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Special Issue "Humoral Responses Against HCV"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. François-Loïc Cosset

Human Virology Department, Inserm U758 - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d'Italie, 69364 Lyon, Cedex 07, France
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +33 472 72 81 37
Interests: properties of the viral surface glycoproteins derived from retroviruses; flaviviruses; hepaciviruses and influenza viruses; development of novel gene transfer vectors and viral engineering techniques

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease world-wide. With 180 million persistently infected people chronic hepatitis C infection represents a major public health problem of high socio-economic impact. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis C are limited and a vaccine for prevention against HCV infection is not available. The investigation of the humoral response against HCV and therefore the development of potent B cell immunogens, that have greatly suffered from the paucity of HCV in vitro infection assays, is essential. Owing to recent essential progresses in the field,  the current limitations in vaccine development should be overcome by addressing the improvement of B cell responses. This should be achieved by a thorough investigation: i) of mechanisms of neutralization or escape from neutralizing antibodies, ii) of influence of serum factors - e.g., lipoproteins - that can modulate and/or counteract both cell entry and neutralization and iii) of cell entry steps that can potentially be targeted by antibodies, including those that are not raised naturally. Identifying successful immune responses against HCV and those naturally occurring in individuals spontaneously clearing infection might guide efforts to elicit such immune responses by appropriate vaccination and to produce effective neutralizing antibodies for passive immunization.

Dr. François-Loïc Cosset
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • hepatitis C virus
  • neutralizing antibody
  • immune correlates
  • therapy
  • monoclonals
  • viral cell entry
  • antivirals and viral escape
  • vaccines

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Hepatitis C Virus Evasion Mechanisms from Neutralizing Antibodies
Viruses 2011, 3(11), 2280-2300; doi:10.3390/v3112280
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (274 KB)
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major public health problem, affecting 3% of the world’s population. The majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, a vaccine is not available and current therapy is
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major public health problem, affecting 3% of the world’s population. The majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, a vaccine is not available and current therapy is limited by resistance, adverse effects and high costs. Although it is very well established that cell-mediated immunity is necessary for viral clearance, the importance of host antibodies in clearing HCV infection is being increasingly recognized. Indeed, recent studies indicate that neutralizing antibodies are induced in the early phase of infection by patients who subsequently clear viral infection. Conversely, patients who do not clear the virus develop high titers of neutralizing antibodies during the chronic stage. Surprisingly, these antibodies are not able to control HCV infection. HCV has therefore developed mechanisms to evade immune elimination, allowing it to persist in the majority of infected individuals. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which the virus escapes immune surveillance is therefore necessary if novel preventive and therapeutic treatments have to be designed. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms used by HCV to evade host neutralizing antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humoral Responses Against HCV)
Open AccessReview Neutralizing Antibody Response to Hepatitis C Virus
Viruses 2011, 3(11), 2127-2145; doi:10.3390/v3112127
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 22 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1823 KB)
Abstract
A critical first step in a “rational vaccine design” approach for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to identify the most relevant mechanisms of immune protection. Emerging evidence provides support for a protective role of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the ability of the B
[...] Read more.
A critical first step in a “rational vaccine design” approach for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to identify the most relevant mechanisms of immune protection. Emerging evidence provides support for a protective role of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the ability of the B cell response to modify the course of acute HCV infection. This has been made possible by the development of in vitro cell culture models, based on HCV retroviral pseudotype particles expressing E1E2 and infectious cell culture-derived HCV virions, and small animal models that are robust tools in studies of antibody-mediated virus neutralization. This review is focused on the immunogenic determinants on the E2 glycoprotein mediating virus neutralization and the pathways in which the virus is able to escape from immune containment. Encouraging findings from recent studies provide support for the existence of broadly neutralization antibodies that are not associated with virus escape. The identification of conserved epitopes mediating virus neutralization that are not associated with virus escape will facilitate the design of a vaccine immunogen capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against this highly diverse virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humoral Responses Against HCV)
Open AccessReview The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response
Viruses 2011, 3(10), 1909-1932; doi:10.3390/v3101909
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 1 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (425 KB)
Abstract
Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed,
[...] Read more.
Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humoral Responses Against HCV)

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