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Topical Collection "Bioactive Compounds"

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Nancy D. Turner

Director, TAMU Space Life Sciences Mentored Research Program, Nutrition & Food Science Department, Texas A&M University, 2253 TAMU, 214C Cater Mattil, College Station, TX 77843-2253, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Nutrition, colon cancer, polyphenols, intestinal microbiota, apoptosis
Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

Mountain Research Center, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Chemistry of Natural Products: Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of chemical compounds in natural matrices; Nutraceuticals and functional foods: development of nutraceuticals and innovative food formulations with functional properties; Technology of Natural Products: Emerging technologies for conservation of food matrices

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Consumers increasingly believe that foods contribute directly to their health and well-being. In this context, extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods, "Bioactive compounds", play a very significant role. Bioactive compounds are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health, including antioxidant, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antiatherogenic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cytostatic, immunosuppressive properties, and hepatoprotective activities. Contributions for this issue, both in form of original research and review articles, may cover all aspects of bioactive compounds with proven activities in various biological screenings and pharmacological models, e.g. quantification, variability and efficacy of bioactive compounds; development of new protocols and methods based on chemical or biological systems for the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro bioactivity; clinical and nutritional trials focused on the bioactive properties of bioactive compounds synthesized or isolated; elucidation of bioactive compounds mechanisms; innovative techniques of bioactive compounds delivery and protocols for the extraction, isolation, structural characterization of new bioactive compounds will be welcomed, on condition that an adequate evaluation of their efficacy is provided. Papers regarding the development of pharmaceuticals from bioactive compounds will be also taken into consideration.

Dr. Nancy D. Turner
Dr. Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • bioactivity
  • natural products
  • synthesised compounds
  • isolation techniques
  • structure elucidation
  • mechanism of action

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (265 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessCommunication Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Metabolites from the Edible Fungus Phellinus baumii in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1583; doi:10.3390/molecules22101583
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
The edible fungus Phellinus baumii Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been used in Korean traditional medicines for strengthening health and prolonging life. An extract of the fruiting bodies of P. baumii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation based on its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7
[...] Read more.
The edible fungus Phellinus baumii Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been used in Korean traditional medicines for strengthening health and prolonging life. An extract of the fruiting bodies of P. baumii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation based on its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The resulting fractions were chemically investigated, leading to isolation of three phenolic compounds (13), a sesquiterpene (4), two steroids (56), a fatty acid (7), and a cerebroside (8). Spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and LC/MS were used to determine their chemical structures. Compounds 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were identified in P. baumii for the first time. Since all compounds were isolated from active fractions with anti-inflammatory activity, their ability to inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells were evaluated in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production, and compounds 13 had IC50 values <10 μM. Treatment of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with compounds 13 inhibited phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα. In addition, treatment of compounds 13 reduced LPS-induced increases of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions. Collectively, compounds 13 inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. Thus, P. baumii is a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents, and active compounds 13 could be promising lead compounds for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview Cardiovascular Activity of the Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1539; doi:10.3390/molecules22091539
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in developed and developing countries and decrease the quality of life, which has enormous social and economic consequences for the population. Recent studies on essential oils have attracted attention and encouraged continued research of this
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in developed and developing countries and decrease the quality of life, which has enormous social and economic consequences for the population. Recent studies on essential oils have attracted attention and encouraged continued research of this group of natural products because of their effects on the cardiovascular system. The pharmacological data indicate a therapeutic potential for essential oils for use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this review reports the current studies of essential oils chemical constituents with cardiovascular activity, including a description of their mechanisms of action. Full article
Open AccessCommunication A New Monoterpene from the Leaves of a Radiation Mutant Cultivar of Perilla frutescens var. crispa with Inhibitory Activity on LPS-Induced NO Production
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1471; doi:10.3390/molecules22091471
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
The leaves of Perilla frutescens var. crispa (Lamiaceae)—known as ‘Jureum-soyeop’ or ‘Cha-jo-ki’ in Korean, ‘ZI SU YE’ in Chinese, and ‘Shiso’ in Japan—has been used as a medicinal herb. Recent gamma irradiated mutation breeding on P. frutescens var. crispa in our research group
[...] Read more.
The leaves of Perilla frutescens var. crispa (Lamiaceae)—known as ‘Jureum-soyeop’ or ‘Cha-jo-ki’ in Korean, ‘ZI SU YE’ in Chinese, and ‘Shiso’ in Japan—has been used as a medicinal herb. Recent gamma irradiated mutation breeding on P. frutescens var. crispa in our research group resulted in the development of a new perilla cultivar, P. frutescens var. crispa (cv. Antisperill; PFCA), which has a higher content of isoegomaketone. The leaves of PFCA were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, and phytochemical investigation on this extract led to the isolation and identification of a new compound, 9-hydroxy-isoegomaketone [(2E)-1-(3-furanyl)-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one; 1]. Compound 1 exhibited inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 14.4 μM. The compounds in the SC-CO2 extracts of the radiation mutant cultivar and the original plant were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolics Isolated from Aframomum meleguta Enhance Proliferation and Ossification Markers in Bone Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1467; doi:10.3390/molecules22091467
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane
[...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid groups were isolated from Aframomum meleguea seeds and identified as 6-gingerol (1), 6-paradol (2), 8-dehydrogingerdione (3), 8-gingerol (4), dihydro-6-paradol (5), dihydrogingerenone A (6), dihydrogingerenone C (7), 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (8), and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (9). The structures of isolated compounds were established by NMR and mass spectral data, in addition to referring to literature data. Exposure of MCF-7, MG-63, and SAOS-2 cells to subcytotoxic concentrations of the compounds under investigation resulted in accelerated proliferation. Among them, paradol was selected for further detailed biochemical analysis in SAOS-2 cells. DNA flowcytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that paradol did not induce any significant change in the proliferation index of SAOS-2 cells. Assessment of osteogenic gene expression revealed that paradol enhanced the expression of osteocyte and osteoblast-related genes and inhibited osteoclast and RUNX suppressor genes. Biochemically, paradol enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and vitamin D content and decreased the osteoporotic marker acid phosphatase. In conclusion, paradol, which is a major constituents of A. melegueta seeds, exhibited potent proliferative and ossification characteristics in bone cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Components Isolated from Apios americana Medik
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1432; doi:10.3390/molecules22091432
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
A new compound 1, 5-methoxy-2,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-coumaronochromone, along with seven known compounds (28), were isolated from Apios americana using open column chromatography. Their structures were established based on an analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectra. Among these,
[...] Read more.
A new compound 1, 5-methoxy-2,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-coumaronochromone, along with seven known compounds (28), were isolated from Apios americana using open column chromatography. Their structures were established based on an analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectra. Among these, two compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) at a concentration below 50 μM. The respective competitive (1) and mixed (2) inhibitors were revealed to have Ki values of 21.0 ± 0.8 and 14.5 ± 1.5 μM, based on the Dixon plot. The potential inhibitor (2) was visually presented in a predicted binding pose in the receptor by molecular docking. Additionally, molecular dynamics were performed for a detailed understanding of their complex by Gromacs 4.6.5 package. Full article
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Open AccessReview An Overview of LEDs’ Effects on the Production of Bioactive Compounds and Crop Quality
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1420; doi:10.3390/molecules22091420
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 27 August 2017
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Abstract
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are characterized by their narrow-spectrum, non-thermal photon emission, greater longevity, and energy-saving characteristics, which are better than traditional light sources. LEDs thus hold the potential to revolutionize horticulture lighting technology for crop production, protection, and preservation. Exposure to different LED
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Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are characterized by their narrow-spectrum, non-thermal photon emission, greater longevity, and energy-saving characteristics, which are better than traditional light sources. LEDs thus hold the potential to revolutionize horticulture lighting technology for crop production, protection, and preservation. Exposure to different LED wavelengths can induce the synthesis of bioactive compounds and antioxidants, which in turn can improve the nutritional quality of horticultural crops. Similarly, LEDs increase the nutrient contents, reduce microbial contamination, and alter the ripening of postharvest fruits and vegetables. LED-treated agronomic products can be beneficial for human health due to their good nutrient value and high antioxidant properties. Besides that, the non-thermal properties of LEDs make them easy to use in closed-canopy or within-canopy lighting systems. Such configurations minimize electricity consumption by maintaining optimal incident photon fluxes. Interestingly, red, blue, and green LEDs can induce systemic acquired resistance in various plant species against fungal pathogens. Hence, when seasonal clouds restrict sunlight, LEDs can provide a controllable, alternative source of selected single or mixed wavelength photon source in greenhouse conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Homoisoflavonoids and Chalcones Isolated from Haematoxylum campechianum L., with Spasmolytic Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1405; doi:10.3390/molecules22091405
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Haematoxylum campechianum is a medicinal plant employed as an astringent to purify the blood and to treat stomach problems such as diarrhea and dysentery. A bio-guided chemical fractionation of the methanolic extract obtained from this plant allowed for the isolation of five compounds:
[...] Read more.
Haematoxylum campechianum is a medicinal plant employed as an astringent to purify the blood and to treat stomach problems such as diarrhea and dysentery. A bio-guided chemical fractionation of the methanolic extract obtained from this plant allowed for the isolation of five compounds: two chalcones known as sappanchalcone (1); 3-deoxysappanchalcone (2); three homoisoflavonoids known as hematoxylol A (3); 4-O-methylhematoxylol (4); and, hematoxin (5). The spasmolytic activity was determined in an in vitro model (electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum), and allowed to demonstrate that the methanolic extract (EC50 = 62.11 ± 3.23) fractions HcF7 (EC50 = 61.75 ± 3.55) and HcF9 (EC50 = 125.5 ± 10.65) and compounds 1 (EC50 = 16.06 ± 2.15) and 2 (EC50 = 25.37 ± 3.47) of Haematoxylum campechianum present significant relaxing activity as compared to papaverine (EC50 = 20.08 ± 2.0) as a positive control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents of Murraya tetramera Huang and Their Repellent Activity against Tribolium castaneum
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1379; doi:10.3390/molecules22081379
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
Sixteen compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya tetramera Huang. Based on the NMR and MS spectral results, the structures were determined. It was confirmed that the isolated compounds included three new compounds (9, 10 and 13)
[...] Read more.
Sixteen compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya tetramera Huang. Based on the NMR and MS spectral results, the structures were determined. It was confirmed that the isolated compounds included three new compounds (9, 10 and 13) and one new natural product (8), which were identified asmurratetra A (9), murratetra B (10), murratetra C (13) and [2-(7-methoxy-2-oxochromen-8-yl)-3-methylbut-2-enyl]3-methylbut-2-enoate (8), respectively. Meanwhile, the repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum was investigated for 13 of these isolated compounds. The results showed that the tested compounds had various levels of repellent activity against T. castaneum. Among them, compounds 1 (4(15)-eudesmene-1β,6α-diol), 11 (isoferulic acid) and 16 (2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate) showed fair repellent activity against T. castaneum. They might be considered as potential leading compounds for the development of natural repellents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Portuguese Honeys from Different Geographical and Botanical Origins: A 4-Year Stability Study Regarding Quality Parameters and Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1338; doi:10.3390/molecules22081338
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Portuguese honeys (n = 15) from different botanical and geographical origins were analysed regarding their quality parameters (diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, moisture and pH), colour (L*, a*, b*) and antioxidant profile (total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, DPPH• scavenging activity, and ferric reducing
[...] Read more.
Portuguese honeys (n = 15) from different botanical and geographical origins were analysed regarding their quality parameters (diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, moisture and pH), colour (L*, a*, b*) and antioxidant profile (total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, DPPH• scavenging activity, and ferric reducing power). The samples were analysed fresh and after 4-years of storage (at 25 °C and protected from light). The hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastase activity of the fresh samples were in accordance with the recommended values described in the legislation. In general, the antioxidant activity of the samples correlated more with the bioactive compounds content than with colour. The storage affected differently each individual sample, especially regarding the antioxidant profile. Nevertheless, although in general the lightness of the samples decreased (and the redness increased), after 4 years, 11 samples still presented acceptable diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Biological Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Derived Fungi-Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, Cultivated in the Presence of Epigenetic Modifying Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1302; doi:10.3390/molecules22081302
Received: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. One new diphenylether-O-glycoside (diorcinol 3-O-α-D-ribofuranoside), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the culture treated with a
[...] Read more.
Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. One new diphenylether-O-glycoside (diorcinol 3-O-α-D-ribofuranoside), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the culture treated with a combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-azacytidine). Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited significant biomembrane protective effect of erythrocytes. 2 also showed algicidal activity against Chattonella marina, a bloom forming alga responsible for large scale fish deaths. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Activity of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) Glucomannan on Mouse Macrophage-Like J774.1 Cells and Mouse Primary Peritoneal Macrophages
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1187; doi:10.3390/molecules22071187
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Porang is a local plant of Indonesia, which has a high content of glucomannan. In this study, porang glucomannan (PG) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to enhance emulsion properties to be widely used in food industry. OSA-modified PG (OSA-PG) enhanced the
[...] Read more.
Porang is a local plant of Indonesia, which has a high content of glucomannan. In this study, porang glucomannan (PG) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to enhance emulsion properties to be widely used in food industry. OSA-modified PG (OSA-PG) enhanced the phagocytosis activity of macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, OSA-PG increased the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by enhancing their gene expression. Immunoblot analysis displayed that OSA-PG tended to activate both nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Treatment of OSA-PG with polymyxin B revealed that cytokine production induced by OSA-PG was not caused by endotoxin contamination. Our findings also indicated that OSA-PG activates macrophages through not only Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, but another receptor. Overall findings suggested that OSA-PG has a potential as an immunomodulatory food factor by stimulating macrophages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Aphidicolin Derivatives from Tolypocladium inflatum
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1168; doi:10.3390/molecules22071168
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Inflatin G (1), a new aphidicolin analogue, together with seven known compounds inflatin A (2), inflatin B (3), aphidicolin (4), aphidicolin-17-monoacetate (5), gulypyrone A (6), pyridoxatin rotamers A (7)
[...] Read more.
Inflatin G (1), a new aphidicolin analogue, together with seven known compounds inflatin A (2), inflatin B (3), aphidicolin (4), aphidicolin-17-monoacetate (5), gulypyrone A (6), pyridoxatin rotamers A (7) and B (8), were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Tolypocladium inflatum. Their structures were determined through NMR analyses and the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complexes. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7, and 8 showed modest cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines A549, CNE1-MP1, A375, and MCF-7. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone Induces Apoptosis of Multiple Myeloma Cells by Regulating the MAPK Activation Pathway
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1157; doi:10.3390/molecules22071157
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) is an active compound obtained from Radix rehmanniae preparata, which is widely used as a herbal medicine in many Asian countries. DHAP has been found to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and neuroprotective qualities. For the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects
[...] Read more.
