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Special Issue "Advanced Embedded Sensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Greg P. Carman

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, UCLA, 38-137 M Engineering IV, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thin film Nitinol; medical devices; magnetoelectric structures; fiber optic sensors; composite laminates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last couple of decades sensor technologies have seen a revolutionary advancement in new platforms influenced by both fabrication approaches yielding very small sensors as well as new mechanisms to monitor a wide range of external parameters. This sensor revolution has encouraged investigators to explore new approaches for integrating sensors into a variety of platforms to monitor a wide range of phenomenon. Based on these advancements, this special issue of Sensors seeks to compile a collection of fundamental research papers representing state of the art in sensor systems embedded into a variety of platforms. The focus here is both on the development of the sensor technology as well as it integration into the platform.

Prof. Dr. Greg P. Carman
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • sensors
  • embedded
  • structures
  • composites
  • micro-electro-mechanical
  • optical
  • magnetic

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Multi-Channel Multi-Radio Using 802.11 Based Media Access for Sink Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 4917-4942; doi:10.3390/s110504917
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 6 April 2011 / Accepted: 27 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The next generation surveillance and multimedia systems will become increasingly deployed as wireless sensor networks in order to monitor parks, public places and for business usage. The convergence of data and telecommunication over IP-based networks has paved the way for wireless networks. Functions
[...] Read more.
The next generation surveillance and multimedia systems will become increasingly deployed as wireless sensor networks in order to monitor parks, public places and for business usage. The convergence of data and telecommunication over IP-based networks has paved the way for wireless networks. Functions are becoming more intertwined by the compelling force of innovation and technology. For example, many closed-circuit TV premises surveillance systems now rely on transmitting their images and data over IP networks instead of standalone video circuits. These systems will increase their reliability in the future on wireless networks and on IEEE 802.11 networks. However, due to limited non-overlapping channels, delay, and congestion there will be problems at sink nodes. In this paper we provide necessary conditions to verify the feasibility of round robin technique in these networks at the sink nodes by using a technique to regulate multi-radio multichannel assignment. We demonstrate through simulations that dynamic channel assignment scheme using multi-radio, and multichannel configuration at a single sink node can perform close to optimal on the average while multiple sink node assignment also performs well. The methods proposed in this paper can be a valuable tool for network designers in planning network deployment and for optimizing different performance objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle User Identification Using Gait Patterns on UbiFloorII
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2611-2639; doi:10.3390/s110302611
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 7 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (2145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a system of identifying individuals by their gait patterns. We take into account various distinguishable features that can be extracted from a user’s gait and then divide them into two classes: walking pattern and stepping pattern. The conditions we assume
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This paper presents a system of identifying individuals by their gait patterns. We take into account various distinguishable features that can be extracted from a user’s gait and then divide them into two classes: walking pattern and stepping pattern. The conditions we assume are that our target environments are domestic areas, the number of users is smaller than 10, and all users ambulate with bare feet considering the everyday lifestyle of the Korean home. Under these conditions, we have developed a system that identifies individuals’ gait patterns using our biometric sensor, UbiFloorII. We have created UbiFloorII to collect walking samples and created software modules to extract the user’s gait pattern. To identify the users based on the gait patterns extracted from walking samples over UbiFloorII, we have deployed multilayer perceptron network, a feedforward artificial neural network model. The results show that both walking pattern and stepping pattern extracted from users’ gait over the UbiFloorII are distinguishable enough to identify the users and that fusing two classifiers at the matching score level improves the recognition accuracy. Therefore, our proposed system may provide unobtrusive and automatic user identification methods in ubiquitous computing environments, particularly in domestic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructured Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded in a Laminate Composite for Smart Material Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2566-2579; doi:10.3390/s110302566
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 3 February 2011 / Accepted: 12 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (1321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber Bragg gratings written in highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber with a dedicated design are embedded in a composite fiber-reinforced polymer. The Bragg peak wavelength shifts are measured under controlled axial and transversal strain and during thermal cycling of the composite sample. We
[...] Read more.
Fiber Bragg gratings written in highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber with a dedicated design are embedded in a composite fiber-reinforced polymer. The Bragg peak wavelength shifts are measured under controlled axial and transversal strain and during thermal cycling of the composite sample. We obtain a sensitivity to transversal strain that exceeds values reported earlier in literature by one order of magnitude. Our results evidence the relevance of using microstructured optical fibers for structural integrity monitoring of composite material structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1433-1460; doi:10.3390/s110201433
Received: 29 October 2010 / Revised: 21 January 2011 / Accepted: 23 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the
[...] Read more.
Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11156-11173; doi:10.3390/s101211156
Received: 26 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 22 November 2010 / Published: 8 December 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated
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We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Magnetostrictive Composite-Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8119-8128; doi:10.3390/s100908119
Received: 10 July 2010 / Revised: 30 July 2010 / Accepted: 15 August 2010 / Published: 30 August 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a light and compact optical fiber Bragg Grating sensor for DC and AC magnetic field measurements. The fiber is coated by a thick layer of a magnetostrictive composite consisting of particles of Terfenol-D dispersed in a polymeric matrix. Among the
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a light and compact optical fiber Bragg Grating sensor for DC and AC magnetic field measurements. The fiber is coated by a thick layer of a magnetostrictive composite consisting of particles of Terfenol-D dispersed in a polymeric matrix. Among the different compositions for the coating that were tested, the best magnetostrictive response was obtained using an epoxy resin as binder and a 30% volume fraction of Terfenol-D particles with sizes ranging from 212 to 300 µm. The effect of a compressive preload in the sensor was also investigated. The achieved resolution was 0.4 mT without a preload or 0.3 mT with a compressive pre-stress of 8.6 MPa. The sensor was tested at magnetic fields of up to 750 mT under static conditions. Dynamic measurements were conducted with a magnetic unbalanced four-pole rotor Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Strain Measurements of Composite Laminates with Embedded Fibre Bragg Gratings: Criticism and Opportunities for Research
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 384-408; doi:10.3390/s110100384
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 27 December 2010 / Accepted: 28 December 2010 / Published: 31 December 2010
Cited by 82 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Embedded optical fibre sensors are considered for structural health monitoring purposes in numerous applications. In fibre reinforced plastics, embedded fibre Bragg gratings are found to be one of the most popular and reliable solutions for strain monitoring. Despite of their growing popularity, users
[...] Read more.
Embedded optical fibre sensors are considered for structural health monitoring purposes in numerous applications. In fibre reinforced plastics, embedded fibre Bragg gratings are found to be one of the most popular and reliable solutions for strain monitoring. Despite of their growing popularity, users should keep in mind their shortcomings, many of which are associated with the embedding process. This review paper starts with an overview of some of the technical issues to be considered when embedding fibre optics in fibrous composite materials. Next, a monitoring scheme is introduced which shows the different steps necessary to relate the output of an embedded FBG to the strain of the structure in which it is embedded. Each step of the process has already been addressed separately in literature without considering the complete cycle, from embedding of the sensor to the internal strain measurement of the structure. This review paper summarizes the work reported in literature and tries to fit it into the big picture of internal strain measurements with embedded fibre Bragg gratings. The last part of the paper focuses on temperature compensation methods which should not be ignored in terms of in-situ measurement of strains with fibre Bragg gratings. Throughout the paper criticism is given where appropriate, which should be regarded as opportunities for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Embedded Sensors)
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