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Special Issue "Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. António Manuel de Jesus Pereira (Website)

1 Computer Science and Communications Research Centre, Superior School of Technology and Management, Leiria Polytechnic Institute, Morro do Lena, Alto do Vieiro, 2401-951 Leiria, Portugal
2 Information and Communications Technologies Unit, INOV INESC Innovation-Delegation Office at Leiria, Morro do Lena, Alto do Vieiro, 2401-951 Leiria, Portugal
Interests: body area networks; wireless sensor networks; quality of service; telehealth; ambient assisted living; next generation networks and services

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of the journal Sensors, entitled "Sensors data fusion for healthcare", will focus on all aspects of research and development related to the field.

The multiple sources of sensing and health data now available have led to the need for data gathering optimization, in terms of data flow, and the need for data categories to become simple, fast, and accurate monitoring systems.

To this end, this Special Issue aims to collect the most recent advances in sensor data fusion for healthcare. We are inviting the submission of original and unpublished work addressing several research topics of interest, including but not limited to, the following issues:
  • data fusion
  • data aggregation
  • in-network data processing
  • data transmission optimization
  • optimized data protocols
  • architectures
  • communication networks

Prof. Dr. António Manuel de Jesus Pereira
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 22001-22020; doi:10.3390/s141122001
Received: 1 January 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today’s world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and [...] Read more.
Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today’s world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user’s activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Study of Muscular Artifact Cancellation in Single-Channel EEG
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 18370-18389; doi:10.3390/s141018370
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 1 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with muscular artifacts that strongly obscure the EEG signals and complicates their analysis. For the conventional case, where the EEG recordings are obtained simultaneously over many EEG channels, there exists a considerable range of methods for [...] Read more.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with muscular artifacts that strongly obscure the EEG signals and complicates their analysis. For the conventional case, where the EEG recordings are obtained simultaneously over many EEG channels, there exists a considerable range of methods for removing muscular artifacts. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use EEG information in ambulatory healthcare and related physiological signal monitoring systems. For practical reasons, a single EEG channel system must be used in these situations. Unfortunately, there exist few studies for muscular artifact cancellation in single-channel EEG recordings. To address this issue, in this preliminary study, we propose a simple, yet effective, method to achieve the muscular artifact cancellation for the single-channel EEG case. This method is a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the joint blind source separation (JBSS) techniques. We also conduct a study that compares and investigates all possible single-channel solutions and demonstrate the performance of these methods using numerical simulations and real-life applications. The proposed method is shown to significantly outperform all other methods. It can successfully remove muscular artifacts without altering the underlying EEG activity. It is thus a promising tool for use in ambulatory healthcare systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle Appearance-Based Multimodal Human Tracking and Identification for Healthcare in the Digital Home
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 14253-14277; doi:10.3390/s140814253
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 5 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an urgent need for intelligent home surveillance systems to provide home security, monitor health conditions, and detect emergencies of family members. One of the fundamental problems to realize the power of these intelligent services is how to detect, track, and [...] Read more.
There is an urgent need for intelligent home surveillance systems to provide home security, monitor health conditions, and detect emergencies of family members. One of the fundamental problems to realize the power of these intelligent services is how to detect, track, and identify people at home. Compared to RFID tags that need to be worn all the time, vision-based sensors provide a natural and nonintrusive solution. Observing that body appearance and body build, as well as face, provide valuable cues for human identification, we model and record multi-view faces, full-body colors and shapes of family members in an appearance database by using two Kinects located at a home’s entrance. Then the Kinects and another set of color cameras installed in other parts of the house are used to detect, track, and identify people by matching the captured color images with the registered templates in the appearance database. People are detected and tracked by multisensor fusion (Kinects and color cameras) using a Kalman filter that can handle duplicate or partial measurements. People are identified by multimodal fusion (face, body appearance, and silhouette) using a track-based majority voting. Moreover, the appearance-based human detection, tracking, and identification modules can cooperate seamlessly and benefit from each other. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the human tracking across multiple sensors and human identification considering the information of multi-view faces, full-body clothes, and silhouettes. The proposed home surveillance system can be applied to domestic applications in digital home security and intelligent healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle Ambient Agents: Embedded Agents for Remote Control and Monitoring Using the PANGEA Platform
