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Special Issue "Lipopolysaccharide: Bacterial Endotoxin"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Susana Merino Montero

Department of Genetic, Microbiology and Statistics, Section Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology; Faculty of Biology; University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit an original or review article for publication in a Special Issue on “Lipopolysaccharide: Bacterial Endotoxin”.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major molecular surface component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. LPSs are negatively-charged molecules exposed to the external environment and that provide a physical barrier that protects bacteria from antibacterial agents. They are amphiphilic molecules, consisting of a hydrophilic polysaccharide or oligosaccharide portion, covalently linked to a hydrophobic and high conserved lipid portion, termed lipid A, which is embedded in the external face of the outer membrane. The saccharide portion is diverse in terms of length and composition among different Gram-negative bacterial species, and can be divided in two domains: The core, which can be subdivided into inner and outer cores, and the O-antigen chain. The inner core is proximal to lipid A, which is required for bacterial viability, and contains unusual sugars, such as 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) and heptoses. However, the outer core typically contains hexose sugars. The O-antigen chain is the most external domain, is highly variable, and is composed of repeating oligosaccharide units.

The LPS lipid A released from cell surfaces of bacteria during multiplication, lysis or death can be recognized by specific host cell receptors and is responsible for the activation of the innate immune system via the induction of inflammatory cytokines release. The uncontrolled activation of innate immune response triggers the development of septic shock and multiple-organ failure. Thus, lipid A is one of the most potent immune-stimulators, of which the toxicity depends on its primary structure and the severity of infection. Although lipid A is highly conserved biochemically, some bacteria show an impressive amount of diversity. Variations of the lipid A serve to promote survival by providing resistance to components of the innate immune system and help to evade recognition by Toll-like receptors.

The set of articles proposed for this Special Issue will examine the structure and composition, biological activity, host interaction, and induction of innate immunity of the Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin.

Prof. Susana Merino Montero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lipid A
  • Core LPS
  • O-antigen LPS
  • Glycoconjugates
  • Chemical structure
  • Biological significance
  • Host interaction
  • Immune evasion
  • vaccines

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Cyanobacterial LPS Antagonist (CyP) on Cytokines and Micro-RNA Expression Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) is a key bacterial structure involved in the maintenance of a chronic pro-inflammatory environment during periodontitis. Similar to other gram-negative LPS, Pg-LPS induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines through interaction with Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and is
[...] Read more.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) is a key bacterial structure involved in the maintenance of a chronic pro-inflammatory environment during periodontitis. Similar to other gram-negative LPS, Pg-LPS induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines through interaction with Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and is able to stimulate negative TLR4 regulatory pathways, such as those involving microRNA (miRNA). In this work, we employed CyP, an LPS with TLR4-MD2 antagonist activity obtained from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria planktothrix FP1, to study the effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and miRNA expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells stimulated with Pg-LPS or E. coli LPS (Ec-LPS). Results showed that CyP inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 expression more efficiently when co-incubated with Pg-LPS rather than with Ec-LPS. The inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production was maintained even when CyP was added 2 h after LPS. The analysis of the effects of CyP on miRNA expression showed that, although being an antagonist, CyP did not inhibit miR-146a induced by Pg-LPS or Ec-LPS, whereas it significantly inhibited miR-155 only in the cultures stimulated with Ec-LPS. These results suggest that CyP may modulate the pro-inflammatory response induced by Pg-LPS, not only by blocking TLR4-MD2 complex, but also by preserving miR-146a expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharide: Bacterial Endotoxin)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Cyanobacteria Scytonema javanicum and Scytonema ocellatum Lipopolysaccharides Elicit Release of Superoxide Anion, Matrix-Metalloproteinase-9, Cytokines and Chemokines by Rat Microglia In Vitro
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema (S) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has
[...] Read more.
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema (S) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has not been investigated. We recently reported that cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of rat microglia in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that treatment of brain microglia in vitro with either cyanobacteria S. javanicum or S. ocellatum LPS might stimulate classical and alternative activation with concomitant release of superoxide anion (O2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cytokines and chemokines. Microglia were isolated from neonatal rats and treated in vitro with either S. javanicum LPS, S. ocellatum LPS, or E. coli LPS (positive control), in a concentration-dependent manner, for 18 h at 35.9 °C. We observed that treatment of microglia with either E. coli LPS, S. javanicum or S. ocellatum LPS generated statistically significant and concentration-dependent O2, MMP-9 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, pro-inflammatory chemokines MIP-2/CXCL-2, CINC-1/CXCL-1 and MIP-1α/CCL3, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Thus, our results provide experimental support for our working hypothesis because both S. javanicum and S. ocellatum LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of microglia and concomitant release of O2, MMP-9, cytokines and chemokines in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. To our knowledge this is the first report on the toxicity of cyanobacteria S. javanicum and S. ocellatum LPS to microglia, an immune cell type involved in neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the central nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharide: Bacterial Endotoxin)
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