2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) is an active compound obtained from Radix rehmanniae preparata, which is widely used as a herbal medicine in many Asian countries. DHAP has been found to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and neuroprotective qualities. For the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of DHAP on multiple myeloma cells. It was discovered that DHAP downregulated the expression of oncogenic gene products like Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Survivin, Cyclin D1, IAP-1, Cyclin E, COX-2, and MMP-9, and upregulated the expression of Bax and p21 proteins, consistent with the induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U266 cells. DHAP inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, as characterized by the cleavage of PARP and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to the modulation of the angiogenesis, proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of tumors. We therefore attempted to determine the effect of DHAP on MAPK signaling pathways, and discovered that DHAP treatment induced a sustained activation of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPKs. DHAP also potentiated the pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of bortezomib in U266 cells. Our results suggest that DHAP can be an effective therapeutic agent to target multiple myeloma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Compounds from Aloe megalacantha
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1136; doi:10.3390/molecules22071136
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Aloe megalacantha led to the isolation of four new natural products—1,8-dimethoxynepodinol (1), aloesaponarin III (2), 10-O-methylchrysalodin (3) and methyl-26-O-feruloyl-oxyhexacosanate (4)—along
[...] Read more.
Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Aloe megalacantha led to the isolation of four new natural products—1,8-dimethoxynepodinol (1), aloesaponarin III (2), 10-O-methylchrysalodin (3) and methyl-26-O-feruloyl-oxyhexacosanate (4)—along with ten known compounds. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR, mass spectrometric analyses and comparison with literature data. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and some of them exhibited good activity, with aloesaponarin II (IC50 = 0.98 µM) being the most active compound. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Capacity, Anticancer Ability and Flavonoids Composition of 35 Citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Varieties
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1114; doi:10.3390/molecules22071114
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Citrus (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is one of the most commonly consumed and widely distributed fruit in the world, which is possessing extensive bioactivities. Present study aimed to fully understand the flavonoids compositions, antioxidant capacities and in vitro anticancer abilities of different citrus
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Citrus (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is one of the most commonly consumed and widely distributed fruit in the world, which is possessing extensive bioactivities. Present study aimed to fully understand the flavonoids compositions, antioxidant capacities and in vitro anticancer abilities of different citrus resources. Citrus fruits of 35 varieties belonging to 5 types (pummelos, oranges, tangerines, mandarins and hybrids) were collected. Combining li quid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD), a total of 39 flavonoid compounds were identified, including 4 flavones, 9 flavanones and 26 polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs). Each citrus fruit was examined and compared by 4 parts, flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs. The juice sacs had the lowest total phenolics, following by the segment membrane. Four antioxidant traits including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were applied for the antioxidant capacities evaluation. Three gastric cancer cell lines, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS were applied for the cytotoxicity evaluation. According to the results of correlation analysis, phenolics compounds might be the main contributor to the antioxidant activity of citrus extracts, while PMFs existing only in the flavedo might be closely related to the gastric cancer cell line cytotoxicity of citrus extracts. The results of present study might provide a theoretical guidance for the utilization of citrus resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Urolithiasis Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Quercus gilva Blume
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1121; doi:10.3390/molecules22071121
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 July 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Quercus gilva Bume (QGB, family Fagaceae) is a tall evergreen oak species tree that grows in warm temperate regions in Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan. Quercus plants have long been the basis of traditional medicines. Their clinical benefits according to traditional medicine include
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Quercus gilva Bume (QGB, family Fagaceae) is a tall evergreen oak species tree that grows in warm temperate regions in Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan. Quercus plants have long been the basis of traditional medicines. Their clinical benefits according to traditional medicine include relief of urolithiasis, tremors and inflammation. In the present study, the anti-urolithiasis activity including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, of some phenolic compounds isolated from QGB were described. Seven compounds were isolated and identified as picraquassioside D (1), quercussioside (2), (+)-lyoniresinol-9′α-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (3), (+)-catechin (4), (−)-epicatechin (5), procyanidin B-3 (6), and procyanidin B-4 (7). Compounds 57 showed potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. These compounds were further tested for their inhibition of the gene expression of the inflammatory cytokines. The three compounds 57 showed dose-dependent inhibitory activities on gene expression of COX-2 and IL-1β. In vivo, urolithiasis was induced more effectively in an animal model of acute urolithiasis by the administration of QGB extract. These results indicate the potential of compounds from QGB in the treatment of urolithiasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl.) DC. Leaves
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1100; doi:10.3390/molecules22071100
Received: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
This work describes the isolation and structural elucidation of compounds from the leaves of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl.) DC. (goiaba-brava) and evaluates the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds against bacteria and fungi. Column chromatography was used to fractionate and
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This work describes the isolation and structural elucidation of compounds from the leaves of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl.) DC. (goiaba-brava) and evaluates the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds against bacteria and fungi. Column chromatography was used to fractionate and purify the extract of the M. tomentosa leaves and the chemical structures of the compounds were determined using spectroscopic techniques. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using the broth microdilution method. The phytochemical investigation isolated 11 compounds: α-bisabolol, α-bisabolol oxide B, α-cadinol, β-sitosterol, n-pentacosane, n-tetracosane, quercetin, kaempferol, avicularin, juglanin and guaijaverin. The crude ethanolic extract and its fractions were tested against 15 bacteria and 9 yeasts. The crude extract inhibited the in vitro growth of yeasts at concentration of 4 to 32 μg/mL. The hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions inhibited Candida sp. at concentrations of 4 to 256 μg/mL, whereas the Cryptococcus sp. isolates were inhibited only by the hexane and dichloromethane fractions in minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at 16 to 64 μg/mL. The flavonoid quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranose (avicularin) was the most active compound, inhibiting Candida species in concentrations of 2 to 32 μg/mL. The MIC values suggest potential activity of this plant species against yeast. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activities of Pyrenylated Coumarins from the Roots of Prangos hulusii
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1098; doi:10.3390/molecules22071098
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
The dichloromethane extract of the roots of Prangos hulusii, a recently described endemic species from Turkey, has yielded nine known and one new prenylated coumarins. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and direct comparison with the reference compounds where available. The
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The dichloromethane extract of the roots of Prangos hulusii, a recently described endemic species from Turkey, has yielded nine known and one new prenylated coumarins. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and direct comparison with the reference compounds where available. The root extract and its prenylated coumarins exhibit antimicrobial activity against nine standard and six clinically isolated strains at a concentration between 5 and 125 µg/mL. In particular, the new coumarin, 4′-senecioiloxyosthol (1), displayed 5 µg/mL MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, murraol (4) and auraptenol (5) showed 63 µg/mL MIC value against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, and isoimperatorin (9) exhibited 16 µg/mL MIC value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cell-Free Production of Pentacyclic Triterpenoid Compound Betulinic Acid from Betulin by the Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1075; doi:10.3390/molecules22071075
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Betulinic acid is a product of plant secondary metabolism which has shown various bioactivities. Several CYP716A subfamily genes were recently characterized encoding multifunctional oxidases capable of C-28 oxidation. CYP716A12 was identified as betulin C-28 oxidase, capable of modifying betulin. This study aimed to
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Betulinic acid is a product of plant secondary metabolism which has shown various bioactivities. Several CYP716A subfamily genes were recently characterized encoding multifunctional oxidases capable of C-28 oxidation. CYP716A12 was identified as betulin C-28 oxidase, capable of modifying betulin. This study aimed to induce the transformation of betulin to betulinic acid by co-expressing enzymes CYP716A12 from Medicago truncatula and ATR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The microsome protein extracted from the transgenic yeast successfully catalyzed the transformation of betulin to betulinic acid. We also characterized the optimization of cell fragmentation, protein extraction method, and the conversion conditions. Response surface methodology was implemented, and the optimal yield of betulinic acid reached 18.70%. After optimization, the yield and the conversion rate of betulin were increased by 83.97% and 136.39%, respectively. These results may present insights and strategies for the sustainable production of betulinic acid in multifarious transgenic microbes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Labradorins with Antibacterial Activity Produced by Pseudomonas sp.
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1072; doi:10.3390/molecules22071072
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The urgent need for new antibacterial drugs has led to renewed interest in microorganisms, which historically have been the main source of previously discovered antibiotics. The present study describes the discovery of two new antibacterial oxazolylindole type alkaloids, labradorins 5 (1)
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The urgent need for new antibacterial drugs has led to renewed interest in microorganisms, which historically have been the main source of previously discovered antibiotics. The present study describes the discovery of two new antibacterial oxazolylindole type alkaloids, labradorins 5 (1) and 6 (2), which were isolated and characterized from two isolates of Pseudomonas sp., along with four previously known tryptophane derived alkaloids. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by NMR spectroscopy and MS, and confirmed by synthesis. During bioassay-guided isolation using several human bacterial pathogens, 1 and 2 displayed activity towards Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of compounds 1 and 2 against S. aureus were 12 μg·mL−1 and 50 μg·mL−1, respectively, whereas the MICs against A. baumannii were >50 μg·mL−1. The CC50 values of compound 1 towards a liver cell line (HEP-G2) and a T-cell line (MT4) were 30 μg·mL−1 and 20 μg·mL−1, respectively, and for compound 2 were >100 μg·mL−1 and 20 μg·mL−1, respectively. Due to the limited potency of compounds 1 and 2, along with their toxicity, the compounds do not warrant further development towards new antibiotics. Full article
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Open AccessReview Deoxyelephantopin and Isodeoxyelephantopin as Potential Anticancer Agents with Effects on Multiple Signaling Pathways
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1013; doi:10.3390/molecules22061013
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and
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Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and isodeoxyelephantopin (IDET) are sesquiterpene lactone components of “Elephantopus scaber and Elephantopus carolinianus”, traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have long been used as folk medicines to treat liver diseases, diabetes, diuresis, bronchitis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, and inflammation. Recently, the anticancer activity of DET and IDET has been widely investigated. Here, our aim is to review the current status of DET and IDET, and discuss their anticancer activity with specific emphasis on molecular targets and mechanisms used by these compounds to trigger apoptosis pathways which may help to further design and conduct research to develop them as lead therapeutic drugs for cancer treatments. The literature has shown that DET and IDET induce apoptosis through multiple signaling pathways which are deregulated in cancer cells and suggested that by targeting multiple pathways simultaneously, these compounds could selectively kill cancer cells. This review suggests that DET and IDET hold promising anticancer activity but additional studies and clinical trials are needed to validate and understand their therapeutic effect to develop them into potent therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Glycosides from Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1023; doi:10.3390/molecules22061023
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 28 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (1
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A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 28 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (1H-1H COSY), heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)) and HR-FABMS analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of 18 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 4 and 7 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells, with IC50 values of 17.80 and 27.91 µM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Acid Esters from the Roots and Rhizomes of Notopterygium incisium and Their Permeability in the Human Caco-2 Monolayer Cell Model
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 935; doi:10.3390/molecules22060935
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
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Abstract
A new ferulic acid ester named 4-methyl-3-trans-hexenylferulate (1), together with eight known phenolic acid esters (29), was isolated from the methanolic extract of the roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisium. Their structures were elucidated
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A new ferulic acid ester named 4-methyl-3-trans-hexenylferulate (1), together with eight known phenolic acid esters (29), was isolated from the methanolic extract of the roots and rhizomes of Notopterygium incisium. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. 4-Methoxyphenethyl ferulate (8) NMR data is reported here for the first time. The uptake and transepithelial transport of the isolated compounds 19 were investigated in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Compounds 2 and 6 were assigned for the well-absorbed compounds, compound 8 was assigned for the moderately absorbed compound, and compounds 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were assigned for the poorly absorbed compounds. Moreover, all of the isolated compounds were assayed for the inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages model and L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL) was used as a positive control. Compounds 1, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited potent inhibitory activity on NO production with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 1.01, 4.63, 2.47, and 2.73 μM, respectively, which were more effective than L-NIL with IC50 values of 9.37 μM. These findings not only enriched the types of anti-inflammatory compounds in N. incisum but also provided some useful information for predicting their oral bioavailability and their suitability as drug leads or promising anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Variability in the Content of Trans-Resveratrol, Trans-ε-Viniferin and R2-Viniferin in Grape Cane of Seven Vitis vinifera L. Varieties during a Three-Year Study
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 928; doi:10.3390/molecules22060928
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014–2016) at six different places in South
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Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014–2016) at six different places in South Moravia, Czech Republic were extracted, and the contents of trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin, and r2-viniferin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study included three blue grape varieties of Vitis vinifera L. (Cabernet Moravia, Blaufränkisch, and Piwi variety Laurot) and four white grape varieties (Chardonnay, Green Veltliner, Piwi variety Hibernal, and Piwi variety Malverina). From the viewpoint of producing extracts with high stilbenes content, the Hibernal variety is clearly the best. The mean amounts of the stilbenes for this variety at all localities and for all three years were 4.99 g/kg for trans-resveratrol, 3.24 g/kg for trans-ε-viniferin, and 1.73 g/kg for r2-viniferin. The influence of vintage, locality, and variety on the amounts of stilbenes was studied using PCA analysis. In contrast to expectations, there was no strong impact of locality on stilbenes content. The differences were varietal for most varieties, regardless of the area of cultivation. Laurot and Hibernal varieties did differ significantly in that respect, however, as they exhibited clear dependence on location. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Some Physical Properties of Protein Moiety of Alkali-Extracted Tea Polysaccharide Conjugates Were Shielded by Its Polysaccharide
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 914; doi:10.3390/molecules22060914
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Polysaccharide conjugates were alkali-extracted from green tea (TPC-A). Although it contained 11.80% covalently binding proteins, TPC-A could not bind to the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dyes G250 and R250. TPC-A had no expected characteristic absorption peak of protein in the UV-vis spectrum scanning in
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Polysaccharide conjugates were alkali-extracted from green tea (TPC-A). Although it contained 11.80% covalently binding proteins, TPC-A could not bind to the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dyes G250 and R250. TPC-A had no expected characteristic absorption peak of protein in the UV-vis spectrum scanning in the range of 200–700 nm. The UV-vis wavelength of 280 nm was not suitable to detect the presence of the protein portion of TPC-A. The zeta potential of TPC-A merely presented the negative charge properties of polysaccharides instead of the acid–base property of its protein section across the entire pH range. Furthermore, TPC-A was more stable when the pH of solution exceeded 4.0. In addition, no precipitation or haze was generated in the TPC-A/(−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) mixtures during 12 h storage. TPC-A has emulsifying activity, which indicated that its protein moiety formed hydrophobic groups. Thus, it was proposed that some physical properties of TPC-A protein were shielded by its olysaccharide, since the protein moiety was wrapped by its polysaccharide chains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Total Synthesis and Pharmacological Investigation of Cordyheptapeptide A
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 682; doi:10.3390/molecules22060682
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
The present investigation reports the synthesis of a phenylalanine-rich N-methylated cyclopeptide, cordyheptapeptide A (8), previously isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. BCC 1788, accomplished through the coupling of N-methylated tetrapeptide and tripeptide fragments followed by cyclization of
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The present investigation reports the synthesis of a phenylalanine-rich N-methylated cyclopeptide, cordyheptapeptide A (8), previously isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. BCC 1788, accomplished through the coupling of N-methylated tetrapeptide and tripeptide fragments followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide unit. Structure elucidation of the newly synthesized cyclopolypeptide was performed by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS), and screened for its antibacterial, antidermatophytic, and cytotoxic potential. According to the antimicrobial activity results, the newly synthesized N-Methylated cyclopeptide exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL, in comparison to the reference drugs, gatifloxacin and griseofulvin. In addition, cyclopolypeptide 8 displayed suitable levels of cytotoxicity against Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Anthocyanin Composition and Functional Analysis of an Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 876; doi:10.3390/molecules22060876
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally used in beverages due to their nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The characterization of components and regulatory mechanism of anthocyanins in S. nigrum fruits have rarely been reported. In
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Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally used in beverages due to their nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The characterization of components and regulatory mechanism of anthocyanins in S. nigrum fruits have rarely been reported. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared similar HPLC profiles but different contents and total antioxidant activities for anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method, mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanin extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extracted from S. nigrum fruits reached 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB, was also cloned for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins were shown to correlate well (r = 0.93) with the expression levels of SnMYB gene during the fruit’s developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB gene successfully produced high anthocyanin content (1.03 mg/g) when SnMYB gene was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanin extraction, and SnMYB gene is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in S. nigrum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Maturity of Malay Cherry (Lepisanthes alata) Leaves on the Inhibitory Activity of Starch Hydrolases
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 873; doi:10.3390/molecules22060873
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Aqueous extracts of young (7-day-old) Malay cherry (Lepisanthes alata) leaves were incorporated into wheat and rice flours to evaluate their inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. HPLC-ESI/MS2 results showed that the active components in young leaves were proanthocyanidins with lower
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Aqueous extracts of young (7-day-old) Malay cherry (Lepisanthes alata) leaves were incorporated into wheat and rice flours to evaluate their inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. HPLC-ESI/MS2 results showed that the active components in young leaves were proanthocyanidins with lower mean degrees of polymerisation (≤10). The IC50 of the aqueous extracts of young leaves were 2.50 ± 0.03 and 12.91 ± 0.29 µg/mL, against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which make them less active compared to the mature leaves. In contrast, total proanthocyanidins in aqueous extracts decreased as the leaves matured, indicating that the compounds in the mature leaves have much higher activity. However, there was no significant difference in the digestibility of wheat noodles incorporated with the aqueous extracts from either young or mature leaves. Interestingly, with regard to rice noodles, their digestibility was mostly reduced by incorporating aqueous extracts of young leaves compared to using mature leaves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Glycosides from the Fruits of Nicandra physaloides
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 828; doi:10.3390/molecules22050828
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Three new glycosides (13) and 15 known ones (418) were isolated and identified from the fruits of Nicandra physaloides. The structures of these compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS.
