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Topical Collection "Bioactive Compounds"

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A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Nancy D. Turner

Director, TAMU Space Life Sciences Mentored Research Program, Nutrition & Food Science Department, Texas A&M University, 2253 TAMU, 214C Cater Mattil, College Station, TX 77843-2253, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Nutrition, colon cancer, polyphenols, intestinal microbiota, apoptosis
Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

Mountain Research Center, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Chemistry of Natural Products: Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of chemical compounds in natural matrices; Nutraceuticals and functional foods: development of nutraceuticals and innovative food formulations with functional properties; Technology of Natural Products: Emerging technologies for conservation of food matrices

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Consumers increasingly believe that foods contribute directly to their health and well-being. In this context, extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods, "Bioactive compounds", play a very significant role. Bioactive compounds are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health, including antioxidant, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antiatherogenic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cytostatic, immunosuppressive properties, and hepatoprotective activities. Contributions for this issue, both in form of original research and review articles, may cover all aspects of bioactive compounds with proven activities in various biological screenings and pharmacological models, e.g. quantification, variability and efficacy of bioactive compounds; development of new protocols and methods based on chemical or biological systems for the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro bioactivity; clinical and nutritional trials focused on the bioactive properties of bioactive compounds synthesized or isolated; elucidation of bioactive compounds mechanisms; innovative techniques of bioactive compounds delivery and protocols for the extraction, isolation, structural characterization of new bioactive compounds will be welcomed, on condition that an adequate evaluation of their efficacy is provided. Papers regarding the development of pharmaceuticals from bioactive compounds will be also taken into consideration.

Dr. Nancy D. Turner
Dr. Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioactivity
  • natural products
  • synthesised compounds
  • isolation techniques
  • structure elucidation
  • mechanism of action

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (212 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L.) Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 138; doi:10.3390/molecules22010138
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 15 January 2017
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Abstract
A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD)
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A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54%) and in the application of SPE (13.04%). In addition, lumichrome (1.85%) was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+)-catechine (39.7%) and gallic acid (up to 30%), which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessArticle Anti-HBV Activities of Three Compounds Extracted and Purified from Herpetospermum Seeds
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 14; doi:10.3390/molecules22010014
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
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Abstract
The goal of this research was to evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of three compounds extracted and purified from Herpetospermum seeds (HS) on HepG2.2.15 cells. Herpetin (HPT), herpetone (HPO), and herpetfluorenone (HPF) were isolated from HS and identified using HR-ESI-MS and
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The goal of this research was to evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of three compounds extracted and purified from Herpetospermum seeds (HS) on HepG2.2.15 cells. Herpetin (HPT), herpetone (HPO), and herpetfluorenone (HPF) were isolated from HS and identified using HR-ESI-MS and NMR. Different concentrations of the drugs were added to the HepG2.2.15 cells. Cell toxicity was observed with an MTT assay, cell culture supernatants were collected, and HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by ELISA. The content of HBV DNA was determined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with fluorescent probes. The 50% toxicity concentration (TC50) of HPF was 531.48 μg/mL, suggesting that this species is less toxic than HPT and HPO. HPT and HPF showed more potent antiviral activities than HPO. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of HPF on HBsAg and HBeAg were 176.99 and 134.53 μg/mL, respectively, and the corresponding therapeutic index (TI) values were 2.66 and 3.49, respectively. HPT and HPF were shown to significantly reduce the level of HBV DNA in the HepG2.2.15 culture medium compared to the negative control. This initial investigation of the anti-HBV constituents of HS yielded three compounds that revealed a synergistic effect of multiple components in the ethnopharmacological use of HS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Components in Guanjiekang in Rat Plasma via the UPLC–MS/MS Method and Its Application in Pharmacokinetic Study
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1732; doi:10.3390/molecules21121732
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Guanjiekang (GJK) that is formed by five medicinal herbs including Astragali Radix, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Corydalis Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Alba was used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of
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Guanjiekang (GJK) that is formed by five medicinal herbs including Astragali Radix, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Corydalis Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Alba was used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of active components in GJK remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of seven representative active constituents in GJK (i.e., benzoylhypaconine, benzoylmesaconine, paeoniflorin, tetrahydropalmatine, calycosin-7-glucoside, formononetin and isoliquiritigenin) after oral administration of GJK in rats. A rapid, sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC–MS/MS) method has been successfully developed for the simultaneous determination of these seven constituents in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with a gradient elution program that consists of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Detection was performed under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R2 > 0.99) over a wide concentration range for all constituents. The accuracies ranged from 92.9% to 107.8%, and the intra-day and inter-day precisions at three different levels were below 15%. Our PK results showed that these seven compounds were quickly absorbed after the administration of the GJK product, and Tmax ranged from 30 min to 189 min. The in vivo concentrations of paeoniflorin and isoliquiritigenin were significantly higher than the reported in vitro effective doses, indicating that they could partly contribute to the therapeutic effect of GJK. Therefore, we conclude that pharmacokinetic studies of representative bioactive chemicals after administration of complex herbal products are not only necessary but also feasible. Moreover, these seven compounds that were absorbed in vivo can be used as indicator standards for quality control and for determining pharmacokinetic behavior of herbal medicines in clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Cluster Zone Leaf Removal on Grapes cv. Regent Polyphenol Content by the UPLC-PDA/MS Method
