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Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Succinate Prodrugs of Curcuminoids for Colon Cancer Treatment
Pharmaceutical Technology (International) Program, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
National Nanotechnology Center (Nanotec), National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
Natural Products Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Department of Food and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2011; in revised form: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prodrugs
Abstract: A novel series of succinyl derivatives of three curcuminoids were synthesized as potential prodrugs. Symmetrical (curcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin) and unsymmetrical (desmethoxycurcumin) curcuminoids were prepared through aldol condensation of 2,4-pentanedione with different benzaldehydes. Esterification of these compounds with a methyl or ethyl ester of succinyl chloride gave the corresponding succinate prodrugs in excellent yields. Anticolon cancer activity of the compounds was evaluated using Caco-2 cells. The succinate prodrugs had IC50 values in the 1.8–9.6 μM range, compared to IC50 values of 3.3–4.9 μM for the parent compounds. Curcumin diethyl disuccinate exhibited the highest potency and was chosen for stability studies. Hydrolysis of this compound in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and in human plasma followed pseudo first-order kinetics. In phosphate buffer, the kobs and t1/2 for hydrolysis indicated that the compound was much more stable than curcumin. In human plasma, this compound was able to release curcumin, therefore our results suggest that succinate prodrugs of curcuminoids are stable in phosphate buffer, release the parent curcumin derivatives readily in human plasma, and show anti-colon cancer activity.
Keywords: curcumin; prodrug; succinylation; stability; hydrolysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wichitnithad, W.; Nimmannit, U.; Wacharasindhu, S.; Rojsitthisak, P. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Succinate Prodrugs of Curcuminoids for Colon Cancer Treatment. Molecules 2011, 16, 1888-1900.
Wichitnithad W, Nimmannit U, Wacharasindhu S, Rojsitthisak P. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Succinate Prodrugs of Curcuminoids for Colon Cancer Treatment. Molecules. 2011; 16(2):1888-1900.
Wichitnithad, Wisut; Nimmannit, Ubonthip; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Rojsitthisak, Pornchai. 2011. "Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Succinate Prodrugs of Curcuminoids for Colon Cancer Treatment." Molecules 16, no. 2: 1888-1900.