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Three new glycosides (13) and 15 known ones (418) were isolated and identified from the fruits of Nicandra physaloides. The structures of these compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS. The compounds (418) were the first time isolated from the Nicandra genus and they (except 8, 10, 14) exhibited inhibitions on the NO release of LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values from 26.9 to 47.5 μM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolaurenidificin and Bromlaurenidificin, Two New C15-Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 807; doi:10.3390/molecules22050807
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Chromatographic fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa gave two new hexahydrofuro[3,2-b]furan-based C15-acetogenins, namely, isolaurenidificin (1) and bromlaurenidificin (2). The chemical structures were elucidated based
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Chromatographic fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa gave two new hexahydrofuro[3,2-b]furan-based C15-acetogenins, namely, isolaurenidificin (1) and bromlaurenidificin (2). The chemical structures were elucidated based on extensive analyses of their spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no toxicity (LC50 > 12 mM) using Artemia salina as test organism. Both compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against A549, HepG-2, HCT116, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells, however, they exhibited a relatively potent cytotoxic activity against peripheral blood neutrophils. This can be attributed partly to induction of apoptosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 781; doi:10.3390/molecules22050781
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios
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Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ontogenetic Variation of Individual and Total Capsaicinoids in Malagueta Peppers (Capsicum frutescens) during Fruit Maturation
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 736; doi:10.3390/molecules22050736
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 30 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper (Capsicum frutescens) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature
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The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper (Capsicum frutescens) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Capsaicinoids were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and the extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection. A significant increase in the total content of capsaicinoids was observed in the early days (between 12 and 33). Between day 33 and 40 there was a slight reduction in the total capsaicinoid content (3.3% decrease). C was the major capsaicinoid, followed by DHC, n-DHC, h-C and h-DHC. By considering the evolution of standardized values of the capsaicinoids it was verified that n-DHC, DHC and h-DHC (dihydrocapsaicin-like capsaicinoids) present a similar behavior pattern, while h-C and C (capsaicin-like capsaicinoids) show different evolution patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pectic Bee Pollen Polysaccharide from Rosa rugosa Alleviates Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance via Induction of AMPK/mTOR-Mediated Autophagy
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 699; doi:10.3390/molecules22050699
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Despite it is used as a nutraceutical against diabetes and obesity, the mechanism of action of bee pollen is still unclear. Pectic bee pollen polysaccharide (RBPP-P) was isolated from Rosa rugosa, and its structure was characterized by 13C-NMR and Fourier transform-infrared
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Despite it is used as a nutraceutical against diabetes and obesity, the mechanism of action of bee pollen is still unclear. Pectic bee pollen polysaccharide (RBPP-P) was isolated from Rosa rugosa, and its structure was characterized by 13C-NMR and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Using high glucose and fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice, we detected its effect on insulin function and lipid metabolism based on autophagy. RBPP-P contained arabinogalactan, rhamnogalacturonan I, and homogalacturonan domains. In vivo studies demonstrated that RBPP-P markedly ameliorated insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and liver steatosis in obese mice. The suppressive effects of RBPP-P on liver steatosis and triglyceride content were mediated by increased autophagy and lipase expression in liver. In AMPK knockdown cells (prkaa 1/2−/− MEF) and HFD-fed mice tissues (liver, gonadal white adipose, and inguinal white adipose), RBPP-P enhanced autophagy in AMPK/mTOR-dependent way in liver, but not in adipose tissue. These findings demonstrated that bee pollen polysaccharide alleviated liver steatosis and insulin resistance by promoting autophagy via an AMPK/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway, suggesting that RBPP-P could be a novel therapeutic agent used for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modification of Natural Eudesmane Scaffolds via Mizoroki-Heck Reactions
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 652; doi:10.3390/molecules22040652
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
The Mizoroki-Heck reaction was applied to substrates derived from isocostic and ilicic acids, important sesquiterpene components of Dittrichia viscosa L. Greuter that were extracted directly from plant material collected in Morocco. After optimization of the metallo-catalysis conditions, various aryl-groups were successfully introduced on
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The Mizoroki-Heck reaction was applied to substrates derived from isocostic and ilicic acids, important sesquiterpene components of Dittrichia viscosa L. Greuter that were extracted directly from plant material collected in Morocco. After optimization of the metallo-catalysis conditions, various aryl-groups were successfully introduced on the exocyclic double bond with an exclusive E-configuration and without racemization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle LC-ESI-MS/MS Identification of Biologically Active Phenolic Compounds in Mistletoe Berry Extracts from Different Host Trees
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 624; doi:10.3390/molecules22040624
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract
A new, rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the content of flavonoid aglycones and phenolic acids in mistletoe berries (Viscum album L.) harvested from six different Polish host trees. Additionally, the total phenolic
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A new, rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the content of flavonoid aglycones and phenolic acids in mistletoe berries (Viscum album L.) harvested from six different Polish host trees. Additionally, the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) as well as an antioxidant and antiproliferative activity were evaluated for the first time. The plant material was selectively extracted using ultrasound assisted maceration with methanol/water (8:2) solution. The obtained TPC and TFC results varied from 7.146 to 9.345 mg GA g1 and from 1.888 to 2.888 mg Q g−1 of dry extracts, respectively. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated the highest content of phenolic acids in mistletoe berries from Populus nigra ‘Italica’ L. and flavonoid aglycones in mistletoe berries from Tilia cordata Mill. (354.45 µg and 5.955 µg per g dry extract, respectively). The moderate antioxidant activity of investigated extracts was obtained. The studies revealed that the examined extracts decreased the proliferation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells line LS180 in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity in the human colon epithelial cell line CCD 841 CoTr. Moreover, the obtained results suggest considerable impact of polyphenols on the anticancer activity of these extracts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oils of Hyptis pectinata Chemotypes: Isolation, Binary Mixtures and Acute Toxicity on Leaf-Cutting Ants
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 621; doi:10.3390/molecules22040621
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract
Leaf-cutting ants are pests of great economic importance due to the damage they cause to agricultural and forest crops. The use of organosynthetic insecticides is the main form of control of these insects. In order to develop safer technology, the objective of this
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Leaf-cutting ants are pests of great economic importance due to the damage they cause to agricultural and forest crops. The use of organosynthetic insecticides is the main form of control of these insects. In order to develop safer technology, the objective of this work was to evaluate the formicidal activity of the essential oils of two Hyptis pectinata genotypes (chemotypes) and their major compounds on the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex balzani Emery and Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel. Bioassays of exposure pathways (contact and fumigation) and binary mixtures of the major compounds were performed. The major compounds identified in the essential oils of H. pectinata were β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and calamusenone. The essential oils of H. pectinata were toxic to the ants in both exposure pathways. Essential oils were more toxic than their major compounds alone. The chemotype calamusenone was more toxic to A. balzani in both exposure pathways. A. sexdens rubropilosa was more susceptible to the essential oil of the chemotype β-caryophyllene in both exposure pathways. In general, the binary mixtures of the major compounds resulted in additive effect of toxicity. The essential oils of H. pectinata is a raw material of great potential for the development of new insecticides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Compounds from the Rhizomes of Smilax china L. and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 515; doi:10.3390/molecules22040515
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract
A new triflavanoid, kandelin B-5 (1), was isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax china L., together with six known phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols (27), nine flavonoids (816), two stilbenoids (17, 18),
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A new triflavanoid, kandelin B-5 (1), was isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax china L., together with six known phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols (27), nine flavonoids (816), two stilbenoids (17, 18), and two other compounds (19, 20). The structure of compound 1 was determined on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS data, as well as chemical method. Compounds 25, 812, 15, 17, and 19 were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Only compounds 10, 15 and 17 showed slightly IL-1β expression inhibitory activities on LPS induced THP-1 cells, with inhibition rate of 15.8%, 37.3%, and 35.8%, respectively, at concentration of 50 μg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intestinal Transport Characteristics and Metabolism of C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcone, Aspalathin
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 554; doi:10.3390/molecules22040554
Received: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
Insight into the mechanisms of intestinal transport and metabolism of aspalathin will provide important information for dose optimisation, in particular for studies using mouse models. Aspalathin transportation across the intestinal barrier (Caco-2 monolayer) tested at 1–150 µM had an apparent rate of permeability
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Insight into the mechanisms of intestinal transport and metabolism of aspalathin will provide important information for dose optimisation, in particular for studies using mouse models. Aspalathin transportation across the intestinal barrier (Caco-2 monolayer) tested at 1–150 µM had an apparent rate of permeability (Papp) typical of poorly absorbed compounds (1.73 × 10−6 cm/s). Major glucose transporters, sodium glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and efflux protein (P-glycoprotein, PgP) (1.84 × 10−6 cm/s; efflux ratio: 1.1) were excluded as primary transporters, since the Papp of aspalathin was not affected by the presence of specific inhibitors. The Papp of aspalathin was also not affected by constituents of aspalathin-enriched rooibos extracts, but was affected by high glucose concentration (20.5 mM), which decreased the Papp value to 2.9 × 10−7 cm/s. Aspalathin metabolites (sulphated, glucuronidated and methylated) were found in mouse urine, but not in blood, following an oral dose of 50 mg/kg body weight of the pure compound. Sulphates were the predominant metabolites. These findings suggest that aspalathin is absorbed and metabolised in mice to mostly sulphate conjugates detected in urine. Mechanistically, we showed that aspalathin is not actively transported by the glucose transporters, but presumably passes the monolayer paracellularly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Determination of 30 Polyphenols in Tongmai Formula, a Combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma, via Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 545; doi:10.3390/molecules22040545
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Tongmai formula (TMF) is a herbal preparation composed of three traditional Chinese medicinal materials: Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong). It has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for decades. To develop a reliable and
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Tongmai formula (TMF) is a herbal preparation composed of three traditional Chinese medicinal materials: Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong). It has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for decades. To develop a reliable and convenient analytical method for a comprehensive determination of polyphenols in TMF and the ascertainment of their chemical correlations with its herbal components, a method combining high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for rapid determination of 30 polyphenols in TMF and its three herbal components. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Chromolith Fastgradient RP-18 endcapped 50-2 column using an optimized gradient elution. Statistical analysis of obtained data demonstrated that the method had a desirable linearity, precision, and accuracy, as well as excellent sensitivity. The obtained results indicated that, among the 30 polyphenols in TMF, 22 originated from Gegen, 6 originated from Danshen, and 2 originated from Chuanxiong. The major polyphenols in TMF have been identified as puerarin, mirificin, salvianolic acid B, salvianic acid A, 3’-hydroxypuerarin, 3’-methoxypuerarin, and salvianolic acid A, with a combined contribution of 19.2% of the preparation. The development and validation of this method will greatly facilitate future pharmacological studies of TMF and its herbal components, as well as polyphenols in cardiovascular therapies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Lipophilicity Indices Derived from Retention Behavior of Antioxidant Compounds in RP-HPLC
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 550; doi:10.3390/molecules22040550
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography was employed in order to evaluate the lipophilicity of antioxidant compounds from different classes, such as phenolic acids, flavanones, flavanols, flavones, anthocyanins, stilbenes, xantonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The retention time of each compound was measured using five different
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Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography was employed in order to evaluate the lipophilicity of antioxidant compounds from different classes, such as phenolic acids, flavanones, flavanols, flavones, anthocyanins, stilbenes, xantonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The retention time of each compound was measured using five different HPLC columns: RP18 (LiChroCART, Purosphere RP-18e), C8 (Zorbax, Eclipse XDBC8), C16-Amide (Discovery RP-Amide C16), CN100 (Saulentechnik, Lichrosphere), and pentafluorophenyl (Phenomenex, Kinetex PFP), and the mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (0.1% formic acid) in different proportions. The measurements were conducted at two different column temperatures, room temperature (22 °C) and, in order to mimic the environment from the human body, 37 °C. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain new lipophilicity indices and holistic lipophilicity charts. Additionally, highly representative depictions of the chromatographic behavior of the investigated compounds and stationary phases at different temperatures were obtained using two new chemometric approaches, namely two-way joining cluster analysis and sum of ranking differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone Suppresses Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells Metastasis via Suppression of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, ROS-Mediated PI3K/AKT/MAPK/MMP and NFκB Signaling Pathways
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 537; doi:10.3390/molecules22040537
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
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Abstract
3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone (DBL) was isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), which is a folk medicine possessing various physiological effects. In this study, we used highly metastatic A549 cells to investigate efficacy of DBL inhibition of cancer metastasis and possible mechanisms. The results revealed DBL inhibited
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3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone (DBL) was isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), which is a folk medicine possessing various physiological effects. In this study, we used highly metastatic A549 cells to investigate efficacy of DBL inhibition of cancer metastasis and possible mechanisms. The results revealed DBL inhibited migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. We found DBL suppressed enzymatic activities, protein expression, and RNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Western blot results showed DBL decreased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/paxillin, which correlated with cell migratory ability. DBL also affected epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related biomarkers. In addition, DBL enhanced cytoprotective effects through elevated antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, DBL influenced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Snail, and Slug in A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that treatment with DBL may act as a potential candidate to inhibit lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting MMP-2 and -9 via affecting PI3K/AKT, MAPKs, FAK/paxillin, EMT/Snail and Slug, Nrf2/antioxidant enzymes, and NFκB signaling pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Melanogenic Properties of Greek Plants. A Novel Depigmenting Agent from Morus alba Wood
