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Special Issue "Practical Applications of Metal Complexes"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Iztok Turel

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vecna pot 113, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
E-Mail
Fax: +386 1 2419220
Interests: bioinorganic chemistry; metal ions; biologically active compounds; quinolones; guanine derivatives; diketonates; ruthenium chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A hundred years ago (in 1913), Alfred Werner was awarded by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry ‘‘in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”. His pioneering work was of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry. The progress of this new field has helped to blur the traditional borders between inorganic and organic chemistry through the isolation of numerous compounds consisting of metal ions and organic ligands.

Coordination compounds exert many interesting properties, which find diverse applications in many aspects of human life.

A huge number of metal complexes are used as catalysts in a variety of organic reactions (e.g., polymerizations, hydrogenations, additions, cross-coupling reactions, etc.). The use of metal complexes was also particularly important in asymmetric synthesis. Interestingly, it was also reported that some complexes with high specificity for stereoselective control of organic syntheses also exert biological activity.

Several metal complexes are in clinical use (cisplatin being the most successful example) for the treatment of various diseases, and many are currently being tested in clinical or preclinical studies. The ligands used in potential metal-based drugs may range from artificial organic molecules to natural products. The bonding of metals to ligands frequently results in synergistic activity. It is well-known that metal ions are often crucial for the activity of drugs, and are involved in their mechanisms of activity. Such interactions may be electrostatic, but the formation of coordination bonds “in situ” is also possible. Metal complexes are not only important as potential drugs; they can also be used for analytical and diagnostic purposes in biological systems and elsewhere. Their interesting optical, magnetic, radioactive, and other properties enable their use in many non-invasive and quick methods: e.g., optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET).

It is impossible to succinctly describe all applications of metal complexes (a few more suggestions are listed in the keywords); the special issue invites submissions in any area relating to the use of coordination compounds, their syntheses, and their characterizations.

Dr. Iztok Turel
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • Metal Complexes
  • catalysts
  • Photophysical properties
  • optical applications
  • dyes and pigments
  • solar cells
  • natural products as ligands
  • macrocycles as ligands
  • metal based drugs
  • metal drug interactions
  • MRI contrast agents
  • radiopharmaceuticals
  • photodynamic therapy
  • magnetic properties
  • precursors for semiconductor films and nanoparticles

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Practical Applications of Metal Complexes
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7951-7956; doi:10.3390/molecules20057951
Received: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1913 Alfred Werner received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work that was of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry. In the years that followed numerous complexes consisting of metal ions and organic ligands were isolated, thus building a
[...] Read more.
In 1913 Alfred Werner received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work that was of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry. In the years that followed numerous complexes consisting of metal ions and organic ligands were isolated, thus building a strong connection between inorganic and organic chemistry. Coordination compounds have many interesting properties which find diverse applications in numerous aspects of human life. Fourteeen contributions were received for this Special Issue covering very different aspects of metal complexes and their practical applications. The highest number of manuscripts deals with the biological activity of complexes which might potentially be used in the clinical practice. Authors have tested their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and enzyme inhibition. Their optical properties were studied in view of their potential use in photodynamic therapy. Moreover, optical properties could also be used for bioanalysis. It is also known that metal complexes are useful catalysts and a few such examples are also described herein. Many other interesting properties and facts about the isolated and described complexes are also reported (radioactivity, design of metal-organic frameworks, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Photorelease of Pyridyl Esters in Organometallic Ru(II) Arene Complexes
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 7276-7291; doi:10.3390/molecules20047276
Received: 20 February 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New Ru(II) arene complexes of formula [(η6-p-cym)Ru(N-N)(X)]2+ (where p-cym = para-cymene, N-N = 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and X = m/p-COOMe-Py, 14) were synthesised and characterized, including the molecular structure
[...] Read more.