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1688; doi:10.3390/molecules21121688
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
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Abstract
Abstract: Leaf removal is known to enhance light exposure of clusters and therefore may affect grape composition. Owing to the risk of decreasing grape quality or sunburn as a consequence of improper sun exposure, it is crucial to determine the optimum leaf removal
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Abstract: Leaf removal is known to enhance light exposure of clusters and therefore may affect grape composition. Owing to the risk of decreasing grape quality or sunburn as a consequence of improper sun exposure, it is crucial to determine the optimum leaf removal techniques adequate for the particular climate conditions of a vineyard area. Defoliation experiments on vine cv. Regent were conducted in two consecutive years (2014 and 2015). The effect of leaf removal treatment on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the polyphenol compounds in the grapes, with reference to the basic weather conditions of the vineyard area, located in Szczecin in the North-Western part of Poland, was assessed. Defoliation was performed manually in the cluster zone at three phenological plant stages: pre-flowering, berry-set and véraison. Leaf removal, especially early defoliation (pre-flowering), enhanced total polyphenol content, including the amount of anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols and furthermore, it increased the amount of soluble solids, decreasing the titratable acidity in grapes. On the other hand, the treatments had a reducing impact on the phenolic acids in berries. Defoliation at earlier stages of cluster development appears to be an efficient strategy for improving berry quality in cool climate areas, however, additionally further weather data control is required to determine the effects on berry components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Salidroside Regulates Inflammatory Response in Raw 264.7 Macrophages via TLR4/TAK1 and Ameliorates Inflammation in Alcohol Binge Drinking-Induced Liver Injury
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1490; doi:10.3390/molecules21111490
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking-induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like
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The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking-induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion and mRNA expression of of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isobutylhydroxyamides from Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Their Suppression of NO Production
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1416; doi:10.3390/molecules21101416
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
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Abstract
Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A–D (14), and eight known ones—tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E
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Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A–D (14), and eight known ones—tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E (10), bugeanumamide A (11), and (2E,7E,9E)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide (12)—were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data. Compound 4 contained a rare C6 fatty acid unit with an acetal group. Results revealed that compounds 1, 5, 6, and 12 showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50values of 48.7 ± 0.32, 27.1 ± 1.15, 49.8 ± 0.38, and 39.4 ± 0.63 µM, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive (IC50 > 60 μM). They could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. bungeanum by suppression of NO production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Mushroom-Based Cosmeceutical Formulations with Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Tyrosinase, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Properties
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1372; doi:10.3390/molecules21101372
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow
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The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors. In the present work, the cosmeceutical potential of ethanolic extracts prepared from Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinula edodes was analyzed in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic acids and ergosterol composition, and further incorporated in a base cosmetic cream to achieve the same bioactive purposes. From the results obtained, the final cosmeceutical formulations presented 85%–100% of the phenolic acids and ergosterol levels found in the mushroom extracts, suggesting that there was no significant loss of bioactive compounds. The final cosmeceutical formulation also displayed all the ascribed bioactivities and as such, mushrooms can further be exploited as natural cosmeceutical ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1359; doi:10.3390/molecules21101359
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 9 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass
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In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z)-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC) was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Picrotoxane Sesquiterpene Glycosides and a Coumarin Derivative from Coriaria nepalensis and Their Neurotrophic Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1344; doi:10.3390/molecules21101344
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
Two picrotoxane sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, nepalactones A (1) and B (2), and one new coumarin, nepalarin (3), were isolated from the root barks of the poisonous plant Coriaria nepalensis. Their structures were elucidated via HRESIMS and
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Two picrotoxane sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, nepalactones A (1) and B (2), and one new coumarin, nepalarin (3), were isolated from the root barks of the poisonous plant Coriaria nepalensis. Their structures were elucidated via HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and further verified via transformation methods. In addition, compounds 13 and five semisynthetic congeners (1ae) were assayed for the activity to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. As a result, nepalactone A derivative 1c and nepalarin (3) significantly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Diphenol and Isocoumarins from the Aerial Part of Lawsonia inermis and Their Inhibitory Activities against NO Production
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1299; doi:10.3390/molecules21101299
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae), also known as henna, is a small shrub or tree distributed throughout Taiwan’s Lanyu Island, in North Africa, and in Australia. Its leaves are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of external hemorrhage and fingernail abscesses. Investigation
