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Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1168-1195; doi:10.3390/molecules15031168
Review

Control of Intracellular Calcium Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy

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Vision Research Center and Departments of Ophthalmology and Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA These authors contributed equally and are listed alphabetically.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2009 / Revised: 5 February 2010 / Accepted: 2 March 2010 / Published: 3 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies)
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Abstract

Both acute and chronic degenerative diseases of the nervous system reduce the viability and function of neurons through changes in intracellular calcium signaling. In particular, pathological increases in the intracellular calcium concentration promote such pathogenesis. Disease involvement of numerous regulators of intracellular calcium signaling located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles has been documented. Diverse groups of chemical compounds targeting ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, pumps and enzymes have been identified as potential neuroprotectants. The present review summarizes the discovery, mechanisms and biological activity of neuroprotective molecules targeting proteins that control intracellular calcium signaling to preserve or restore structure and function of the nervous system. Disease relevance, clinical applications and new technologies for the identification of such molecules are being discussed.
Keywords: calcium; Ca2+; intracellular calcium channel; ion channel; extracellular; intracellular; accessory proteins; associated proteins; G-protein coupled receptors; imaging; microscopy; signaling; neuroprotection; cytoprotection; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer's disease; Huntington’s disease; retina calcium; Ca2+; intracellular calcium channel; ion channel; extracellular; intracellular; accessory proteins; associated proteins; G-protein coupled receptors; imaging; microscopy; signaling; neuroprotection; cytoprotection; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer's disease; Huntington’s disease; retina
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Duncan, R.S.; Goad, D.L.; Grillo, M.A.; Kaja, S.; Payne, A.J.; Koulen, P. Control of Intracellular Calcium Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy. Molecules 2010, 15, 1168-1195.

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