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 13955-13979; doi:10.3390/s140813955
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a [...] Read more.
Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle Physiological Sensor Signals Classification for Healthcare Using Sensor Data Fusion and Case-Based Reasoning
Sensors 2014, 14(7), 11770-11785; doi:10.3390/s140711770
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could [...] Read more.
Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classification approach using sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. The proposed approach has been evaluated to classify Stressed or Relaxed individuals using sensor data fusion. Physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, sensor fusion has been done in two different ways: (i) decision-level fusion using features extracted through traditional approaches; and (ii) data-level fusion using features extracted by means of Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle Fusion of Smartphone Motion Sensors for Physical Activity Recognition
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10146-10176; doi:10.3390/s140610146
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
For physical activity recognition, smartphone sensors, such as an accelerometer and a gyroscope, are being utilized in many research studies. So far, particularly, the accelerometer has been extensively studied. In a few recent studies, a combination of a gyroscope, a magnetometer (in [...] Read more.
For physical activity recognition, smartphone sensors, such as an accelerometer and a gyroscope, are being utilized in many research studies. So far, particularly, the accelerometer has been extensively studied. In a few recent studies, a combination of a gyroscope, a magnetometer (in a supporting role) and an accelerometer (in a lead role) has been used with the aim to improve the recognition performance. How and when are various motion sensors, which are available on a smartphone, best used for better recognition performance, either individually or in combination? This is yet to be explored. In order to investigate this question, in this paper, we explore how these various motion sensors behave in different situations in the activity recognition process. For this purpose, we designed a data collection experiment where ten participants performed seven different activities carrying smart phones at different positions. Based on the analysis of this data set, we show that these sensors, except the magnetometer, are each capable of taking the lead roles individually, depending on the type of activity being recognized, the body position, the used data features and the classification method employed (personalized or generalized). We also show that their combination only improves the overall recognition performance when their individual performances are not very high, so that there is room for performance improvement. We have made our data set and our data collection application publicly available, thereby making our experiments reproducible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle A Ubiquitous and Low-Cost Solution for Movement Monitoring and Accident Detection Based on Sensor Fusion
Sensors 2014, 14(5), 8961-8983; doi:10.3390/s140508961
Received: 7 April 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The low average birth rate in developed countries and the increase in life expectancy have lead society to face for the first time an ageing situation. This situation associated with the World’s economic crisis (which started in 2008) forces the need of [...] Read more.
The low average birth rate in developed countries and the increase in life expectancy have lead society to face for the first time an ageing situation. This situation associated with the World’s economic crisis (which started in 2008) forces the need of equating better and more efficient ways of providing more quality of life for the elderly. In this context, the solution presented in this work proposes to tackle the problem of monitoring the elderly in a way that is not restrictive for the life of the monitored, avoiding the need for premature nursing home admissions. To this end, the system uses the fusion of sensory data provided by a network of wireless sensors placed on the periphery of the user. Our approach was also designed with a low-cost deployment in mind, so that the target group may be as wide as possible. Regarding the detection of long-term problems, the tests conducted showed that the precision of the system in identifying and discerning body postures and body movements allows for a valid monitorization and rehabilitation of the user. Moreover, concerning the detection of accidents, while the proposed solution presented a near 100% precision at detecting normal falls, the detection of more complex falls (i.e., hampered falls) will require further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle A Cloud-Assisted Random Linear Network Coding Medium Access Control Protocol for Healthcare Applications
Sensors 2014, 14(3), 4806-4830; doi:10.3390/s140304806
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (897 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC) protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC), are a novel and suitable approach [...] Read more.
Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC) protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC), are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC) and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle Ontological Knowledge Engine and Health Screening Data Enabled Ubiquitous Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT)
Sensors 2014, 14(3), 4560-4584; doi:10.3390/s140304560
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop [...] Read more.
Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user’s profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 9628-9668; doi:10.3390/s140609628
Received: 25 January 2014 / Revised: 10 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the [...] Read more.
The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1322-1357; doi:10.3390/s140101322
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 13 January 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing [...] Read more.
Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)

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