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Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae), also known as henna, is a small shrub or tree distributed throughout Taiwan’s Lanyu Island, in North Africa, and in Australia. Its leaves are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of external hemorrhage and fingernail abscesses. Investigation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fractions from methanol extract of the aerial part of Lawsonia inermis has led to the isolation of a new diphenol, (Z)-4,4′-(prop-1-ene-1,3-diyl)diphenol (1), two new isocoumarin carbonates, inermiscarbonates A (2) and B (3), and six known compounds, 4′-hydroxyflavanone (4), apigenine (5), kampferol (6), luteolin (7), quercetin (8), and (-)-catechin (9). Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the data of known analogues. Compounds 1 and 49 were evaluated for the inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated product of nitrite in RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 5.63, 15.72, 8.67, 6.67, 6.17, 7.61, and 14.52 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1292; doi:10.3390/molecules21101292
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB) was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB) was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g) and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g) in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g). The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE)/g) of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g). When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL), Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL), and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL) among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes) in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Asiatic Acid Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Akt/GSK-3β/HIF-1α Signaling in Rat H9c2 Cardiomyocytes
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1248; doi:10.3390/molecules21091248
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 16 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
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Abstract
Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury results from severe impairment of coronary blood supply and leads to irreversible cell death, with limited therapeutic possibilities. Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica and serves a variety of bioactivities. In this
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Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury results from severe impairment of coronary blood supply and leads to irreversible cell death, with limited therapeutic possibilities. Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica and serves a variety of bioactivities. In this study, we determined the effect of asiatic acid on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and investigated the underlying mechanisms, using an in vitro rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury. Results showed that pre-treatment with asiatic acid significantly augmented cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in a concentration-dependent manner after OGD/R exposure. Asiatic acid at 10 μM effectively inhibited apoptotic cell death, suppressed the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and reversed Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in hypoxic H9c2 cells. In addition, asiatic acid improved mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased intracellular calcium concentration. Using Western blot assay, we found that asiatic acid promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and induced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) after OGD/R. The cardioprotective effects of asiatic acid were attenuated by the Akt or HIF-1α inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggested that asiatic acid exerted protective effects against OGD/R-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, at least partly via the Akt/GSK-3β/HIF-1α pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavones as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Identified by a Newly Optimized Screening Platform Using Chromobacterium violaceum as Reporter Bacteria
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1211; doi:10.3390/molecules21091211
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
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Abstract
Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors
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Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors from natural compound libraries. In this system, QS is correlated with the production of violacein, which is directly controlled by the LuxI/LuxR system in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532. The parallel use of C. violaceum Tn5-mutant CV026, which depends on auto-inducer addition, allows simultaneous discrimination of compounds that act as quenchers of the AHL signal (quorum quenchers). The incorporation of a redox stain into the platform allowed further distinction between QS inhibitors, quorum quenchers and antibacterial compounds. A pilot screening was performed with 465 natural and synthetic flavonoids. All the most active compounds were flavones and they displayed potencies (IC50) in the range of 3.69 to 23.35 μM. These leads were particularly promising as they inhibited the transition from microcolonies into mature biofilms from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach can be very effective in identifying new antimicrobials posing lesser risks of resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1201; doi:10.3390/molecules21091201
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
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Abstract
This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied
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This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a New Flavone and Tyrosinase Inhibition Constituents from the Twigs of Morus alba L.
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1130; doi:10.3390/molecules21091130
Received: 24 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
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Abstract
The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1), and sixteen known compounds 217 were
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The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1), and sixteen known compounds 217 were isolated from M. alba twigs and their structures were identified by interpretation of the corresponding ESI-MS and NMR spectral data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory test, the compounds steppogenin (IC50 0.98 ± 0.01 µM), 2,4,2′,4′-tetrahydroxychalcone (IC50 0.07 ± 0.02 µM), morachalcone A (IC50 0.08 ± 0.02 µM), oxyresveratrol (IC50 0.10 ± 0.01 µM), and moracin M (8.00 ± 0.22 µM) exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition activities, much stronger than that of the positive control kojic acid. These results suggest that M. alba twig extract should served as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods as antibrowning agents or in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1148; doi:10.3390/molecules21091148
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
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Abstract
Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside
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Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4), from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE) by C18 Sep-Pak® cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC), which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction) of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4–69.5 μg/mL), which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL). Four purified compounds 14 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1135; doi:10.3390/molecules21091135
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
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Abstract
Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a
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Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive 2(1H)-Pyrazinones and Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Tunicate-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp.