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 514; doi:10.3390/molecules22040514
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
In therapeutic interventions associated with melanin hyperpigmentation, tyrosinase is regarded as a target enzyme as it catalyzes the rate-limiting steps in mammalian melanogenesis. Since many known agents have been proven to be toxic, there has been increasing impetus to identify alternative tyrosinase inhibitors,
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In therapeutic interventions associated with melanin hyperpigmentation, tyrosinase is regarded as a target enzyme as it catalyzes the rate-limiting steps in mammalian melanogenesis. Since many known agents have been proven to be toxic, there has been increasing impetus to identify alternative tyrosinase inhibitors, especially from natural sources. In this study, we investigated 900 extracts from Greek plants for potential tyrosinase inhibitive properties. Among the five most potent extracts, the methanol extract of Morus alba wood (MAM) demonstrated a significant reduction in intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the acquisition of twelve compounds: oxyresveratrol (1), kuwanon C (2), mulberroside A (3), resorcinol (4), dihydrooxyresveratol (5), trans-dihydromorin (6), 2,4,3′-trihydroxydihydrostilbene (7), kuwanon H (8), 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (9), morusin (10), moracin M (11) and kuwanon G (12). Among these, 2,4,3′-trihydroxydihydrostilbene (7) is isolated for the first time from Morus alba and constitutes a novel potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 0.8 ± 0.15). We report here for the first time dihydrooxyresveratrol (5) as a potent natural tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 0.3 ± 0.05). Computational docking analysis indicated the binding modes of six tyrosinase inhibitors with the aminoacids of the active centre of tyrosinase. Finally, we found both MAM extract and compounds 1, 6 and 7 to significantly suppress in vivo melanogenesis during zebrafish embryogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview Emerging Anti-Mitotic Activities and Other Bioactivities of Sesquiterpene Compounds upon Human Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 459; doi:10.3390/molecules22030459
Received: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
We review the bio-activities of natural product sesquiterpenes and present the first description of their effects upon mitosis. This type of biological effect upon cells is unexpected because sesquiterpenes are believed to inactivate proteins through Michael-type additions that cause non-specific cytotoxicity. Yet, certain
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We review the bio-activities of natural product sesquiterpenes and present the first description of their effects upon mitosis. This type of biological effect upon cells is unexpected because sesquiterpenes are believed to inactivate proteins through Michael-type additions that cause non-specific cytotoxicity. Yet, certain types of sesquiterpenes can arrest cells in mitosis as measured by cell biology, biochemical and imaging techniques. We have listed the sesquiterpenes that arrest cells in mitosis and analyzed the biological data that support those observations. In view of the biochemical complexity of mitosis, we propose that a subset of sesquiterpenes have a unique chemical structure that can target a precise protein(s) required for mitosis. Since the process of mitotic arrest precedes that of cell death, it is possible that some sesquiterpenes that are currently classified as cytotoxic might also induce a mitotic arrest. Our analysis provides a new perspective of sesquiterpene chemical biology Full article
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Open AccessReview Pentacyclic Triterpene Bioavailability: An Overview of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 400; doi:10.3390/molecules22030400
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Pentacyclic triterpenes are naturally found in a great variety of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants and are therefore part of the human diet. The beneficial health effects of edible and medicinal plants have partly been associated with their triterpene content, but the in
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Pentacyclic triterpenes are naturally found in a great variety of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants and are therefore part of the human diet. The beneficial health effects of edible and medicinal plants have partly been associated with their triterpene content, but the in vivo efficacy in humans depends on many factors, including absorption and metabolism. This review presents an overview of in vitro and in vivo studies that were carried out to determine the bioavailability of pentacyclic triterpenes and highlights the efforts that have been performed to improve the dissolution properties and absorption of these compounds. As plant matrices play a critical role in triterpene bioaccessibility, this review covers literature data on the bioavailability of pentacyclic triterpenes ingested either from foods and medicinal plants or in their free form. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Cytotoxic Seco-Type Triterpene and Labdane-Type Diterpenes from Nuxia oppositifolia
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 389; doi:10.3390/molecules22030389
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Chromatographic purification of the n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Nuxia oppositifolia aerial parts, growing in Saudi Arabia, resulted in the isolation and characterization of three new labdane-type diterpene acids, 2β-acetoxy-labda-7-en-15-oic acid (1), 2β-acetoxy-7-oxolabda-8-en-15-oic acid (2), 2β-acetoxy-6-oxolabda-7-en-15-oic acid (
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Chromatographic purification of the n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Nuxia oppositifolia aerial parts, growing in Saudi Arabia, resulted in the isolation and characterization of three new labdane-type diterpene acids, 2β-acetoxy-labda-7-en-15-oic acid (1), 2β-acetoxy-7-oxolabda-8-en-15-oic acid (2), 2β-acetoxy-6-oxolabda-7-en-15-oic acid (3), and one new seco-triterpene, 3,4-seco olean-12-en-3,30 dioic acid (4), together with 10 known lupane, oleanane and ursane-type triterpenes, as well as the common phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (516). Their structures have been assigned on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR. Moreover, 13 of the isolated compounds were tested on the human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical), A549 (lung) and MDA (breast), and most of the compounds showed potent cytotoxic activities in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Gamma Radiation Suitable to Preserve Phenolic Compounds and to Decontaminate Mycotoxins in Aromatic Plants? A Case-Study with Aloysia citrodora Paláu
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 347; doi:10.3390/molecules22030347
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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This study aimed to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the preservation of phenolic compounds and on decontamination of dry herbs in terms of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), using Aloysia citrodora Paláu as a case study. For this purpose,
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This study aimed to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the preservation of phenolic compounds and on decontamination of dry herbs in terms of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), using Aloysia citrodora Paláu as a case study. For this purpose, artificially contaminated dry leaves were submitted to gamma radiation at different doses (1, 5, and 10 kGy; at dose rate of 1.7 kGy/h). Phenolic compounds were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and mycotoxin levels were determined by HPLC-fluorescence. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified in the samples and despite the apparent degradation of some compounds (namely verbasoside), 1 and 10 kGy doses point to a preservation of the majority of the compounds. The mean mycotoxin reduction varied between 5.3% and 9.6% for OTA and from 4.9% to 5.2% for AFB1. It was not observed a significant effect of the irradiation treatments on mycotoxin levels, and a slight degradation of the phenolic compounds in the irradiated samples was observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Quantification of Nine New Furanocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 322; doi:10.3390/molecules22020322
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of new furanocoumarins with long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely andafocoumarins A–H and J, have been isolated from the dried roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi (Angelicae Dahuricae radix) in our previous study, among which andafocoumarins A and B were demonstrated to have
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A series of new furanocoumarins with long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely andafocoumarins A–H and J, have been isolated from the dried roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi (Angelicae Dahuricae radix) in our previous study, among which andafocoumarins A and B were demonstrated to have better anti-inflammatory activity than the positive controls. In this work, a sensitive, accurate, and efficient ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of above-mentioned nine compounds in four cultivars of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex 2.6u C18 100 Å column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm). The mobile phases were comprised of acetonitrile and water with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Using the established method, all components could be easily separated within 12 min. With the multiple reaction monitor mode, all components were detected in positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated with injection precision, linearity, lower limit of detection, lower limit of quantification, precision, recovery, and stability, respectively. The final results demonstrated that the method was accurate and efficient, which could be used to simultaneously quantify the nine andafocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. The results also indicated that in different batches of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, some of the andafocoumarins were significantly different in terms of content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Major Compounds from Calea ternifolia
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 289; doi:10.3390/molecules22020289
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract
Demethylisoencecalin (1) and caleins A (4) and C (5) (3.16–31.6 mg/kg, p.o.), the major components from an infusion of Calea ternifolia controlled postprandial glucose levels during an oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT, 3 g/kg) in normal and
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Demethylisoencecalin (1) and caleins A (4) and C (5) (3.16–31.6 mg/kg, p.o.), the major components from an infusion of Calea ternifolia controlled postprandial glucose levels during an oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT, 3 g/kg) in normal and nicotinamide/streptozotocin (NA/STZ, 40/100 mg/kg) hyperglicemic mice. The effects were comparable to those of acarbose (5 mg/kg). During the isolation of 1, 4, and 5, four additional metabolites not previously reported for the plant, were obtained, namely 6-acetyl-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-hydroxymethyl-2H-chromene (3), herniarin (6), scoparone (7), and 4′,7-dimethylapigenin (8). In addition, the structure of calein C (5) was confirmed by X-ray analysis. Pharmacological evaluation of the essential oil of the species (31.6–316.2 mg/kg, p.o.) provoked also an important decrement of blood glucose levels during an OSTT. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-adsorbed compounds and active essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation revealed that chromene 1 was the major component (19.92%); sesquiterpenes represented the highest percentage of the essential oil content (55.67%) and included curcumene (7.10%), spathulenol (12.95%) and caryophyllene oxide (13.0%). A suitable High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method for quantifying chromenes 1 and 6-hydroxyacetyl-5-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene (2) was developed and validated according to standard protocols. Full article
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Open AccessReview Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Their Derivatives: Cosmeceutical Significance, Challenges and Future Perspectives, a Review
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 281; doi:10.3390/molecules22020281
Received: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract
Bioactive compounds from natural sources, due to their widely-recognized benefits, have been exploited as cosmeceutical ingredients. Among them, phenolic acids emerge with a very interesting potential. In this context, this review analyzes hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives as multifunctional ingredients for topical application,
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Bioactive compounds from natural sources, due to their widely-recognized benefits, have been exploited as cosmeceutical ingredients. Among them, phenolic acids emerge with a very interesting potential. In this context, this review analyzes hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives as multifunctional ingredients for topical application, as well as the limitations associated with their use in cosmetic formulations. Hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives display antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities, as well as ultraviolet (UV) protective effects, suggesting that they can be exploited as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory agents, preservatives and hyperpigmentation-correcting ingredients. Due to their poor stability, easy degradation and oxidation, microencapsulation techniques have been employed for topical application, preventing them from degradation and enabling a sustained release. Based on the above findings, hydroxycinnamic acids present high cosmetic potential, but studies addressing the validation of their benefits in cosmetic formulations are still scarce. Furthermore, studies dealing with skin permeation are scarcely available and need to be conducted in order to predict the topical bioavailability of these compounds after application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Benzofuran Derivatives from Cortex Mori Radicis, and Their Neuroprotective and Analgesic Activities Mediated by mGluR1
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 236; doi:10.3390/molecules22020236
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
Four new benzofuran-type stilbene glycosides and 14 known compounds including 8 benzofuran-type stilbenes and 6 flavonoids were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Mori Radicis. The new compounds were identified as (9R)-moracin P 3′-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1
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Four new benzofuran-type stilbene glycosides and 14 known compounds including 8 benzofuran-type stilbenes and 6 flavonoids were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Mori Radicis. The new compounds were identified as (9R)-moracin P 3′-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), (9R)-moracin P 9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (9R)-moracin P 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and (9R)-moracin O 10-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) based on the spectroscopic interpretation and chemical analysis. Three benzofuran-type stilbenes, moracin O (5), R (7), and P (8) showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in SK-N-SH cells. In addition, moracin O (5) and P (8) also demonstrated a remarkable inhibition of the acetic acid-induced pain. The molecular docking with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) results indicated that these neuroprotective benzofuran-type stilbenes might be the active analgesic components of the genus Morus, and acted by mediating the mGluR1 pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid Composition and Antitumor Activity of Bee Bread Collected in Northeast Portugal
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 248; doi:10.3390/molecules22020248
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Bee bread (BB) is a fermented mixture of plant pollen, honey, and bee saliva that worker bees use as food for larvae, and for young bees to produce royal jelly. In the present study, five BB samples, collected from Apis mellifera iberiensis hives
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Bee bread (BB) is a fermented mixture of plant pollen, honey, and bee saliva that worker bees use as food for larvae, and for young bees to produce royal jelly. In the present study, five BB samples, collected from Apis mellifera iberiensis hives located in different apiaries near Bragança, in the northeast region of Portugal, and one BB commercial sample were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) in terms of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoid glycoside derivatives. Furthermore, the samples were screened, using in vitro assays, against different human tumor cell lines, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), and also against non-tumor liver cells (porcine liver cells, PLP2). The main phenolic compounds found were flavonol derivatives, mainly quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, isorhamnetin and herbacetrin glycoside derivatives. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the six BB samples, presenting BB1 and BB3 with the highest contents (6802 and 6480 µg/g extract, respectively) and the highest number of identified compounds. Two isorhamnetin glycoside derivatives, isrohamnetin-O-hexosyl-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-O-pentosyl-hexoside, were the most abundant compounds present in BB1; on the other hand, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was the most abundant flavonol in BB3. However, it was not possible to establish a correlation between the flavonoids and the observed low to moderate cytotoxicity (ranging from >400 to 68 µg/mL), in which HeLa and NCI-H460 cell lines were the most susceptible to the inhibition. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report characterizing glycosidic flavonoids in BB samples, contributing to the chemical knowledge of this less explored bee product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Larvicidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Echinops grijsii Roots against the Three Species of Mosquitoes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 205; doi:10.3390/molecules22020205
Received: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
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Abstract
The screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that the essential oil of Echinops grijsii Hance roots possessed significant larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and its constituents were determined by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) analysis.