New Ru(II) arene complexes of formula [(η6-p-cym)Ru(N-N)(X)]2+ (where p-cym = para-cymene, N-N = 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and X = m/p-COOMe-Py, 14) were synthesised and characterized, including the molecular structure of complexes [(η6-p-cym)Ru(bpy)(m-COOMe-Py)]2+ (3) and [(η6-p-cym)Ru(bpy) (p-COOMe-Py)]2+ (4) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 14 are stable in the dark in aqueous solution over 48 h and photolysis studies indicate that they can photodissociate the monodentate m/p-COOMe-Py ligands selectively with yields lower than 1%. DFT and TD-DFT calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ/6-31G**) performed on singlet and triplet states pinpoint a low-energy triplet state as the reactive state responsible for the selective dissociation of the monodentate pyridyl ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Three Novel Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks (Ln-MOFs) Constructed by Unsymmetrical Aromatic Dicarboxylatic Tectonics: Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Luminescent Properties
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14352-14365; doi:10.3390/molecules190914352
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three novel Ln(III)-based coordination polymers, {[Ln2 (2,4-bpda)3 (H2O)xyH2O}n (Ln = La (III) (1), x = 2, y = 0, Ce (III) (2), Pr (III) (3), x
[...] Read more.
Three novel Ln(III)-based coordination polymers, {[Ln2 (2,4-bpda)3 (H2O)xyH2O}n (Ln = La (III) (1), x = 2, y = 0, Ce (III) (2), Pr (III) (3), x = 4, y = 1) (2,4-H2bpda = benzophenone-2,4-dicarboxylic acid) have been prepared via a solvothermal method and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Complex 1 exhibits a 3D complicated framework with a new 2-nodal (3,7)-connected (42·5) (44·51·66·8) topology. Complexes 2 and 3 are isomorphous, and feature a 3D 4-connected (65·8)-CdSO4 network. Moreover, solid-state properties such as thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of 1 and 2 were also investigated. Complex 1 crystallized in a monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 14.800 (3), b = 14.500 (3), c = 18.800 (4) Å, β = 91.00 (3), V = 4033.9 (14) Å3 and Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallized in a monoclinic space group Cc with a = 13.5432 (4), b = 12.9981 (4), c = 25.7567 (11) Å, β = 104.028 (4), V = 1374.16 (7) Å3 and Z = 4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Reactivity of New Aminophenolate Complexes of Nickel
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13603-13613; doi:10.3390/molecules190913603
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New well-defined, paramagnetic nickel complexes have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The complexes were found to be active for the cross-coupling of alkyl electrophiles (especially ethyl 2-bromobutyrate) with alkyl Grignard reagents. The ligand architecture in these new complexes could potentially be
[...] Read more.
New well-defined, paramagnetic nickel complexes have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The complexes were found to be active for the cross-coupling of alkyl electrophiles (especially ethyl 2-bromobutyrate) with alkyl Grignard reagents. The ligand architecture in these new complexes could potentially be rendered chiral, opening up future possibilities for performing asymmetric cross-coupling reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Some Fluoroquinolone Family Members on Biospeciation of Copper(II), Nickel(II) and Zinc(II) Ions in Human Plasma
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12194-12223; doi:10.3390/molecules190812194
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The speciation of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions in the presence of the fluoroquinolones (FQs) moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, in human blood plasma was studied under physiological conditions by computer simulation. The speciation was calculated using an updated
[...] Read more.
The speciation of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions in the presence of the fluoroquinolones (FQs) moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, in human blood plasma was studied under physiological conditions by computer simulation. The speciation was calculated using an updated model of human blood plasma including over 6,000 species with the aid of the program Hyss2009. The identity and stability of metal-FQ complexes were determined by potentiometric (310 K, 0.15 mol/L NaCl), spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, ESI-MS and 1H-NMR measurements. In the case of Cu2+ ion the concentration of main low molecular weight (LMW) plasma complex (Cu(Cis)His) is very slightly influenced by all examined FQs. FQs show much higher influence on main plasma Ni2+ and Zn2+ complexes: (Ni(His)2 and Zn(Cys)Cit, respectively. Levofloxacin exhibits the highest influence on the fraction of the main nickel complex, Ni(His)2, even at a concentration level of 3 × 10−5 mol/L. The same effect is seen on the main zinc complex, Zn(Cys)Cit. Calculated plasma mobilizing indexes indicate that ciprofloxacin possesses the highest mobilizing power from plasma proteins, toward copper ion, while levofloxacin is the most influential on nickel and zinc ions. The results obtained indicate that the drugs studied are safe in relation to mobilization of essential metal ions under physiological conditions. The observed effects were explained in terms of competitive equilibrium reactions between the FQs and the main LMW complexes of the metal ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Immobilization and Catalytic Activity of a Copper(II) Complex with a Chiral Bis(oxazoline)
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 11988-11998; doi:10.3390/molecules190811988
Received: 13 July 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1196 KB) | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A chiral bis(oxazoline) bearing CH2OH groups was synthesized from a commercial bis(oxazoline) and characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR, high resolution ESI-mass spectrometry and FTIR. The corresponding copper(II) complex was immobilized onto the surface of a mesoporous carbonaceous material (Starbon
[...] Read more.