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1116; doi:10.3390/molecules21091116
Received: 8 May 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
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Abstract
As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H)-pyrazinones derivatives, (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (1), (S)-3-(sec-butyl)-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H
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As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H)-pyrazinones derivatives, (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (1), (S)-3-(sec-butyl)-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (2) and (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (3), together with the known (1H)-pyrazinones analogues deoxymutaaspergillic acid (4), 3,6-diisobutyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (5) and 3,6-di-sec-butyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (6), and the diketopiperazine alkaloids cyclo(6-OH-d-Pro-l-Phe) (7), bacillusamide B (8), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Ile) (10) were isolated from this strain. The structures of the compounds were determined by study of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra as well as high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Compound 4 was reported previously as a synthetic product, while compound 6 was reported as 2-hydroxy-3,6-di-sec-butylpyrazine. Herein, we report the complete NMR data for compounds 4 and 6. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three cell lines. Compound 5 showed potent and selective activity against HCT-116 cell line with IC50 of 1.5 μg/mL, while 110 showed variable cytotoxic activities against these cancer cell lines. These results provide further understanding about the chemistry and bioactivities of the alkylated 2(1H)-pyrazinone derivatives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Punica granatum L. Hydrogel for Wound Care Treatment: From Case Study to Phytomedicine Standardization
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1059; doi:10.3390/molecules21081059
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
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Abstract
The pharmacological activities of many Punica granatum L. components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases where chronic inflammation is believed to play an essential etiologic role. The current work reports a case study analyzing the
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The pharmacological activities of many Punica granatum L. components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases where chronic inflammation is believed to play an essential etiologic role. The current work reports a case study analyzing the effect produced by a magistral formulation of ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum peels on a non-healing chronic ulcer. The complete closure of the chronic ulcer that was initially not responsive to standard medical care was observed. A 2% (w/w) P. granatum peels ethanolic extract hydrogel-based formulation (PGHF) was standardized and subjected to physicochemical studies to establish the quality control parameters using, among others, assessment criteria such as optimum appearance, pH range, viscosity and hydrogel disintegration. The stability and quantitative chromatographic data was assessed in storage for six months under two temperature regimes. An efficient HPLC-DAD method was established distinguishing the biomarkers punicalin and punicalagin simultaneously in a single 8 min run. PGHF presented suitable sensorial and physicochemical performance, showing that punicalagin was not significantly affected by storage (p > 0.05). Formulations containing extracts with not less than 0.49% (w/w) total punicalagin might find good use in wound healing therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitors from the Stems of Akebia quinata
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1091; doi:10.3390/molecules21081091
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
PTP1B deficiency in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-NeuNT transgenic mice inhibited the onset of MMTV-NeuNT-evoked breast cancer, while its overexpression was observed in breast cancer. Thus, PTP1B inhibitors are considered chemopreventative agents for breast cancer. As part of our program to find PTP1B
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PTP1B deficiency in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-NeuNT transgenic mice inhibited the onset of MMTV-NeuNT-evoked breast cancer, while its overexpression was observed in breast cancer. Thus, PTP1B inhibitors are considered chemopreventative agents for breast cancer. As part of our program to find PTP1B inhibitors, one new diterpene glycoside (1) and 13 known compounds (214) were isolated from the methanol extract of the stems of Akebia quinata. All isolates were identified based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including UV, IR, NMR and MS. Compounds 2, 3, 6, 8 and 11 showed significant inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 4.08 ± 1.09 to 21.80 ± 4.74 μM. PTP1B inhibitors also had concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cell lines, such as MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 (MCF7/TAMR) (IC50 values ranging from 0.84 ± 0.04 to 7.91 ± 0.39 μM). These results indicate that compounds 6 and 8 from Akebia quinata may be lead compounds acting as anti-breast cancer agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity and Membrane-Disruptive Mechanism of 3-p-trans-Coumaroyl-2-hydroxyquinic Acid, a Novel Phenolic Compound from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara, against Staphylococcus aureus
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1084; doi:10.3390/molecules21081084
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
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Abstract