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The screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that the essential oil of Echinops grijsii Hance roots possessed significant larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and its constituents were determined by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) analysis. GC‐MS analyses revealed the presence of 31 components, with 5‐(3‐buten‐1‐yn‐1‐yl)‐2,2′‐bithiophene (5‐BBT, 27.63%), αterthienyl (α‐T, 14.95%),1,8‐cineole (5.56%) and cis‐β‐ocimene (5.01%) being the four major constituents. Based bioactivity‐directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of 5‐BBT, 5‐(4‐isovaleroyloxybut‐1‐ynyl)‐2,2′‐bithiophene (5‐IBT) and αT as active compounds. The essential oil of E. grijsii exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Culex pipiens pallens with LC50 values of 2.65 μg/mL, 3.43 μg/mL and 1.47 μg/mL, respectively. The isolated thiophenes, 5‐BBT and 5‐IBT, possessed strong larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus(LC50 = 0.34 μg/mL and 0.45 μg/mL, respectively) and An. sinensis(LC50 = 1.36 μg/mL and 5.36 μg/mL, respectively). The two isolated thiophenes also had LC50 values against the fourth instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens of 0.12 μg/mL and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The findings indicated that the essential oil of E. grijsii roots and the isolated thiophenes have an excellent potential for use in the control of Ae.albopictus, An. sinensis and C. pipiens pallens larvae and could be used in the search for new, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Ganoderma Species from Ghana
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 196; doi:10.3390/molecules22020196
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
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Abstract
The chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of twelve wild strains of Ganoderma sp. from Ghana, nine (LS1–LS9) of which were found growing wild simultaneously on the same dying Delonix regia tree, were evaluated. Parameters evaluated included the nutritional value, composition in sugars, fatty
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The chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of twelve wild strains of Ganoderma sp. from Ghana, nine (LS1–LS9) of which were found growing wild simultaneously on the same dying Delonix regia tree, were evaluated. Parameters evaluated included the nutritional value, composition in sugars, fatty acids, phenolic and other organic compounds and some vitamins and vitamin precursors. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by investigating reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition using five in vitro assays. Protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and energy contents ranged between 15.7–24.5 g/100 g·dw, 73.31–81.90 g/100 g, 0.48–1.40 g/100 g, 0.68–2.12 g/100 g ash and 396.1–402.02 kcal/100 g, respectively. Fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids were relatively abundant. Free sugars included rhamnose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose and trehalose. Total tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic compounds’ content ranged between 741–3191 µg/100 g, 77–1003 mg/100 g and 7.6–489 µg/100 g, respectively. There were variations in the β-glucans, ergosterol and vitamin D2 contents. The three major minerals in decreasing order were K > P > S. Ganoderma sp. strain AM1 showed the highest antioxidant activity. This study reveals, for the first time, chemical characteristics of Ganoderma spp. which grew simultaneously on the same tree. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L.) Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 138; doi:10.3390/molecules22010138
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 15 January 2017
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Abstract
A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD)
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A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54%) and in the application of SPE (13.04%). In addition, lumichrome (1.85%) was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+)-catechine (39.7%) and gallic acid (up to 30%), which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-HBV Activities of Three Compounds Extracted and Purified from Herpetospermum Seeds
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 14; doi:10.3390/molecules22010014
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
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Abstract
The goal of this research was to evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of three compounds extracted and purified from Herpetospermum seeds (HS) on HepG2.2.15 cells. Herpetin (HPT), herpetone (HPO), and herpetfluorenone (HPF) were isolated from HS and identified using HR-ESI-MS and
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The goal of this research was to evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of three compounds extracted and purified from Herpetospermum seeds (HS) on HepG2.2.15 cells. Herpetin (HPT), herpetone (HPO), and herpetfluorenone (HPF) were isolated from HS and identified using HR-ESI-MS and NMR. Different concentrations of the drugs were added to the HepG2.2.15 cells. Cell toxicity was observed with an MTT assay, cell culture supernatants were collected, and HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by ELISA. The content of HBV DNA was determined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with fluorescent probes. The 50% toxicity concentration (TC50) of HPF was 531.48 μg/mL, suggesting that this species is less toxic than HPT and HPO. HPT and HPF showed more potent antiviral activities than HPO. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of HPF on HBsAg and HBeAg were 176.99 and 134.53 μg/mL, respectively, and the corresponding therapeutic index (TI) values were 2.66 and 3.49, respectively. HPT and HPF were shown to significantly reduce the level of HBV DNA in the HepG2.2.15 culture medium compared to the negative control. This initial investigation of the anti-HBV constituents of HS yielded three compounds that revealed a synergistic effect of multiple components in the ethnopharmacological use of HS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Components in Guanjiekang in Rat Plasma via the UPLC–MS/MS Method and Its Application in Pharmacokinetic Study
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1732; doi:10.3390/molecules21121732
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Guanjiekang (GJK) that is formed by five medicinal herbs including Astragali Radix, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Corydalis Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Alba was used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of
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Guanjiekang (GJK) that is formed by five medicinal herbs including Astragali Radix, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Corydalis Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Alba was used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of active components in GJK remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of seven representative active constituents in GJK (i.e., benzoylhypaconine, benzoylmesaconine, paeoniflorin, tetrahydropalmatine, calycosin-7-glucoside, formononetin and isoliquiritigenin) after oral administration of GJK in rats. A rapid, sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC–MS/MS) method has been successfully developed for the simultaneous determination of these seven constituents in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with a gradient elution program that consists of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Detection was performed under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R2 > 0.99) over a wide concentration range for all constituents. The accuracies ranged from 92.9% to 107.8%, and the intra-day and inter-day precisions at three different levels were below 15%. Our PK results showed that these seven compounds were quickly absorbed after the administration of the GJK product, and Tmax ranged from 30 min to 189 min. The in vivo concentrations of paeoniflorin and isoliquiritigenin were significantly higher than the reported in vitro effective doses, indicating that they could partly contribute to the therapeutic effect of GJK. Therefore, we conclude that pharmacokinetic studies of representative bioactive chemicals after administration of complex herbal products are not only necessary but also feasible. Moreover, these seven compounds that were absorbed in vivo can be used as indicator standards for quality control and for determining pharmacokinetic behavior of herbal medicines in clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Cluster Zone Leaf Removal on Grapes cv. Regent Polyphenol Content by the UPLC-PDA/MS Method
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1688; doi:10.3390/molecules21121688
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
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Abstract
Abstract: Leaf removal is known to enhance light exposure of clusters and therefore may affect grape composition. Owing to the risk of decreasing grape quality or sunburn as a consequence of improper sun exposure, it is crucial to determine the optimum leaf removal
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Abstract: Leaf removal is known to enhance light exposure of clusters and therefore may affect grape composition. Owing to the risk of decreasing grape quality or sunburn as a consequence of improper sun exposure, it is crucial to determine the optimum leaf removal techniques adequate for the particular climate conditions of a vineyard area. Defoliation experiments on vine cv. Regent were conducted in two consecutive years (2014 and 2015). The effect of leaf removal treatment on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the polyphenol compounds in the grapes, with reference to the basic weather conditions of the vineyard area, located in Szczecin in the North-Western part of Poland, was assessed. Defoliation was performed manually in the cluster zone at three phenological plant stages: pre-flowering, berry-set and véraison. Leaf removal, especially early defoliation (pre-flowering), enhanced total polyphenol content, including the amount of anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols and furthermore, it increased the amount of soluble solids, decreasing the titratable acidity in grapes. On the other hand, the treatments had a reducing impact on the phenolic acids in berries. Defoliation at earlier stages of cluster development appears to be an efficient strategy for improving berry quality in cool climate areas, however, additionally further weather data control is required to determine the effects on berry components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Salidroside Regulates Inflammatory Response in Raw 264.7 Macrophages via TLR4/TAK1 and Ameliorates Inflammation in Alcohol Binge Drinking-Induced Liver Injury
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1490; doi:10.3390/molecules21111490
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking-induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like
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The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking-induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion and mRNA expression of of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isobutylhydroxyamides from Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Their Suppression of NO Production
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1416; doi:10.3390/molecules21101416
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
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Abstract
Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A–D (14), and eight known ones—tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E
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Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A–D (14), and eight known ones—tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E (10), bugeanumamide A (11), and (2E,7E,9E)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide (12)—were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data. Compound 4 contained a rare C6 fatty acid unit with an acetal group. Results revealed that compounds 1, 5, 6, and 12 showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50values of 48.7 ± 0.32, 27.1 ± 1.15, 49.8 ± 0.38, and 39.4 ± 0.63 µM, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive (IC50 > 60 μM). They could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. bungeanum by suppression of NO production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Mushroom-Based Cosmeceutical Formulations with Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Tyrosinase, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Properties
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1372; doi:10.3390/molecules21101372
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow
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The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors. In the present work, the cosmeceutical potential of ethanolic extracts prepared from Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinula edodes was analyzed in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic acids and ergosterol composition, and further incorporated in a base cosmetic cream to achieve the same bioactive purposes. From the results obtained, the final cosmeceutical formulations presented 85%–100% of the phenolic acids and ergosterol levels found in the mushroom extracts, suggesting that there was no significant loss of bioactive compounds. The final cosmeceutical formulation also displayed all the ascribed bioactivities and as such, mushrooms can further be exploited as natural cosmeceutical ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1359; doi:10.3390/molecules21101359
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 9 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass
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In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z)-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC) was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Picrotoxane Sesquiterpene Glycosides and a Coumarin Derivative from Coriaria nepalensis and Their Neurotrophic Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1344; doi:10.3390/molecules21101344
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
Two picrotoxane sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, nepalactones A (1) and B (2), and one new coumarin, nepalarin (3), were isolated from the root barks of the poisonous plant Coriaria nepalensis. Their structures were elucidated via HRESIMS and
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Two picrotoxane sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, nepalactones A (1) and B (2), and one new coumarin, nepalarin (3), were isolated from the root barks of the poisonous plant Coriaria nepalensis. Their structures were elucidated via HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and further verified via transformation methods. In addition, compounds 13 and five semisynthetic congeners (1ae) were assayed for the activity to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. As a result, nepalactone A derivative 1c and nepalarin (3) significantly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Diphenol and Isocoumarins from the Aerial Part of Lawsonia inermis and Their Inhibitory Activities against NO Production
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1299; doi:10.3390/molecules21101299
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae), also known as henna, is a small shrub or tree distributed throughout Taiwan’s Lanyu Island, in North Africa, and in Australia. Its leaves are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of external hemorrhage and fingernail abscesses. Investigation
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Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae), also known as henna, is a small shrub or tree distributed throughout Taiwan’s Lanyu Island, in North Africa, and in Australia. Its leaves are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of external hemorrhage and fingernail abscesses. Investigation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fractions from methanol extract of the aerial part of Lawsonia inermis has led to the isolation of a new diphenol, (Z)-4,4′-(prop-1-ene-1,3-diyl)diphenol (1), two new isocoumarin carbonates, inermiscarbonates A (2) and B (3), and six known compounds, 4′-hydroxyflavanone (4), apigenine (5), kampferol (6), luteolin (7), quercetin (8), and (-)-catechin (9). Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the data of known analogues. Compounds 1 and 49 were evaluated for the inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated product of nitrite in RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 5.63, 15.72, 8.67, 6.67, 6.17, 7.61, and 14.52 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1292; doi:10.3390/molecules21101292
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB) was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB) was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g) and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g) in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g). The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE)/g) of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g). When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL), Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL), and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL) among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes) in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Asiatic Acid Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Akt/GSK-3β/HIF-1α Signaling in Rat H9c2 Cardiomyocytes
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1248; doi:10.3390/molecules21091248
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 16 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
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Abstract
Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury results from severe impairment of coronary blood supply and leads to irreversible cell death, with limited therapeutic possibilities. Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica and serves a variety of bioactivities. In this
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Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury results from severe impairment of coronary blood supply and leads to irreversible cell death, with limited therapeutic possibilities. Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica and serves a variety of bioactivities. In this study, we determined the effect of asiatic acid on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and investigated the underlying mechanisms, using an in vitro rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury. Results showed that pre-treatment with asiatic acid significantly augmented cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in a concentration-dependent manner after OGD/R exposure. Asiatic acid at 10 μM effectively inhibited apoptotic cell death, suppressed the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and reversed Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in hypoxic H9c2 cells. In addition, asiatic acid improved mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased intracellular calcium concentration. Using Western blot assay, we found that asiatic acid promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and induced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) after OGD/R. The cardioprotective effects of asiatic acid were attenuated by the Akt or HIF-1α inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggested that asiatic acid exerted protective effects against OGD/R-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, at least partly via the Akt/GSK-3β/HIF-1α pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavones as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Identified by a Newly Optimized Screening Platform Using Chromobacterium violaceum as Reporter Bacteria
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1211; doi:10.3390/molecules21091211
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
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Abstract
Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors
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Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors from natural compound libraries. In this system, QS is correlated with the production of violacein, which is directly controlled by the LuxI/LuxR system in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532. The parallel use of C. violaceum Tn5-mutant CV026, which depends on auto-inducer addition, allows simultaneous discrimination of compounds that act as quenchers of the AHL signal (quorum quenchers). The incorporation of a redox stain into the platform allowed further distinction between QS inhibitors, quorum quenchers and antibacterial compounds. A pilot screening was performed with 465 natural and synthetic flavonoids. All the most active compounds were flavones and they displayed potencies (IC50) in the range of 3.69 to 23.35 μM. These leads were particularly promising as they inhibited the transition from microcolonies into mature biofilms from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach can be very effective in identifying new antimicrobials posing lesser risks of resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1201; doi:10.3390/molecules21091201
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
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Abstract
This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied
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This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a New Flavone and Tyrosinase Inhibition Constituents from the Twigs of Morus alba L.
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1130; doi:10.3390/molecules21091130
Received: 24 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
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Abstract
The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1), and sixteen known compounds 217 were
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The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1), and sixteen known compounds 217 were isolated from M. alba twigs and their structures were identified by interpretation of the corresponding ESI-MS and NMR spectral data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory test, the compounds steppogenin (IC50 0.98 ± 0.01 µM), 2,4,2′,4′-tetrahydroxychalcone (IC50 0.07 ± 0.02 µM), morachalcone A (IC50 0.08 ± 0.02 µM), oxyresveratrol (IC50 0.10 ± 0.01 µM), and moracin M (8.00 ± 0.22 µM) exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition activities, much stronger than that of the positive control kojic acid. These results suggest that M. alba twig extract should served as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods as antibrowning agents or in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1148; doi:10.3390/molecules21091148
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
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Abstract
Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside
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Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4), from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE) by C18 Sep-Pak® cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC), which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction) of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4–69.5 μg/mL), which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL). Four purified compounds 14 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1135; doi:10.3390/molecules21091135
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
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Abstract
Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a
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Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive 2(1H)-Pyrazinones and Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Tunicate-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp.
