs. The results demonstrate that AuNPs were produced in the presence of WP and distributed over the wool particles. The porous structure led to the synthesis of AuNPs in the internal parts of WP. Acid conditions and high temperature facilitated the synthesis of AuNPs by WP in aqueous solution. The reducibility of wool was improved after being converted to powder from fibers, due to exposure of more active groups. Moreover, the obtained AuNP-WP complexes showed significant catalytic activity to accelerate the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Materials 2017, 10(3), 296; doi:10.3390/ma10030296
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR) layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film. An efficiency of up to
[...] Read more.
In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR) layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC) and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Vibration Damping Analysis of Lightweight Structures in Machine Tools
Materials 2017, 10(3), 297; doi:10.3390/ma10030297
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
The dynamic behaviour of a machine tool (MT) directly influences the machining performance. The adoption of lightweight structures may reduce the effects of undesired vibrations and increase the workpiece quality. This paper aims to present and compare a set of hybrid materials that
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The dynamic behaviour of a machine tool (MT) directly influences the machining performance. The adoption of lightweight structures may reduce the effects of undesired vibrations and increase the workpiece quality. This paper aims to present and compare a set of hybrid materials that may be excellent candidates to fabricate the MT moving parts. The selected materials have high dynamic characteristics and capacity to dampen mechanical vibrations. In this way, starting from the kinematic model of a milling machine, this study evaluates a number of prototypes made of Al foam sandwiches (AFS), Al corrugated sandwiches (ACS) and composite materials reinforced by carbon fibres (CFRP). These prototypes represented the Z-axis ram of a commercial milling machine. The static and dynamical properties have been analysed by using both finite element (FE) simulations and experimental tests. The obtained results show that the proposed structures may be a valid alternative to the conventional materials of MT moving parts, increasing machining performance. In particular, the AFS prototype highlighted a damping ratio that is 20 times greater than a conventional ram (e.g., steel). Its application is particularly suitable to minimize unwanted oscillations during high-speed finishing operations. The results also show that the CFRP structure guarantees high stiffness with a weight reduced by 48.5%, suggesting effective applications in roughing operations, saving MT energy consumption. The ACS structure has a good trade-off between stiffness and damping and may represent a further alternative, if correctly evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Analysis of Historic Copper Patinas. Influence of Inclusions on Patina Uniformity
Materials 2017, 10(3), 298; doi:10.3390/ma10030298
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century. All copper substrates contain inclusions
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The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century. All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods. The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite (Cu2O) and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite (Cu4SO4(OH)6). The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition. The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers. The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamental and Research Frontier of Atmospheric Corrosion)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Roughening Behavior of 6063 Aluminum Alloy during Bulging by Spun Tubes
Materials 2017, 10(3), 299; doi:10.3390/ma10030299
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry. To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of
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Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry. To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of aluminum alloy tubes were carried out, and the tubes with different grain sizes were prepared by a spinning and annealing process. The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior. The results obtained show that the surface roughness increased with both strain and grain size under biaxial stress. No surface defects were observed on the surface when the grain size was less than 105 μm if the strain was less than 18%, or when the grain size was between 130 and 175 μm if the strain was less than 15.88% and 7.15%, respectively. The surface roughening microscopic behavior was identified as an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, which became more pronounced with increasing grain size and resulted in greater local deformation. Concentrated grain orientation also results in severe inhomogeneous deformation during plastics deformation, and serious surface roughening. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Different Storage Media on Color Stability of Self-Adhesive Composite Resin Cements for up to One Year
Materials 2017, 10(3), 300; doi:10.3390/ma10030300
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term color stability of eight self-adhesive composite resin cements (SACRCs) after storage in diverse media for up to one year. 480 discs (diameter: 12 mm/thickness: 1.0 ± 0.05 mm) were fabricated (n = 60/SACRC):
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The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term color stability of eight self-adhesive composite resin cements (SACRCs) after storage in diverse media for up to one year. 480 discs (diameter: 12 mm/thickness: 1.0 ± 0.05 mm) were fabricated (n = 60/SACRC): (1) BeautyCem (BEA); (2) Bifix SE (BIF); (3) Clearfil SA Cement Automix (CLE); (4) RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RXU); (5) SeT (SET); (6) SmartCem 2 (SMC); (7) SoloCem (SOC); and (8) SpeedCEM (SPC). After polishing, specimens were immersed in (a) red wine (RW); (b) curry-solution (CU); (c) cress-solution (CR); and (d) distilled water (DW) at 37 °C and measured after 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365 days for color differences (ΔE) and water absorption (WA). Non-aged specimens were used as baselines. After 365 days, all of the discs were polished and their ΔE was measured. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, partial-eta-squared/ηP2, 3-/1-way ANOVA with Tukey-HSD post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Significant differences occurred between all SACRCs for WA (p ≤ 0.003), except in RXU and in SET and in ΔE (p ≤ 0.002), except in SET and SPC. The significantly highest WA presented in SOC; the lowest showed in BEA. Significant ΔE differences and a decrease after polishing between all storage media were found (p < 0.001) with highest values for RW, followed by CU, CR, and DW. The lowest ΔE was measured for CLE, followed by SOC, BIF, RXU, BEA, SPC, SET, and SMC (p < 0.001) and increased significantly during aging. The highest ΔE decrease presented in BEA. SACRCs showed an increase in WA/ΔE within total aging time. Discoloration could not be removed completely by polishing. SACRCs need to be carefully selected for restorations in the esthetical zone with visible restoration margins. Polishing can significantly reduce the marginal discoloration.