Recently, we reported that a novel phenolic compound isolated from Cedrus deodara, 3-p-trans-coumaroyl-2-hydroxyquinic acid (CHQA), exhibits a potent antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHQA against eleven food-borne pathogens and to elucidate
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Recently, we reported that a novel phenolic compound isolated from Cedrus deodara, 3-p-trans-coumaroyl-2-hydroxyquinic acid (CHQA), exhibits a potent antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHQA against eleven food-borne pathogens and to elucidate its mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus. The results from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations showed that CHQA exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on all of the tested pathogens with MIC values ranging from 2.5–10 mg/mL. Membrane potential measurements and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CHQA damaged the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus, causing a significant membrane hyperpolarization with a loss of membrane integrity. Moreover, CHQA induced an increase in membrane fluidity and conformational changes in membrane protein of S. aureus, suggesting that CHQA probably acts on the cell membrane by interactions with membrane lipid and protein. Transmission electron microscopic observations further confirmed that CHQA disrupted the cell membrane of S. aureus and caused severe morphological changes, which even led to leakage of intracellular constituents. These findings indicated that CHQA could have the potential to serve as a natural antibacterial agent to control and prevent the growth of pathogens in food and in food-processing environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Steroidal Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1075; doi:10.3390/molecules21081075
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
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Abstract
Four new steroid saponins 14 were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Asparagaceae), as well as four known saponins: anemarsaponin B (5) timosaponin D (6), timosaponin E1 (7) anemarsaponin B II (8).
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Four new steroid saponins 14 were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Asparagaceae), as well as four known saponins: anemarsaponin B (5) timosaponin D (6), timosaponin E1 (7) anemarsaponin B II (8). Their structures were established through UV and NMR as well as MS data. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 human cancer lines. Compounds 3 and 7 displayed medium antiproliferative activities on HepG2 and SGC7901 cells, with IC50 values of 43.90 and 57.90 μM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1069; doi:10.3390/molecules21081069
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint),
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Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1026; doi:10.3390/molecules21081026
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
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Abstract
Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat
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Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity, Post-Treatment Recovery, and Selectivity Analysis of Naturally Occurring Podophyllotoxins from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides on Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1013; doi:10.3390/molecules21081013
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
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Abstract
Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5′-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin
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Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5′-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin (2), 5′-demethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin (3), and 7′,8′-dehydroacetylpodophyllotoxin (4) for cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, and selectivity against three BC cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, as well as the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 72 h of treatment, and clonogenicity was determined at 72 h post-treatment; experiments were performed using the sulforhodamine B staining assay. Selective-index (SI) was calculated by comparing pure compound IC50 values in MCF-10A cell line against the IC50 of the same compound in cancer cell lines. Structural similarities among lignans and controls (podophyllotoxin and etoposide) were analyzed using the Tanimoto coefficient (Tc). Lignans were cytotoxic against all tested cell lines (0.011–7.22 µM) and clonogenicity testing showed a dose-dependent cytocidality for all lignans (≥0.08 µg/mL); compounds 2 and 3 were more potent (14.1 and 7.6 respectively) than etoposide in BT-549 cell line, while compound 2 displayed selectivity (SI = 28.17) in BT-549 cell line. Tc values of lignans suggested a greater similarity with podophyllotoxin structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Analysis of 2-(2-Phenylethyl)-chromone Derivatives from Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) by Artificial Holing for Different Times
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 911; doi:10.3390/molecules21070911
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
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Abstract
A total of fifty-six chromones, including seven 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones (THPECs), five 5,6-epoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (EPECs), seven 5,6:7,8-diepoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (DEPECs) and thirty-seven 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of the flidersia type (FTPECs), were characterized by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS/MS in three agarwood samples (from Aquilaria crassna) induced by artificial holing with different holing times.