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1116; doi:10.3390/molecules21091116
Received: 8 May 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
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Abstract
As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H)-pyrazinones derivatives, (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (1), (S)-3-(sec-butyl)-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H
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As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H)-pyrazinones derivatives, (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (1), (S)-3-(sec-butyl)-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (2) and (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (3), together with the known (1H)-pyrazinones analogues deoxymutaaspergillic acid (4), 3,6-diisobutyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (5) and 3,6-di-sec-butyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (6), and the diketopiperazine alkaloids cyclo(6-OH-d-Pro-l-Phe) (7), bacillusamide B (8), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Ile) (10) were isolated from this strain. The structures of the compounds were determined by study of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra as well as high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Compound 4 was reported previously as a synthetic product, while compound 6 was reported as 2-hydroxy-3,6-di-sec-butylpyrazine. Herein, we report the complete NMR data for compounds 4 and 6. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three cell lines. Compound 5 showed potent and selective activity against HCT-116 cell line with IC50 of 1.5 μg/mL, while 110 showed variable cytotoxic activities against these cancer cell lines. These results provide further understanding about the chemistry and bioactivities of the alkylated 2(1H)-pyrazinone derivatives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Punica granatum L. Hydrogel for Wound Care Treatment: From Case Study to Phytomedicine Standardization
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1059; doi:10.3390/molecules21081059
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
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Abstract
The pharmacological activities of many Punica granatum L. components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases where chronic inflammation is believed to play an essential etiologic role. The current work reports a case study analyzing the
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The pharmacological activities of many Punica granatum L. components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases where chronic inflammation is believed to play an essential etiologic role. The current work reports a case study analyzing the effect produced by a magistral formulation of ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum peels on a non-healing chronic ulcer. The complete closure of the chronic ulcer that was initially not responsive to standard medical care was observed. A 2% (w/w) P. granatum peels ethanolic extract hydrogel-based formulation (PGHF) was standardized and subjected to physicochemical studies to establish the quality control parameters using, among others, assessment criteria such as optimum appearance, pH range, viscosity and hydrogel disintegration. The stability and quantitative chromatographic data was assessed in storage for six months under two temperature regimes. An efficient HPLC-DAD method was established distinguishing the biomarkers punicalin and punicalagin simultaneously in a single 8 min run. PGHF presented suitable sensorial and physicochemical performance, showing that punicalagin was not significantly affected by storage (p > 0.05). Formulations containing extracts with not less than 0.49% (w/w) total punicalagin might find good use in wound healing therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitors from the Stems of Akebia quinata
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1091; doi:10.3390/molecules21081091
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
PTP1B deficiency in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-NeuNT transgenic mice inhibited the onset of MMTV-NeuNT-evoked breast cancer, while its overexpression was observed in breast cancer. Thus, PTP1B inhibitors are considered chemopreventative agents for breast cancer. As part of our program to find PTP1B
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PTP1B deficiency in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-NeuNT transgenic mice inhibited the onset of MMTV-NeuNT-evoked breast cancer, while its overexpression was observed in breast cancer. Thus, PTP1B inhibitors are considered chemopreventative agents for breast cancer. As part of our program to find PTP1B inhibitors, one new diterpene glycoside (1) and 13 known compounds (214) were isolated from the methanol extract of the stems of Akebia quinata. All isolates were identified based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including UV, IR, NMR and MS. Compounds 2, 3, 6, 8 and 11 showed significant inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 4.08 ± 1.09 to 21.80 ± 4.74 μM. PTP1B inhibitors also had concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cell lines, such as MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 (MCF7/TAMR) (IC50 values ranging from 0.84 ± 0.04 to 7.91 ± 0.39 μM). These results indicate that compounds 6 and 8 from Akebia quinata may be lead compounds acting as anti-breast cancer agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity and Membrane-Disruptive Mechanism of 3-p-trans-Coumaroyl-2-hydroxyquinic Acid, a Novel Phenolic Compound from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara, against Staphylococcus aureus
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1084; doi:10.3390/molecules21081084
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
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Abstract
Recently, we reported that a novel phenolic compound isolated from Cedrus deodara, 3-p-trans-coumaroyl-2-hydroxyquinic acid (CHQA), exhibits a potent antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHQA against eleven food-borne pathogens and to elucidate
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Recently, we reported that a novel phenolic compound isolated from Cedrus deodara, 3-p-trans-coumaroyl-2-hydroxyquinic acid (CHQA), exhibits a potent antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHQA against eleven food-borne pathogens and to elucidate its mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus. The results from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations showed that CHQA exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on all of the tested pathogens with MIC values ranging from 2.5–10 mg/mL. Membrane potential measurements and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CHQA damaged the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus, causing a significant membrane hyperpolarization with a loss of membrane integrity. Moreover, CHQA induced an increase in membrane fluidity and conformational changes in membrane protein of S. aureus, suggesting that CHQA probably acts on the cell membrane by interactions with membrane lipid and protein. Transmission electron microscopic observations further confirmed that CHQA disrupted the cell membrane of S. aureus and caused severe morphological changes, which even led to leakage of intracellular constituents. These findings indicated that CHQA could have the potential to serve as a natural antibacterial agent to control and prevent the growth of pathogens in food and in food-processing environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Steroidal Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1075; doi:10.3390/molecules21081075
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
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Abstract
Four new steroid saponins 14 were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Asparagaceae), as well as four known saponins: anemarsaponin B (5) timosaponin D (6), timosaponin E1 (7) anemarsaponin B II (8).
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Four new steroid saponins 14 were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Asparagaceae), as well as four known saponins: anemarsaponin B (5) timosaponin D (6), timosaponin E1 (7) anemarsaponin B II (8). Their structures were established through UV and NMR as well as MS data. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 human cancer lines. Compounds 3 and 7 displayed medium antiproliferative activities on HepG2 and SGC7901 cells, with IC50 values of 43.90 and 57.90 μM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1069; doi:10.3390/molecules21081069
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint),
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Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1026; doi:10.3390/molecules21081026
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
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Abstract
Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat
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Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity, Post-Treatment Recovery, and Selectivity Analysis of Naturally Occurring Podophyllotoxins from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides on Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1013; doi:10.3390/molecules21081013
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
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Abstract
Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5′-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin
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Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5′-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin (2), 5′-demethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin (3), and 7′,8′-dehydroacetylpodophyllotoxin (4) for cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, and selectivity against three BC cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, as well as the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 72 h of treatment, and clonogenicity was determined at 72 h post-treatment; experiments were performed using the sulforhodamine B staining assay. Selective-index (SI) was calculated by comparing pure compound IC50 values in MCF-10A cell line against the IC50 of the same compound in cancer cell lines. Structural similarities among lignans and controls (podophyllotoxin and etoposide) were analyzed using the Tanimoto coefficient (Tc). Lignans were cytotoxic against all tested cell lines (0.011–7.22 µM) and clonogenicity testing showed a dose-dependent cytocidality for all lignans (≥0.08 µg/mL); compounds 2 and 3 were more potent (14.1 and 7.6 respectively) than etoposide in BT-549 cell line, while compound 2 displayed selectivity (SI = 28.17) in BT-549 cell line. Tc values of lignans suggested a greater similarity with podophyllotoxin structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Analysis of 2-(2-Phenylethyl)-chromone Derivatives from Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) by Artificial Holing for Different Times
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 911; doi:10.3390/molecules21070911
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
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Abstract
A total of fifty-six chromones, including seven 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones (THPECs), five 5,6-epoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (EPECs), seven 5,6:7,8-diepoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (DEPECs) and thirty-seven 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of the flidersia type (FTPECs), were characterized by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS/MS in three agarwood samples (from Aquilaria crassna) induced by artificial holing with different holing times.
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A total of fifty-six chromones, including seven 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones (THPECs), five 5,6-epoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (EPECs), seven 5,6:7,8-diepoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (DEPECs) and thirty-seven 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of the flidersia type (FTPECs), were characterized by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS/MS in three agarwood samples (from Aquilaria crassna) induced by artificial holing with different holing times. The characteristic fragmentation behavior of DEPECs and EPECs, and the methods to distinguish these four types of chromones by MS analysis were described for the first time. In addition, it was found that the relative contents of DEPECs and EPECs were down-regulated, while the relative contents of THPECs and FTPECs were up-regulated for the samples from two, four and five years of the agarwood formation time. However, the relative contents of six most widespread and abundant FTPECs presented roughly upward based on the formation time. These results could be referenced to distinguish different agarwood samples collected from different formation time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 908; doi:10.3390/molecules21070908
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
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Abstract
The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration
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The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 886; doi:10.3390/molecules21070886
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 25 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
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Abstract
Hydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant
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Hydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant effects, in comparison to hydroxyphenylalkanes, as demonstrated by DPPH assay and amelioration of CCl4-induced disturbed intracellular GSH/GSSG balance. Shogaol and 4′-methoxygingerol showed considerable cytotoxic effects against HCT116, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 3.1 to 19.4 µM. Gingerol significantly enhanced the cytotoxic profile of doxorubicin against HepG2 and Huh7, cells decreasing its IC50s by 10- and 4-fold, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was studied using DNA cytometry. Doxorubicin alone induced cell accumulation at S-phase and G2/M-phase, while in combination with gingerol it significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M-phase. Additionally, the vascular protective effect of gingerol against doxorubicin (10 µM) was examined on isolated aortic rings. Co-incubation with 6-gingerol (30 µM) completely blocked the exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired vascular relaxation induced by doxorubicin. In conclusion, despite its relatively weak antioxidant properties, gingerol protected from DOX-induced vascular damage, apparently not through a ROS scavenging mechanism. Besides, gingerol synergized the cytotoxic effects of DOX against liver cancer cells without influencing the cellular pharmacokinetics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carlina acaulis Exhibits Antioxidant Activity and Counteracts Aβ Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 871; doi:10.3390/molecules21070871
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
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Abstract
Carlina acaulis is a medicinal plant that has shown antioxidant activity in in vitro studies, but to date no corresponding in vivo data is available. Therefore, in the present study the antioxidant activity and its impact in counteracting Aβ toxicity were studied in
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Carlina acaulis is a medicinal plant that has shown antioxidant activity in in vitro studies, but to date no corresponding in vivo data is available. Therefore, in the present study the antioxidant activity and its impact in counteracting Aβ toxicity were studied in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. A dichloromethane extract of the roots of C. acaulis was prepared and characterised via gas-liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GLC-MS). The in vitro antioxidant activity was confirmed via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl assay. The extract was further separated by thin layer chromatography into two fractions, one of which was a fraction of the dichloromethane extract of C. acaulis containing mostly Carlina oxide (CarOx). Different strains of C. elegans were employed to study the expression of hsp-16.2p::GFP as a marker for oxidative stress, delocalisation of the transcription factor DAF-16 as a possible mechanism of antioxidant activity, the effect of the drug under lethal oxidative stress, and the effect against beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in a paralysis assay. The C. acaulis extract and CarOx showed high antioxidant activity (stress reduction by 47% and 64%, respectively) in C. elegans and could activate the transcription factor DAF-16 which directs the expression of anti-stress genes. In paralysis assay, only the total extract was significantly active, delaying paralysis by 1.6 h. In conclusion, in vivo antioxidant activity was shown for C. acaulis for the first time in the C. elegans model. The active antioxidant compound is Carlina oxide. This activity, however, is not sufficient to counteract Aβ toxicity. Other mechanisms and possibly other active compounds are involved in this effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Exposure and Reduction of Elimination for Paeoniflorin or Albiflorin via Co-Administration with Total Peony Glucosides and Hypoxic Pharmacokinetics Comparison
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 874; doi:10.3390/molecules21070874
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
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Abstract
There is evidence suggesting that herbal extracts demonstrate greater bioactivities than their isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. This phenomenon could be attributed to the absence of interacting substances present in the extracts. By measuring the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin
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There is evidence suggesting that herbal extracts demonstrate greater bioactivities than their isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. This phenomenon could be attributed to the absence of interacting substances present in the extracts. By measuring the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin (AF) after being orally administered to rats in isolated form, in combination with each other and within total peony glucosides (TPG), respectively, the current study aimed to identify positive pharmacokinetic interactions between components of peony radix extracts. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic profiles of PF and AF under normoxia and hypoxia were also investigated and compared. In order to achieve these goals, a highly sensitive and reproducible ultra-peformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneously quantitation of PF and AF in rat plasma. This study found that compared with that of single component (PF/AF), the exposure of PF in rat plasma after combination administration or TPG administration was significantly increased, meanwhile the elimination of PF/AF was remarkably reduced. It was also noticed that AUC and Cmax of PF in hypoxia rats were significantly decreased compared with that of normaxia rats, suggesting that there was a decreased exposure of PF in rats under hypoxia. The current study, for the first time, revealed the pharmacokinetic interactions between PF/AF and other constitutes in TGP and the pharmacokinetic profiles of PF and AF under hypoxia. In view of the current findings, it could be supposed that the clinical performance of total peony glucosides would be better than that of single constitute (PF/AF). The outcomes of this animal study are expected to serve as a basis for development of clinical guidelines on total peony glucosides usage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil—Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 814; doi:10.3390/molecules21060814
Received: 21 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
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Abstract
The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities
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The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Food Functional Properties of the Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates-Glucose Conjugates Formed via Maillard Reaction
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 795; doi:10.3390/molecules21060795
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
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Abstract
The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp)-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR) were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of
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The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp)-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR) were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of HAHp played an important role in the process of MR between HAHp and glucose. HAHp-glucose Maillard reaction products (HAHp-G MRPs) demonstrated enhanced antioxidative activities of reducing power and scavenging DPPH radicals compared to control groups. HAHp-G MRPs produced from the condition of pH 9.6 displayed the strongest reducing power. The excellent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals was found for HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs which was produced at pH 5.6. Additionally, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs showed variable antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea, with the MIC values ranging from 8.3 to 16.7 μg/mL. Result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on E. coli suggested that HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs exhibited antibacterial activity by destroying the cell integrity through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs had excellent foaming ability and stability at alkaline conditions of pH 8.0, and showed emulsion properties at acidic pH 4.0. These results suggested that specific HAHp-G MRPs should be promising functional ingredients used in foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Resolution α-Glucosidase Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of Antidiabetic Compounds in Eremanthus crotonoides (Asteraceae)
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 782; doi:10.3390/molecules21060782
Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
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Abstract
α-Glucosidase inhibitors decrease the cleavage- and absorption rate of monosaccharides from complex dietary carbohydrates, and represent therefore an important class of drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a defatted ethyl acetate extract of Eremanthus crotonoides leaves with an inhibitory
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α-Glucosidase inhibitors decrease the cleavage- and absorption rate of monosaccharides from complex dietary carbohydrates, and represent therefore an important class of drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a defatted ethyl acetate extract of Eremanthus crotonoides leaves with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL towards α-glucosidase was investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of six α-glucosidase inhibitors, namely quercetin (16), trans-tiliroside (17), luteolin (19), quercetin-3-methyl ether (20), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid n-butyl ester (26) and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid n-butyl ester (29). In addition, nineteen other metabolites were identified. The most active compounds were the two regioisomeric di-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 26 and 29, with IC50 values of 5.93 and 5.20 μM, respectively. This is the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compounds 20, 26, and 29, and the findings support the important role of Eremanthus species as novel sources of new drugs and/or herbal remedies for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 739; doi:10.3390/molecules21060739
Received: 24 April 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina,
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Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90.4% inhibition at 100 μg/mL), followed by luteolin (85.4%). Two other flavone glycosides had about half of this activity. Verbascoside was similar to the reference drug aminoguanidine (71.2% and 75.9%, respectively). The strong correlation observed between AGE inhibition and total flavonoid content indicated that flavonoids contribute significantly to antiglycation properties. A positive correlation was also observed between antiglycative and antioxidant activities. The studied skullcap species can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for hyperglycemia-related disorders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 738; doi:10.3390/molecules21060738
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at
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Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 697; doi:10.3390/molecules21060697
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
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Abstract
In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction
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In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Eriobotrya japonica Water Extract Characterization: An Inducer of Interferon-Gamma Production Mainly by the JAK-STAT Pathway
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 722; doi:10.3390/molecules21060722
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
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Abstract
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were