A chiral bis(oxazoline) bearing CH2OH groups was synthesized from a commercial bis(oxazoline) and characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR, high resolution ESI-mass spectrometry and FTIR. The corresponding copper(II) complex was immobilized onto the surface of a mesoporous carbonaceous material (Starbon® 700) in which the double bonds had been activated via conventional bromination. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, ICP-OES, XPS, thermogravimetry and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The new copper(II) bis(oxazoline) was tested both in the homogeneous phase and once immobilized onto a carbonaceous support for the kinetic resolution of hydrobenzoin. Both were active, enantioselective and selective in the mono-benzoylation of hydrobenzoin, but better enantioselectivities were obtained in the homogeneous phase. The heterogeneous catalyst could be separated from the reaction media at the end of the reaction and reused in another catalytic cycle, but with loss of product yield and enantioselectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Atypical McMurry Cross-Coupling Reactions Leading to a New Series of Potent Antiproliferative Compounds Bearing the Key [Ferrocenyl-Ene-Phenol] Motif
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10350-10369; doi:10.3390/molecules190710350
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the course of the preparation of a series of ferrocenyl derivatives of diethylstilbestrol (DES), in which one of the 4-hydroxyphenyl moieties was replaced by a ferrocenyl group, the McMurry reaction of chloropropionylferrocene with a number of mono-aryl ketones unexpectedly yielded the hydroxylated
[...] Read more.
In the course of the preparation of a series of ferrocenyl derivatives of diethylstilbestrol (DES), in which one of the 4-hydroxyphenyl moieties was replaced by a ferrocenyl group, the McMurry reaction of chloropropionylferrocene with a number of mono-aryl ketones unexpectedly yielded the hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES derivatives, 5ac, in poor yields (10%–16%). These compounds showed high activity on the hormone-independent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 to 0.36 µM. Surprisingly, non-hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES, 4, showed only an IC50 value of 1.14 µM, illustrating the importance of the hydroxyethyl function in this promising new series. For comparison, McMurry reactions of the shorter chain analogue chloroacetylferrocene were carried out to see the difference in behaviour with mono-aryl ketones versus a diaryl ketone. The effect of changing the length of the alkyl chain adjacent to the phenolic substituent of the hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES was studied, a mechanistic rationale to account for the unexpected products is proposed, and the antiproliferative activities of all of these compounds on MDA-MB-231 cells lines were measured and compared. X-ray crystal structures of cross-coupled products and of pinacol-pinacolone rearrangements are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Susceptibility of Opportunistic Burkholderia glumae to Copper Surfaces Following Wet or Dry Surface Contact
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9975-9985; doi:10.3390/molecules19079975
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 July 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Burkholderia glumae has been proposed to have a potential risk to vulnerable communities. In this work, we investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of copper surfaces against multi-drug resistant B. glumae from both patients and rice plants. The susceptibility of B
[...] Read more.