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A total of fifty-six chromones, including seven 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones (THPECs), five 5,6-epoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (EPECs), seven 5,6:7,8-diepoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (DEPECs) and thirty-seven 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of the flidersia type (FTPECs), were characterized by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS/MS in three agarwood samples (from Aquilaria crassna) induced by artificial holing with different holing times. The characteristic fragmentation behavior of DEPECs and EPECs, and the methods to distinguish these four types of chromones by MS analysis were described for the first time. In addition, it was found that the relative contents of DEPECs and EPECs were down-regulated, while the relative contents of THPECs and FTPECs were up-regulated for the samples from two, four and five years of the agarwood formation time. However, the relative contents of six most widespread and abundant FTPECs presented roughly upward based on the formation time. These results could be referenced to distinguish different agarwood samples collected from different formation time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 908; doi:10.3390/molecules21070908
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
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Abstract
The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration
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The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 886; doi:10.3390/molecules21070886
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 25 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant
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Hydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant effects, in comparison to hydroxyphenylalkanes, as demonstrated by DPPH assay and amelioration of CCl4-induced disturbed intracellular GSH/GSSG balance. Shogaol and 4′-methoxygingerol showed considerable cytotoxic effects against HCT116, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 3.1 to 19.4 µM. Gingerol significantly enhanced the cytotoxic profile of doxorubicin against HepG2 and Huh7, cells decreasing its IC50s by 10- and 4-fold, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was studied using DNA cytometry. Doxorubicin alone induced cell accumulation at S-phase and G2/M-phase, while in combination with gingerol it significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M-phase. Additionally, the vascular protective effect of gingerol against doxorubicin (10 µM) was examined on isolated aortic rings. Co-incubation with 6-gingerol (30 µM) completely blocked the exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired vascular relaxation induced by doxorubicin. In conclusion, despite its relatively weak antioxidant properties, gingerol protected from DOX-induced vascular damage, apparently not through a ROS scavenging mechanism. Besides, gingerol synergized the cytotoxic effects of DOX against liver cancer cells without influencing the cellular pharmacokinetics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carlina acaulis Exhibits Antioxidant Activity and Counteracts Aβ Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 871; doi:10.3390/molecules21070871
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
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Abstract
Carlina acaulis is a medicinal plant that has shown antioxidant activity in in vitro studies, but to date no corresponding in vivo data is available. Therefore, in the present study the antioxidant activity and its impact in counteracting Aβ toxicity were studied in
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Carlina acaulis is a medicinal plant that has shown antioxidant activity in in vitro studies, but to date no corresponding in vivo data is available. Therefore, in the present study the antioxidant activity and its impact in counteracting Aβ toxicity were studied in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. A dichloromethane extract of the roots of C. acaulis was prepared and characterised via gas-liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GLC-MS). The in vitro antioxidant activity was confirmed via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl assay. The extract was further separated by thin layer chromatography into two fractions, one of which was a fraction of the dichloromethane extract of C. acaulis containing mostly Carlina oxide (CarOx). Different strains of C. elegans were employed to study the expression of hsp-16.2p::GFP as a marker for oxidative stress, delocalisation of the transcription factor DAF-16 as a possible mechanism of antioxidant activity, the effect of the drug under lethal oxidative stress, and the effect against beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in a paralysis assay. The C. acaulis extract and CarOx showed high antioxidant activity (stress reduction by 47% and 64%, respectively) in C. elegans and could activate the transcription factor DAF-16 which directs the expression of anti-stress genes. In paralysis assay, only the total extract was significantly active, delaying paralysis by 1.6 h. In conclusion, in vivo antioxidant activity was shown for C. acaulis for the first time in the C. elegans model. The active antioxidant compound is Carlina oxide. This activity, however, is not sufficient to counteract Aβ toxicity. Other mechanisms and possibly other active compounds are involved in this effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Exposure and Reduction of Elimination for Paeoniflorin or Albiflorin via Co-Administration with Total Peony Glucosides and Hypoxic Pharmacokinetics Comparison
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 874; doi:10.3390/molecules21070874
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
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Abstract
There is evidence suggesting that herbal extracts demonstrate greater bioactivities than their isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. This phenomenon could be attributed to the absence of interacting substances present in the extracts. By measuring the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin
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There is evidence suggesting that herbal extracts demonstrate greater bioactivities than their isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. This phenomenon could be attributed to the absence of interacting substances present in the extracts. By measuring the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin (AF) after being orally administered to rats in isolated form, in combination with each other and within total peony glucosides (TPG), respectively, the current study aimed to identify positive pharmacokinetic interactions between components of peony radix extracts. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic profiles of PF and AF under normoxia and hypoxia were also investigated and compared. In order to achieve these goals, a highly sensitive and reproducible ultra-peformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneously quantitation of PF and AF in rat plasma. This study found that compared with that of single component (PF/AF), the exposure of PF in rat plasma after combination administration or TPG administration was significantly increased, meanwhile the elimination of PF/AF was remarkably reduced. It was also noticed that AUC and Cmax of PF in hypoxia rats were significantly decreased compared with that of normaxia rats, suggesting that there was a decreased exposure of PF in rats under hypoxia. The current study, for the first time, revealed the pharmacokinetic interactions between PF/AF and other constitutes in TGP and the pharmacokinetic profiles of PF and AF under hypoxia. In view of the current findings, it could be supposed that the clinical performance of total peony glucosides would be better than that of single constitute (PF/AF). The outcomes of this animal study are expected to serve as a basis for development of clinical guidelines on total peony glucosides usage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil—Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 814; doi:10.3390/molecules21060814
