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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 821; doi:10.3390/molecules22050821

From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds

1
Department of Animal Science, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food, and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
2
The Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food, and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
3
Department of Molecular Genetics, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Muñoz-Torrero
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1633 KB, uploaded 17 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors—ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1), caffeine (ggTas2r2), erythromycin and (+)-catechin (ggTas2r7), and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs) were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones. View Full-Text
Keywords: bitter taste; chicken; threshold; in-vivo; in-vitro; avian; Tas2r; T2R; ggTas2r; calcium imaging bitter taste; chicken; threshold; in-vivo; in-vitro; avian; Tas2r; T2R; ggTas2r; calcium imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheled-Shoval, S.; Behrens, M.; Korb, A.; Di Pizio, A.; Meyerhof, W.; Uni, Z.; Niv, M.Y. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds. Molecules 2017, 22, 821.

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