Burkholderia glumae has been proposed to have a potential risk to vulnerable communities. In this work, we investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of copper surfaces against multi-drug resistant B. glumae from both patients and rice plants. The susceptibility of B. glumae to copper surfaces was noted by a significant decline in viable bacterial counts, relative to the slight reduction of stainless steel and polyvinylchloride, both of which were used as control surfaces. The mode of action of bacterial killing was determined by examing the mutagenicity, DNA damage, copper ions accumulation, and membrane damage in bacterial cells. The results indicated that the cells exposed to copper surfaces did not cause severe DNA lesions or increase the mutation frequencies, but resulted in a loss of cell membrane integrity within minutes. Furthermore, bacterial cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated significantly higher amounts of copper compared to control surfaces. Overall, this study showed that metallic copper had strong antibacterial effect against B. glumae by causing DNA and membrane damage, cellular accumulation of copper, and cell death following DNA degradation, which could be utilized to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Modified Adenosines Joined to Mono-Functional Platinum Moieties
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9339-9353; doi:10.3390/molecules19079339
Received: 26 March 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis of four novel platinum complexes, bearing N6-(6-amino-hexyl)adenosine or a 1,6-di(adenosin-N6-yl)-hexane respectively, as ligands of mono-functional cisplatin or monochloro(ethylendiamine)platinum(II), is reported. The chemistry exploits the high affinity of the charged platinum centres towards the N7 position of
[...] Read more.
The synthesis of four novel platinum complexes, bearing N6-(6-amino-hexyl)adenosine or a 1,6-di(adenosin-N6-yl)-hexane respectively, as ligands of mono-functional cisplatin or monochloro(ethylendiamine)platinum(II), is reported. The chemistry exploits the high affinity of the charged platinum centres towards the N7 position of the adenosine base system and a primary amine of an alkyl chain installed on the C6 position of the purine. The cytotoxic behaviour of the synthesized complexes has been studied in A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial and MCF7 human breast adenocarcinomic cancer cell lines, in order to investigate their effects on cell viability and proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle RutheniumII(η6-arene) Complexes of Thiourea Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization and Urease Inhibition
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8080-8092; doi:10.3390/molecules19068080
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
RuII(arene) complexes have emerged as a versatile class of compounds to design metallodrugs as potential treatment for a wide range of diseases including cancer and malaria. They feature modes of action that involve classic DNA binding like platinum anticancer drugs, may
[...] Read more.
RuII(arene) complexes have emerged as a versatile class of compounds to design metallodrugs as potential treatment for a wide range of diseases including cancer and malaria. They feature modes of action that involve classic DNA binding like platinum anticancer drugs, may covalent binding to proteins, or multimodal biological activity. Herein, we report the synthesis and urease inhibition activity of RuII(arene) complexes of the general formula [RuII(η6-p-cymene)(L)Cl2] and [RuII(η6-p-cymene)(PPh3)(L)Cl]PF6 with S-donor systems (L) based on heterocyclic thiourea derivatives. The compounds were characterized by 1H-, 13C{1H}- and 31P{1H}-NMR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. The crystal structure of [chlorido(η6-p-cymene)(imidazolidine-2-thione)(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II)] hexafluorophosphate 11 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. A signal in the range 175–183 ppm in the 13C{1H}-NMR spectrum indicates the presence of a thione rather than a thiolate. This observation was also confirmed in the solid state by X-ray diffraction analysis of 11 which shows a C=S bond length of 1.720 Å. The compounds were tested for urease inhibitory activity and the thiourea-derived ligands exhibited moderate activity, whereas their corresponding Ru(arene) complexes were not active. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Exploiting Natural Products to Build Metalla-Assemblies: The Anticancer Activity of Embelin-Derived Rh(III) and Ir(III) Metalla-Rectangles
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6031-6046; doi:10.3390/molecules19056031
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Six new pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Rh(III) and Ir(III) metalla-rectangles ([3](CF3SO3)4–[8](CF3SO3)4) have been prepared by a self-assembly strategy using the embelin-derived metalla-clips (η5-C5Me5)2
[...] Read more.