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Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were performed on the water extract to investigate specific cytokines’ modulation. These earlier studies, however, have shown that EJ leaf water extract (WE) and the water phase (WP) induce cytokines’ production in in vitro and in vivo models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to specify the group(s) of compounds in EJ leaves that have this immunomodulatory activity and their mechanism of action. WE was obtained from boiling the leaves followed by butanol extraction, yielding a butanol-water phase (WP). WP was then subjected to methanol:acetone fractionation, yielding upper (MAU) and lower (MAL) phases. For further fractionation, MAU was subjected to column chromatography followed by elution with ethanol:water (EW), methanol:ethanol (ME) and, lastly, acetone:water (AW), respectively, to reveal three sub-fractions; MAU-EW, MAU-ME and MAU-AW. MAU-AW significantly increased IFN-γ production from unstimulated and stimulated mouse spleen cells, as well as CD3+ T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, the fold increase of IFN-γ production by MAU-AW was concentration dependent, higher than the parent extract or any of the other sub-fractions, and such an IFN-γ increase was reversed by two JAK-STAT inhibitors. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the extracts and sub-fractions showed compounds with molecular weights of >500 Daltons. The MAU-AW sub-fraction contained more polar compounds, such as flavonol and caffeic glycosides. In conclusion, these polar compounds in the EJ extract are responsible for inducing IFN-γ production. Further chemical elucidation is warranted to lead to a specific IFN-γ inducer and an immunomodulator in polarizing immune cells and balancing immune responses in certain diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Selected Cotoneaster Medik. Species
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 688; doi:10.3390/molecules21060688
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract
The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O2•− and
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The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O2•− and H2O2 scavenging assays). The samples exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays with activity parameters of EC50 = 18.5–34.5 µg/mL for DPPH; 0.9–3.8 mmol Fe2+/g for FRAP; SC50 = 27.7–74.8 µg/mL for O2•−; and SC50 = 29.0–91.3 µg/mL for H2O2. Significant linear correlations (|r| = 0.76–0.97, p < 0.01) between activity parameters and total contents of phenolics (5.2%–15.4% GAE) and proanthocyanidins (2.1%–15.0% CYE), with weak or no effects for chlorogenic acid isomers (0.69%–2.93%) and total flavonoids (0.28%–1.40%) suggested that among the listed polyphenols, proanthocyanidins are the most important determinants of the tested activity. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses led to detection of 34 polyphenols, of which 10 B-type procyanidins, 5 caffeoylquinic acids and 14 flavonoids were identified. After cluster analysis of the data matrix, the leaves of Cotoneaster zabelii, C. splendens, C. bullatus, C. divaricatus, C. hjelmqvistii and C. lucidus were selected as the most promising sources of natural antioxidants, exhibiting the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities, and therefore the greatest potential for pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Canthinone-Type Alkaloid Isolated from Ailanthus altissima Swingle
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 642; doi:10.3390/molecules21050642
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
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Abstract
The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-canthine-6-one (1), and five known compounds (26). Moreover,
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The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-canthine-6-one (1), and five known compounds (26). Moreover, four phenyl propanoids (710), two lignans (11 and 12), two triterpenoids (13 and 14) and a fatty acid (15) having previously known chemical structures were isolated during the same course of this study. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by physical (m.p., [α]D) and spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-DART-MS) interpretation and its absolute configuration was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data and quantum chemical calculations. The inflammatory activities of the isolates were screened on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), a proinflammatory mediator, in RAW 264.7 cells. Among these isolated compounds, six compounds exhibited significant inhibition of NO production, with IC50 values in the range of 5.92 ± 0.9 to 15.09 ± 1.8 μM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Dihydromyricetin against •OH-Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Damage and Mechanistic Chemistry
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 604; doi:10.3390/molecules21050604
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
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Abstract
As a natural flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, dihydromyricetin (DHM, 2R,3R-3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol) was observed to increase the viability of •OH-treated mesenchymal stem cells using a MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl] assay and flow cytometry analysis. This protective effect indicates DHM may be a beneficial agent for
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As a natural flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, dihydromyricetin (DHM, 2R,3R-3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol) was observed to increase the viability of •OH-treated mesenchymal stem cells using a MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl] assay and flow cytometry analysis. This protective effect indicates DHM may be a beneficial agent for cell transplantation therapy. Mechanistic chemistry studies indicated that compared with myricetin, DHM was less effective at ABTS+• (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical) scavenging and reducing Cu2+, and had higher •O2 and DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging activities. Additionally, DHM could also chelate Fe2+ to give an absorption maximum at 589 nm. Hence, such protective effect of DHM may arise from its antioxidant activities which are thought to occur via direct radical-scavenging and Fe2+-chelation. Direct radical-scavenging involves an electron transfer (ET) pathway. The hydrogenation of the 2,3-double bond is hypothesized to reduce the ET process by blocking the formation of a larger π-π conjugative system. The glycosidation of the 3–OH in myricitrin is assumed to sterically hinder atom transfer in the •O2 and DPPH• radical-scavenging processes. In DHM, the Fe2+-chelating effect can actually be attributed to the 5,3′,4′,5′–OH and 4–C=O groups, and the 3–OH group itself can neither scavenge radicals nor chelate metal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Aqueous Extract of Tuberaria lignosa Inhibits Cell Growth, Alters the Cell Cycle Profile, and Induces Apoptosis of NCI-H460 Tumor Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 595; doi:10.3390/molecules21050595
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 30 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
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Abstract
Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. is found in European regions, and has antioxidant properties due to its composition in ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Given its traditional use and antioxidant properties, the tumor cell growth inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts from T. lignosa (prepared
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Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. is found in European regions, and has antioxidant properties due to its composition in ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Given its traditional use and antioxidant properties, the tumor cell growth inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts from T. lignosa (prepared by infusion and decoction) was investigated in three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), and HCT-15 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma). Both extracts inhibited the growth of these cell lines; the most potent one being the T. lignosa extract obtained by infusion in the NCI-H460 cells (GI50 of approximately 50 μg/mL). Further assays were carried out with this extract in NCI-H460 cells. At 100 μg/mL or 150 μg/mL it caused an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and a decrease of cells in S phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, these concentrations caused an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. In agreement, a decrease in total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and pro-caspase 3 levels was found. In conclusion, the T. lignosa extract obtained by infusion was more potent in NCI-H460 cells, altering the cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. This work highlights the importance of T. lignosa as a source of bioactive compounds with tumor cell growth inhibitory potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 566; doi:10.3390/molecules21050566
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
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Abstract
Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae) are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers
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Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae) are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%), fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 549; doi:10.3390/molecules21050549
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract
Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the
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Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4) showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6) and tokinolide C (6) exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4). We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1), Z-butylidenephthalide (3) and tokinolide A (6) exhibited significant neuroprotective effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 533; doi:10.3390/molecules21040533
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
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Abstract
The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44′9″S, 72°35′25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems
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The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44′9″S, 72°35′25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm3 and 1.58 × 10−2 mg/cm3). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 467; doi:10.3390/molecules21040467
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
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Abstract
This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to
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This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle NMR Study on the Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin with Isoflavones
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 372; doi:10.3390/molecules21040372
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
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Abstract
The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with daidzein and daidzin in D2O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD
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The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with daidzein and daidzin in D2O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD cavity with different orientations. For the β-CD/daidzin system, a 1:1 complex was formed with the flavonoid part of daidzin entering the CD cavity from the wide rim. The inclusion complexes determined by NMR were constructed using molecular docking. Furthermore, the mixture of puerarin, daidzein and daidzin, which are the major isoflavonoid components present in Radix puerariae, was analyzed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) alone and upon addition of β-CD in order to mimic chromatographic conditions and compare their binding affinities. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Anti-HBV C-Boivinopyranosyl Flavones from Alternanthera philoxeroides
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 336; doi:10.3390/molecules21030336
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract
C-boivinopyranosyl flavones have rarely been isolated from nature. In the search for anti-HBV (hepatitis b virus) constituents of Alternanthera philoxeroides, two new compounds, luteolin-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and chrysoeriol-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-4′-O-β-
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C-boivinopyranosyl flavones have rarely been isolated from nature. In the search for anti-HBV (hepatitis b virus) constituents of Alternanthera philoxeroides, two new compounds, luteolin-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and chrysoeriol-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), along with three known C-boivinopyranosyl flavones (compounds 3–5) were isolated. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR spectra. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed significant anti-HBV activities through specifically inhibiting the secretion of HBsAg in HepG2.2.15. Full article
Open AccessArticle Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Sensitive Method for the Determination of Dehydrodiisoeugenol in Rat Cerebral Nuclei
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 321; doi:10.3390/molecules21030321
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
A new liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the quantification of dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei after single intravenous administration. DDIE and daidzein (internal standard) were separated on a Diamonsil™ ODS C18 column with methanol–water containing 0.1% formic
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A new liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the quantification of dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei after single intravenous administration. DDIE and daidzein (internal standard) were separated on a Diamonsil™ ODS C18 column with methanol–water containing 0.1% formic acid (81:19, v/v) as a mobile phase. Detection of DDIE was performed on a positive electrospray ionization source using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. DDIE and daidzein were monitored at m/z 327.2→188.0 and m/z 255.0→199.2, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method enabled quantification of DDIE in various brain areas, including, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, cerebellum and brainstem, with high specificity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. The data herein demonstrate that our new LC-MS/MS method is highly sensitive and suitable for monitoring cerebral nuclei distribution of DDIE. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Cerebroside and Nucleoside Derivatives from a Red Sea Strain of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 324; doi:10.3390/molecules21030324
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the course of our ongoing efforts to identify marine-derived bioactive compounds, the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens was investigated. The organic extract of the Red Sea cyanobacterium afforded one new cerebroside, mooreaside A (1), two new nucleoside derivatives, 3-acetyl-2′-deoxyuridine (2) and 3-phenylethyl-2′-deoxyuridine (3),
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In the course of our ongoing efforts to identify marine-derived bioactive compounds, the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens was investigated. The organic extract of the Red Sea cyanobacterium afforded one new cerebroside, mooreaside A (1), two new nucleoside derivatives, 3-acetyl-2′-deoxyuridine (2) and 3-phenylethyl-2′-deoxyuridine (3), along with the previously reported compounds thymidine (4) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyl heptacosanoate (5). The structures of the compounds were determined by different spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS), as well as comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1–5 showed variable cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Metastatic Properties of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide-Based Derivative Designed to Mimic Glycosaminoglycans
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 309; doi:10.3390/molecules21030309
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases. In this study, the effect of three oversulfated low molecular weight marine bacterial exopolysaccharides (OS-EPS) with different molecular weights (4, 8 and 15 kDa) were
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Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases. In this study, the effect of three oversulfated low molecular weight marine bacterial exopolysaccharides (OS-EPS) with different molecular weights (4, 8 and 15 kDa) were first evaluated in vitro on human and murine osteosarcoma cell lines. Different biological activities were studied: cell proliferation, cell adhesion and migration, matrix metalloproteinase expression. This in vitro study showed that only the OS-EPS 15 kDa derivative could inhibit the invasiveness of osteosarcoma cells with an inhibition rate close to 90%. Moreover, this derivative was potent to inhibit both migration and invasiveness of osteosarcoma cell lines; had no significant effect on their cell cycle; and increased slightly the expression of MMP-9, and more highly the expression of its physiological specific tissue inhibitor TIMP-1. Then, the in vivo experiments showed that the OS-EPS 15 kDa derivative had no effect on the primary osteosarcoma tumor induced by osteosarcoma cell lines but was very efficient to inhibit the establishment of lung metastases in vivo. These results can help to better understand the mechanisms of GAGs and GAG-like derivatives in the biology of the tumor cells and their interactions with the bone environment to develop new therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 302; doi:10.3390/molecules21030302
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
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Abstract
Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro.
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Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Five Major Bioactive Compounds from Flos Sophorae Immaturus (Cultivars of Sophora japonica L.) Using Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 296; doi:10.3390/molecules21030296
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design
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Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was employed to optimize experimental conditions (liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time) based on the results of single factor tests to extract the five major components in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Data were also analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction solvent; 100% methanol; particle size; 100 mesh; extraction frequency; 1; liquid-to-solid ratio; 50:1; microwave power; 287 W; and extraction time; 80 s. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Kinetex C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm; 2.6 μm) at 40 °C within 5 min. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile (71:29; v/v). Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The constituents of Flos Sophorae Immaturus were simultaneously identified by EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. During quantitative analysis; all of the calibration curves showed good linear relationships (R2 > 0.999) within the tested ranges; and mean recoveries ranged from 96.0216% to 101.0601%. The precision determined through intra- and inter-day studies showed an RSD% of <2.833%. These results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and effective and could be readily utilized for the comprehensive quality control of Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sesquiterpenoids from Chinese Agarwood Induced by Artificial Holing
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 274; doi:10.3390/molecules21030274
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
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Abstract
Two new sesquiterpenoids, 3-oxo-7-hydroxylholosericin A (1) and 1,5;8,12-diepoxy-guaia-12-one (2), together with seven known sesquiterpenoids 3–9, were isolated from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR)
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Two new sesquiterpenoids, 3-oxo-7-hydroxylholosericin A (1) and 1,5;8,12-diepoxy-guaia-12-one (2), together with seven known sesquiterpenoids 3–9, were isolated from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and MS analyses. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by comparison of its measured CD curve with that of calculated data for 1 and ent-1. The NMR data of 3 were reported in this study for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, 4–6, together with the EtOAc extract showed moderate inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase, and compounds 4–6, 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus or Ralstonia solanacearum. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biochemical Characteristics of Three Laccase Isoforms from the Basidiomycete Pleurotus nebrodensis
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 203; doi:10.3390/molecules21020203
Received: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The characterization of three laccase isoforms from Pleurotus nebrodensis is described. Isoenzymes Lac1, Lac2 and Lac3 were purified to homogeneity using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and a gel filtration step on Superdex 75. The molecular weights of the purified
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The characterization of three laccase isoforms from Pleurotus nebrodensis is described. Isoenzymes Lac1, Lac2 and Lac3 were purified to homogeneity using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and a gel filtration step on Superdex 75. The molecular weights of the purified laccases were estimated to be 68, 64 and 51 kDa, respectively. The isoenzymes demonstrated the same optimum pH at 3.0 but slightly different temperature optima: 50–60 °C for Lac1 and Lac3 and 60 °C for Lac2. Lac2 was always more stable than the other two isoforms and exposure to 50 °C for 120 min caused 30% loss in activity. Lac2 was relatively less stable than the other two isoforms when exposed to the pH range of 3.0–8.0 for 24 h, but inactivation only occurred initially, with around 70% residual activity being maintained during the whole process. Oxidative ability towards aromatic compounds varied substantially among the isoforms and each of them displayed preference toward some substrates. Kinetic constants (Km, Kcat) were determined by using a 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay, with Lac3 showing the best affinity and Lac2 displaying the highest catalytic efficiency. Amino acid sequences from peptides derived from digestion of isoenzymes showed great consistency with laccases in the databases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation of Flavonoids from Deguelia duckeana and Their Effect on Cellular Viability, AMPK, eEF2, eIF2 and eIF4E
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 192; doi:10.3390/molecules21020192
Received: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
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Abstract
Preparations of Deguelia duckeana, known in Brazil as timbó, are used by indigenous people to kill fish. Reinvestigation of its extracts resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 known flavonoids identified as 3,5,4’-trimethoxy-4-prenylstilbene (1), 4-methoxyderricidine (2), lonchocarpine (
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Preparations of Deguelia duckeana, known in Brazil as timbó, are used by indigenous people to kill fish. Reinvestigation of its extracts resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 known flavonoids identified as 3,5,4’-trimethoxy-4-prenylstilbene (1), 4-methoxyderricidine (2), lonchocarpine (3), 4-hydroxylonchocarpine (4), 4-methoxylonchocarpine (5), 5-hydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxy-6-prenylflavanone (6), 4’-hydroxyisolonchocarpine (7), 4’-methoxyisolonchocarpine (8), 3’,4’,7-trimethoxyflavone (9), 3’,4’-methylenedioxy-7-methoxyflavone (10), and 2,2-dimethyl-chromone-5,4’-hydroxy-5’-methoxyflavone (11). Except for 1, 3, and 4 all of these flavonoids have been described for the first time in D. duckeana and the flavanone 6 for the first time in nature. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 were studied for their potential to induce cell death in neuronal SK-N-SH cells. Only the chalcone 4 and the flavanone 7 significantly induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and impairment of energy homeostasis in the MTT assay and may explain the killing effect on fish. Interestingly, the flavone 10 reduced cell metabolism in the MTT assay without inducing cytotoxicity in the LDH assay. Furthermore, the flavonoids 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 induced phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). The initiation factor eIF4E was dephosphorylated in the presence of these compounds. The initiation factor eIF2alpha was not affected. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the observed effects on protein synthesis and potential therapeutic perspectives. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Bioactive Metabolite Isolated from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios erectus
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 82; doi:10.3390/molecules21010082
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the lipophilic fraction of Hyrtios erectus, a Red Sea sponge, yielded a new pentacyclic nitrogen-containing scalarane; 24-methoxypetrosaspongia C (1), together with the previously reported scalaranes sesterstatin 3 (2), 12-deacetyl-12-epi-scalaradial (3) and
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Chemical investigation of the lipophilic fraction of Hyrtios erectus, a Red Sea sponge, yielded a new pentacyclic nitrogen-containing scalarane; 24-methoxypetrosaspongia C (1), together with the previously reported scalaranes sesterstatin 3 (2), 12-deacetyl-12-epi-scalaradial (3) and 12-deacetyl-12,18-di-epi-scalaradial (4). The compounds were identified using HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The isolated compounds showed growth inhibitory activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) and breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional and Biochemical Profiling of Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer Wild Mushroom
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 99; doi:10.3390/molecules21010099
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 30 December 2015 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The wild mushroom Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer was studied for the first time to obtain information about its chemical composition, nutritional value and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L.
