Special Issue "Solid Dosage Forms"

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A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Beverley D. Glass

Chair of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, Australia
E-Mail
Fax: +61(0)747815356
Interests: solid-state stability; polymorphism; in-use stability of solid dosage forms; techniques for analysis of the solid-state; thermal methods - DSC, TGA; diffuse reflectance FTIR; X-ray powder diffraction

Keywords

  • solid-state stability
  • polymorphism
  • in-use stability of solid dosage forms
  • techniques for analysis of the solid-state
  • thermal methods - DSC, TGA
  • diffuse reflectance FTIR
  • X-ray powder diffraction

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle In Situ Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman Characterization of the Polymorphic Transformation of Carbamazepine
Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(1), 164-178; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics4010164
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 20 January 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2012 / Published: 9 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this work was to study the polymorphic transformation of carbamazepine from Form II to Form III in 1-propanol during seeded isothermal batch crystallization. First, the pure Form II and Form III were obtained and characterized. Then their solubilities and metastable
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The objective of this work was to study the polymorphic transformation of carbamazepine from Form II to Form III in 1-propanol during seeded isothermal batch crystallization. First, the pure Form II and Form III were obtained and characterized. Then their solubilities and metastable zone limits were measured by in-situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM). A transition temperature at about 34.2 °C was deduced suggesting the enantiotropic nature of this compound over the studied temperature range. To quantify the polymorph ratio during the transformation process, a new in-situ quantitative method was developed to measure the fraction of Form II by Raman spectroscopy. Successful tracking of the nucleation of the stable form and the transformation from Form II to Form III during isothermal crystallization was achieved by Raman spectroscopy and FBRM. The results from these three in-situ techniques, FBRM, FTIR and Raman were consistent with each other. The results showed a strong dependency on the amount of seeds added during isothermal crystallization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Dosage Forms)
Open AccessArticle Recrystallization of Commercial Carbamazepine Samples—A Strategy to Control Dissolution Variability
Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(1), 58-70; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics4010058
Received: 5 December 2011 / Revised: 9 January 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 13 January 2012
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Abstract
Physical properties of commercial carbamazepine (CBZ) samples can significantly influence drug release and thereby jeopardize bioequivalence of the final dosage form. The aim of this study was to reduce variability in commercial CBZ samples by recrystallization. CBZ samples of four different suppliers were
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Physical properties of commercial carbamazepine (CBZ) samples can significantly influence drug release and thereby jeopardize bioequivalence of the final dosage form. The aim of this study was to reduce variability in commercial CBZ samples by recrystallization. CBZ samples of four different suppliers were recrystallized in ethanol solution containing 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). CBZ samples were analyzed by disk intrinsic dissolution rate (DIDR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Recrystallized CBZ samples showed strongly reduced variability in DIDR compared to the untreated CBZ samples. Moreover, transformation process to CBZ dihydrate was inhibited; no dihydrate crystals were visible on compact surfaces after 8 h intrinsic dissolution measurement. Recrystallized CBZ samples showed no change in polymorphic form, however, particle size and shape was inhomogenous. In binary mixtures with microcrystalline cellulose, recrystallized CBZ samples again showed difference in drug release. This difference was associated with the inhomogenous particle size in the recrystallized CBZ samples. The results show that a controlled grinding step is required after recrystallization. We suggest the recrystallization in presence of 1% PVP followed by a controlled grinding step as a strategy to reduce dissolution variability in commercial CBZ samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Dosage Forms)
Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Microbiological Agar Assay for Determination of Orbifloxacin in Pharmaceutical Preparations
Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(3), 572-581; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3030572
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and belongs to the third generation of quinolones. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for determination of orbifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations has not as yet been reported. For this purpose, this
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Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and belongs to the third generation of quinolones. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for determination of orbifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations has not as yet been reported. For this purpose, this paper reports the development and validation of a simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify orbifloxacin in tablet formulations. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of orbifloxacin upon the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 used as test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance and were found to be linear (r = 0.9992) in the selected range of 16.0–64.0 μg/mL, precise with relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability intraday = 2.88%, intermediate precision RSD = 3.33%, and accurate (100.31%). The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable orbifloxacin quantitation in pharmaceutical samples and therefore can be used as a useful alternative methodology for the routine quality control of this medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Dosage Forms)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Artificial Neural Networks in Evaluation and Optimization of Modified Release Solid Dosage Forms
Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(4), 531-550; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics4040531
Received: 23 July 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 5 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE) as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM) is the one most
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Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE) as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM) is the one most frequently used. Progress of computer science has had an impact on pharmaceutical development as well. Simultaneous with the implementation of statistical methods, machine learning tools took an important place in drug formulation. Twenty years ago, the first papers describing application of artificial neural networks in optimization of modified release products appeared. Since then, a lot of work has been done towards implementation of new techniques, especially Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in modeling of production, drug release and drug stability of modified release solid dosage forms. The aim of this paper is to review artificial neural networks in evaluation and optimization of modified release solid dosage forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Dosage Forms)

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