Six new pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Rh(III) and Ir(III) metalla-rectangles ([3](CF3SO3)4–[8](CF3SO3)4) have been prepared by a self-assembly strategy using the embelin-derived metalla-clips (η5-C5Me5)2M24-C6HRO4O)Cl2 (M = Rh, 1; M = Ir, 2; R = (CH2)10CH3) and the linear ditopic ligands, pyrazine, 4,4'-bipyridine and 1,2-bis (4-pyridyl)ethylene. These new metalla-rectangles have been obtained in high yield and isolated as their triflate salts. The complexes have been fully characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques and the antiproliferative activity of these tetranuclear complexes was evaluated in vitro on cancerous (DU-145, A-549, HeLa) and noncancerous (HEK-293) cell lines. The biological study has showed a better activity for the rhodium derivatives over the iridium analogs and for all complexes a very good selectivity for cancerous over noncancerous cells. The presence of lipophilic side chains coupled with the positive charge of the tetranuclear complexes suggested a cytotoxic activity involving the mitochondrial machinery, as demonstrated by multiple biological experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Cellular Transport Mechanisms of Cytotoxic Metallodrugs: An Overview beyond Cisplatin
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 15584-15610; doi:10.3390/molecules191015584
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The field of medicinal inorganic chemistry has grown consistently during the past 50 years; however, metal-containing coordination compounds represent only a minor proportion of drugs currently on the market, indicating that research in this area has not yet been thoroughly realized. Although platinum-based
[...] Read more.
The field of medicinal inorganic chemistry has grown consistently during the past 50 years; however, metal-containing coordination compounds represent only a minor proportion of drugs currently on the market, indicating that research in this area has not yet been thoroughly realized. Although platinum-based drugs as cancer chemotherapeutic agents have been widely studied, exact knowledge of the mechanisms governing their accumulation in cells is still lacking. However, evidence suggests active uptake and efflux mechanisms are involved; this may be involved also in other experimental metal coordination and organometallic compounds with promising antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo, such as ruthenium and gold compounds. Such knowledge would be necessary to elucidate the balance between activity and toxicity profiles of metal compounds. In this review, we present an overview of the information available on the cellular accumulation of Pt compounds from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, as well as a summary of reports on the possible accumulation mechanisms for different families of experimental anticancer metal complexes (e.g., Ru Au and Ir). Finally, we discuss the need for rationalization of the investigational approaches available to study metallodrug cellular transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
Open AccessReview Current and Potential Applications of Bismuth-Based Drugs
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 15258-15297; doi:10.3390/molecules190915258
Received: 25 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
: Bismuth compounds have been used extensively as medicines and in particular for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. In addition to bismuth’s well known gastroprotective effects and efficacy in treating H. pylori infection it also has broad anti-microbial, anti-leishmanial and anti-cancer properties. Aspects
[...] Read more.
: Bismuth compounds have been used extensively as medicines and in particular for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. In addition to bismuth’s well known gastroprotective effects and efficacy in treating H. pylori infection it also has broad anti-microbial, anti-leishmanial and anti-cancer properties. Aspects of the biological chemistry of bismuth are discussed and biomolecular targets associated with bismuth treatment are highlighted. This review strives to provide the reader with an up to date account of bismuth-based drugs currently used to treat patients and discuss potential medicinal applications of bismuth drugs with reference to recent developments in the literature. Ultimately this review aims to encourage original contributions to this exciting and important field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessReview Ruthenium Polypyridine Complexes Combined with Oligonucleotides for Bioanalysis: A Review
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 11933-11987; doi:10.3390/molecules190811933
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (5624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ruthenium complexes are among the most interesting coordination complexes and they have attracted great attention over the past decades due to their appealing biological, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. Ruthenium complexes have found a unique niche in bioanalysis, as demonstrated by the substantial
[...] Read more.
Ruthenium complexes are among the most interesting coordination complexes and they have attracted great attention over the past decades due to their appealing biological, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. Ruthenium complexes have found a unique niche in bioanalysis, as demonstrated by the substantial progress made in the field. In this review, the applications of ruthenium complexes coordinated with polypyridine ligands (and analogues) in bioanalysis are discussed. Three main detection methods based on electrochemistry, electrochemiluminescence, and photoluminscence are covered. The important targets, including DNA and other biologically important targets, are detected by specific biorecognition with the corresponding oligonucleotides as the biorecognition elements (i.e., DNA is probed by its complementary strand and other targets are detected by functional nucleic acids, respectively). Selected examples are provided and thoroughly discussed to highlight the substantial progress made so far. Finally, a brief summary with perspectives is included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessReview Metal Complexes Containing Natural and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 10755-10802; doi:10.3390/molecules190810755
Received: 7 June 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes
[...] Read more.
Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)

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