Received: 21 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
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Abstract
The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities
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The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Food Functional Properties of the Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates-Glucose Conjugates Formed via Maillard Reaction
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 795; doi:10.3390/molecules21060795
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
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Abstract
The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp)-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR) were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of
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The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp)-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR) were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of HAHp played an important role in the process of MR between HAHp and glucose. HAHp-glucose Maillard reaction products (HAHp-G MRPs) demonstrated enhanced antioxidative activities of reducing power and scavenging DPPH radicals compared to control groups. HAHp-G MRPs produced from the condition of pH 9.6 displayed the strongest reducing power. The excellent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals was found for HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs which was produced at pH 5.6. Additionally, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs showed variable antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea, with the MIC values ranging from 8.3 to 16.7 μg/mL. Result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on E. coli suggested that HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs exhibited antibacterial activity by destroying the cell integrity through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs had excellent foaming ability and stability at alkaline conditions of pH 8.0, and showed emulsion properties at acidic pH 4.0. These results suggested that specific HAHp-G MRPs should be promising functional ingredients used in foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Resolution α-Glucosidase Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of Antidiabetic Compounds in Eremanthus crotonoides (Asteraceae)
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 782; doi:10.3390/molecules21060782
Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
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Abstract
α-Glucosidase inhibitors decrease the cleavage- and absorption rate of monosaccharides from complex dietary carbohydrates, and represent therefore an important class of drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a defatted ethyl acetate extract of Eremanthus crotonoides leaves with an inhibitory
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α-Glucosidase inhibitors decrease the cleavage- and absorption rate of monosaccharides from complex dietary carbohydrates, and represent therefore an important class of drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a defatted ethyl acetate extract of Eremanthus crotonoides leaves with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL towards α-glucosidase was investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of six α-glucosidase inhibitors, namely quercetin (16), trans-tiliroside (17), luteolin (19), quercetin-3-methyl ether (20), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid n-butyl ester (26) and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid n-butyl ester (29). In addition, nineteen other metabolites were identified. The most active compounds were the two regioisomeric di-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 26 and 29, with IC50 values of 5.93 and 5.20 μM, respectively. This is the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compounds 20, 26, and 29, and the findings support the important role of Eremanthus species as novel sources of new drugs and/or herbal remedies for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 739; doi:10.3390/molecules21060739
Received: 24 April 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina,
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Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90.4% inhibition at 100 μg/mL), followed by luteolin (85.4%). Two other flavone glycosides had about half of this activity. Verbascoside was similar to the reference drug aminoguanidine (71.2% and 75.9%, respectively). The strong correlation observed between AGE inhibition and total flavonoid content indicated that flavonoids contribute significantly to antiglycation properties. A positive correlation was also observed between antiglycative and antioxidant activities. The studied skullcap species can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for hyperglycemia-related disorders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 738; doi:10.3390/molecules21060738
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at
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Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 697; doi:10.3390/molecules21060697
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
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Abstract
In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction
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In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Eriobotrya japonica Water Extract Characterization: An Inducer of Interferon-Gamma Production Mainly by the JAK-STAT Pathway
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 722; doi:10.3390/molecules21060722
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
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Abstract
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were