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The wild mushroom Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer was studied for the first time to obtain information about its chemical composition, nutritional value and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. candidus methanolic extract was tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). L. candidus was shown to be an interesting species in terms of nutritional value, with high content in proteins and carbohydrates, but low fat levels, with the prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mannitol was the most abundant free sugar and β-tocopherol was the main tocopherol isoform. Other compounds detected were oxalic and fumaric acids, p-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids. The methanolic extract revealed antioxidant activity and did not show hepatoxicity in porcine liver primary cells. The present study provides new information about L. candidus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Terpenoids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 31; doi:10.3390/molecules21010031
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 28 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new β-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-β-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and β-trans-2β,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 35. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods
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Two new β-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-β-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and β-trans-2β,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 35. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Antiproliferative effects on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were measured in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited potent activity against the U937 cell line with an IC50 value of 4.2 μM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 34; doi:10.3390/molecules21010034
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 26 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge–derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (
[...] Read more.
Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge–derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (17) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Properties of Tabebuia impetiginosa-Based Phytopreparations and Phytoformulations: A Comparison between Extracts and Dietary Supplements
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22863-22871; doi:10.3390/molecules201219885
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries, being nowadays marketed as dried plant material (inner bark) for infusions, pills, and syrups. The main objective of the present work was to validate its popular use through
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Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries, being nowadays marketed as dried plant material (inner bark) for infusions, pills, and syrups. The main objective of the present work was to validate its popular use through the bioactivity evaluation of the inner bark (methanolic extract and infusion) and of two different formulations (pills and syrup) also based on the same plant-material. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by in vitro assays testing free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. The cytotoxicity was determined in four human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2, and also in non-tumor cells (porcine liver primary cells, PLP2)). Furthermore, the sample was chemically characterized regarding free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, and tocopherols. Syrup and methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, related to their highest amount of phenolics and flavonoids. Methanolic extract was the only sample showing cytotoxic effects on the tested human tumor cell lines, but none of the samples showed toxicity in PLP2. Glucose and oxalic acid were, respectively, the most abundant sugar and organic acid in the sample. Unsaturated predominated over the saturated fatty acids, due to oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids expression. α- and γ-Tocopherols were also identified and quantified. Overall, T. impetiginosa might be used in different phytoformulations, taking advantage of its interesting bioactive properties and chemical composition. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22872-22880; doi:10.3390/molecules201219887
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 13 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected
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It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils—linseed (LO) and rapeseed (RO) oils—were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Guignardones P–S, New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Guignardia mangiferae A348 Derived from the Medicinal Plant Smilax glabra
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22900-22907; doi:10.3390/molecules201219890
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new meroterpenoids, guignardones P–S (14), and three known analogues (57) were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Guignardia mangiferae A348. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray
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Four new meroterpenoids, guignardones P–S (14), and three known analogues (57) were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Guignardia mangiferae A348. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited weak inhibitions of cell proliferation against MCF-7 cell line. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22553-22564; doi:10.3390/molecules201219867
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior
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The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Argentatin B Inhibits Proliferation of Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells by Inducing Cell Senescence
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21125-21137; doi:10.3390/molecules201219757
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
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Abstract
Argentatin B has been shown to inhibit the growth of colon HCT-15, and prostate PC-3 cancer cells. However, the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation.
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Argentatin B has been shown to inhibit the growth of colon HCT-15, and prostate PC-3 cancer cells. However, the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation. The cell cycle was studied by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V-Fluos, and Hoechst 33342 dye staining. Cell senescence was evaluated by proliferation tests, and staining for SA-β-galactosidase. Senescence-related proteins (PCNA, p21, and p27) were analyzed by Western blotting. Potential toxicity of argentatin B was evaluated in CD-1 mice. Its effect on tumor growth was tested in a HCT-15 and PC-3 xenograft model. Argentatin B induced an increment of cells in sub G1, but did not produce apoptosis. Proliferation of both cell lines was inhibited by argentatin B. Forty-three percent HCT-15, and 66% PC-3 cells showed positive SA-β-galactosidase staining. The expression of PCNA was decreased, p21 expression was increased in both cell lines, but p27 expression increased only in PC-3 cells after treatment. Administration of argentatin B to healthy mice did not produce treatment-associated pathologies. However, it restricted the growth of HCT-15 and PC-3 tumors. These results indicate that treatment with argentatin B induces cell senescence. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pyranocoumarins from Root Extracts of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn with Multidrug Resistance Reversal and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 20967-20978; doi:10.3390/molecules201219738
Received: 18 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
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Abstract
In the search for novel herbal-based anticancer agents, we isolated a new angular-type pyranocoumarin, (+)-cis-(3′S,4′S)-3′-angeloyl-4′-tigloylkhellactone (1) along with 12 pyranocoumarins (213), two furanocoumarins (14, 15), and a polyacetylene
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In the search for novel herbal-based anticancer agents, we isolated a new angular-type pyranocoumarin, (+)-cis-(3′S,4′S)-3′-angeloyl-4′-tigloylkhellactone (1) along with 12 pyranocoumarins (213), two furanocoumarins (14, 15), and a polyacetylene (16) were isolated from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum using chromatographic separation methods. The structures of the compounds were determined using spectroscopic analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The multidrug-resistance (MDR) reversal and anti-inflammatory effects of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in human sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among the 16 tested compounds, two (2 and 16) downregulated nitric oxide (NO) production and five (1, 7, 8, 11, and 13) inhibited the efflux of drugs by MDR protein, indicating the reversal of MDR. Therefore, these compounds may be potential candidates for the development of effective agents against MDR forms of cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Derinat Protects Skin against Ultraviolet-B (UVB)-Induced Cellular Damage
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20297-20311; doi:10.3390/molecules201119693
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
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Abstract
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) is one of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic stresses that contribute to skin damage and aging through increasing intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Derinat (sodium deoxyribonucleate) has been utilized as an immunomodulator for the treatment of ROS-associated diseases
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Ultraviolet-B (UVB) is one of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic stresses that contribute to skin damage and aging through increasing intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Derinat (sodium deoxyribonucleate) has been utilized as an immunomodulator for the treatment of ROS-associated diseases in clinics. However, the molecular mechanism by which Derinat protects skin cells from UVB-induced damage is poorly understood. Here, we show that Derinat significantly attenuated UVB-induced intracellular ROS production and decreased DNA damage in primary skin cells. Furthermore, Derinat reduced intracellular ROS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and DNA damage in the skin of the BALB/c-nu mice exposed to UVB for seven days in vivo. Importantly, Derinat blocked the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (TRPCs), as demonstrated by calcium imaging. Together, our results indicate that Derinat acts as a TRPCs blocker to reduce intracellular ROS production and DNA damage upon UVB irradiation. This mechanism provides a potential new application of Derinat for the protection against UVB-induced skin damage and aging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Activities, SAR and Anti-Invasion Effects of Butylphthalide Derivatives on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20312-20319; doi:10.3390/molecules201119699
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
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Abstract
A series of butylphthalide derivatives (BPDs) 18 were isolated from the extract of the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae). The cytotoxic activities of BPDs 18 were evaluated using a panel of human cancer cell lines. In addition,
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A series of butylphthalide derivatives (BPDs) 18 were isolated from the extract of the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae). The cytotoxic activities of BPDs 18 were evaluated using a panel of human cancer cell lines. In addition, the SAR analysis and potential anti-invasion activities were investigated. The sp2 carbons at C-7 and C-7a appeared to be essential for the cytotoxic activities of BPDs. BPDs 5 and 6 remarkably inhibited the migration and invasion of cancer cells. The anti-invasion activity of dimer 6 was demonstrated to be significantly higher than monomer 5. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Wang L.K., et al. Two New Lanostane Triterpenoids from the Branches and Leaves of Polyalthia oblique. Molecules 2014, 19, 7621–7628
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20268; doi:10.3390/molecules201119690
Received: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [1], published recently in Molecules. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Antihypertensive Effects of Artemisia scoparia Waldst in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Identification of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19789-19804; doi:10.3390/molecules201119657
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
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Abstract
We investigated the antihypertensive effects of Artemisia scoparia (AS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were fed diets containing 2% (w/w) hot water extracts of AS aerial parts for 6 weeks. The AS group had significantly lower systolic
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We investigated the antihypertensive effects of Artemisia scoparia (AS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were fed diets containing 2% (w/w) hot water extracts of AS aerial parts for 6 weeks. The AS group had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels than the control group. The AS group also had lower angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II content in serum compared to the control group. The AS group showed higher vascular endothelial growth factor and lower ras homolog gene family member A expression levels in kidney compared to the control group. The AS group had significantly lower levels of plasma lipid oxidation and protein carbonyls than the control group. One new and six known compounds were isolated from AS by guided purification. The new compound was determined to be 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoyl (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl benzoate, based on its nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Triterpenes from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim in HepG-2 Cancer Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19252-19262; doi:10.3390/molecules201019252
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
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Abstract
Among the classes of identified natural products, triterpenoids, one of the largest families, have been studied extensively for their diverse structures and variety of biological activities, including antitumor effects. In the present study, a phytochemical study of the green walnut husks of Juglans
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Among the classes of identified natural products, triterpenoids, one of the largest families, have been studied extensively for their diverse structures and variety of biological activities, including antitumor effects. In the present study, a phytochemical study of the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim led to the isolation of a new dammarane triterpene, 12β, 20(R), 24(R)-trihydroxydammar-25-en-3-one (6), together with sixteen known compounds, chiefly from chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. According to their structural characteristics, these compounds were divided into dammarane-type, oleanane- and ursane-type. Dammarane-type triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the Juglans genus. As part of our continuing search for biologically active compounds from this plant, all of these compounds were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by the MTT assay. The results were shown that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro with IC50 values of 10.32 ± 1.13, 16.13 ± 3.83, 15.97 ± 2.47 μM, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from Pinus morrisonicola Hay Needles by Supercritical Fluid and Identification of Possible Active Compounds by GC/MS
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19051-19065; doi:10.3390/molecules201019051
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 11 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
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Abstract
Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hay, PM) needles have been used as folk medicine for their antihypertension and lipid-lowering effects. As supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is considered an ideal technique for the extraction of essential oil from plant materials, the present work investigated the
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Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hay, PM) needles have been used as folk medicine for their antihypertension and lipid-lowering effects. As supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is considered an ideal technique for the extraction of essential oil from plant materials, the present work investigated the optimal SFE conditions and the protective effects of different resulting fractions of PM needles on lipid peroxidation and foam cell production in macrophages. Nine PM needle extracts (PME1–9) were obtained in 1%–4% yields using different SFE conditions, of which PME1 had the lowest yield (1.1%) and PME3 the highest (3.9%). PME3 exhibited lower cytotoxic effects and stronger inhibition of lipid peroxidation and formation of foam cell in RAW 264.7 macrophages than those of other PME extracts. PME3-1 purified from PME3 by column and thin layer chromatography inhibited LDL oxidation more effectively than did PME3 in a cell-free system oxidized by Cu2+. PME3-1 dose-dependently (25–100 μg/mL) decreased conjugated diene levels and foam cell formation induced by ox-LDL. GC/MS analyses revealed that 1-docosene, neophytadiene, and methyl abietate were increased 5.2-, 1.7- and 4.3-fold in PME3-1 relative to PME3. A new hydrocarbon compound, cedrane-8,13-diol, was identified in PME3-1. Overall, the present study demonstrates the optimal extraction conditions of SFE of PM and identifies the most potent antioxidant fractions and possible active compounds in PM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17872-17882; doi:10.3390/molecules201017872
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
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Abstract
Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was
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Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was not known if it induces autophagy or decreases the autophagic flux. The treatment of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with the mushroom extract increased the formation of autophagosomes (vacuoles typical from autophagy). Moreover, the cellular levels of LC3-II were also increased, and the cellular levels of p62 decreased, confirming that the extract affects cellular autophagy. Treating the cells with the extract together with lysossomal protease inhibitors, the cellular levels of LC3-II and p62 increased. The results obtained proved that, in AGS cells, the methanolic extract of G. lucidum causes an induction of autophagy, rather than a reduction in the autophagic flux. To our knowledge, this is the first study proving that statement. Full article
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