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Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were performed on the water extract to investigate specific cytokines’ modulation. These earlier studies, however, have shown that EJ leaf water extract (WE) and the water phase (WP) induce cytokines’ production in in vitro and in vivo models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to specify the group(s) of compounds in EJ leaves that have this immunomodulatory activity and their mechanism of action. WE was obtained from boiling the leaves followed by butanol extraction, yielding a butanol-water phase (WP). WP was then subjected to methanol:acetone fractionation, yielding upper (MAU) and lower (MAL) phases. For further fractionation, MAU was subjected to column chromatography followed by elution with ethanol:water (EW), methanol:ethanol (ME) and, lastly, acetone:water (AW), respectively, to reveal three sub-fractions; MAU-EW, MAU-ME and MAU-AW. MAU-AW significantly increased IFN-γ production from unstimulated and stimulated mouse spleen cells, as well as CD3+ T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, the fold increase of IFN-γ production by MAU-AW was concentration dependent, higher than the parent extract or any of the other sub-fractions, and such an IFN-γ increase was reversed by two JAK-STAT inhibitors. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the extracts and sub-fractions showed compounds with molecular weights of >500 Daltons. The MAU-AW sub-fraction contained more polar compounds, such as flavonol and caffeic glycosides. In conclusion, these polar compounds in the EJ extract are responsible for inducing IFN-γ production. Further chemical elucidation is warranted to lead to a specific IFN-γ inducer and an immunomodulator in polarizing immune cells and balancing immune responses in certain diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Selected Cotoneaster Medik. Species
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 688; doi:10.3390/molecules21060688
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract
The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O2•− and
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The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O2•− and H2O2 scavenging assays). The samples exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays with activity parameters of EC50 = 18.5–34.5 µg/mL for DPPH; 0.9–3.8 mmol Fe2+/g for FRAP; SC50 = 27.7–74.8 µg/mL for O2•−; and SC50 = 29.0–91.3 µg/mL for H2O2. Significant linear correlations (|r| = 0.76–0.97, p < 0.01) between activity parameters and total contents of phenolics (5.2%–15.4% GAE) and proanthocyanidins (2.1%–15.0% CYE), with weak or no effects for chlorogenic acid isomers (0.69%–2.93%) and total flavonoids (0.28%–1.40%) suggested that among the listed polyphenols, proanthocyanidins are the most important determinants of the tested activity. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses led to detection of 34 polyphenols, of which 10 B-type procyanidins, 5 caffeoylquinic acids and 14 flavonoids were identified. After cluster analysis of the data matrix, the leaves of Cotoneaster zabelii, C. splendens, C. bullatus, C. divaricatus, C. hjelmqvistii and C. lucidus were selected as the most promising sources of natural antioxidants, exhibiting the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities, and therefore the greatest potential for pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Canthinone-Type Alkaloid Isolated from Ailanthus altissima Swingle
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 642; doi:10.3390/molecules21050642
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
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Abstract
The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-canthine-6-one (1), and five known compounds (26). Moreover,
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The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-canthine-6-one (1), and five known compounds (26). Moreover, four phenyl propanoids (710), two lignans (11 and 12), two triterpenoids (13 and 14) and a fatty acid (15) having previously known chemical structures were isolated during the same course of this study. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by physical (m.p., [α]D) and spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-DART-MS) interpretation and its absolute configuration was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data and quantum chemical calculations. The inflammatory activities of the isolates were screened on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), a proinflammatory mediator, in RAW 264.7 cells. Among these isolated compounds, six compounds exhibited significant inhibition of NO production, with IC50 values in the range of 5.92 ± 0.9 to 15.09 ± 1.8 μM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Dihydromyricetin against •OH-Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Damage and Mechanistic Chemistry
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 604; doi:10.3390/molecules21050604
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
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Abstract
As a natural flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, dihydromyricetin (DHM, 2R,3R-3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol) was observed to increase the viability of •OH-treated mesenchymal stem cells using a MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl] assay and flow cytometry analysis. This protective effect indicates DHM may be a beneficial agent for
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As a natural flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, dihydromyricetin (DHM, 2R,3R-3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol) was observed to increase the viability of •OH-treated mesenchymal stem cells using a MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl] assay and flow cytometry analysis. This protective effect indicates DHM may be a beneficial agent for cell transplantation therapy. Mechanistic chemistry studies indicated that compared with myricetin, DHM was less effective at ABTS+• (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical) scavenging and reducing Cu2+, and had higher •O2 and DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging activities. Additionally, DHM could also chelate Fe2+ to give an absorption maximum at 589 nm. Hence, such protective effect of DHM may arise from its antioxidant activities which are thought to occur via direct radical-scavenging and Fe2+-chelation. Direct radical-scavenging involves an electron transfer (ET) pathway. The hydrogenation of the 2,3-double bond is hypothesized to reduce the ET process by blocking the formation of a larger π-π conjugative system. The glycosidation of the 3–OH in myricitrin is assumed to sterically hinder atom transfer in the •O2 and DPPH• radical-scavenging processes. In DHM, the Fe2+-chelating effect can actually be attributed to the 5,3′,4′,5′–OH and 4–C=O groups, and the 3–OH group itself can neither scavenge radicals nor chelate metal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Aqueous Extract of Tuberaria lignosa Inhibits Cell Growth, Alters the Cell Cycle Profile, and Induces Apoptosis of NCI-H460 Tumor Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 595; doi:10.3390/molecules21050595
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 30 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
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Abstract
Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. is found in European regions, and has antioxidant properties due to its composition in ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Given its traditional use and antioxidant properties, the tumor cell growth inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts from T. lignosa (prepared
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Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. is found in European regions, and has antioxidant properties due to its composition in ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Given its traditional use and antioxidant properties, the tumor cell growth inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts from T. lignosa (prepared by infusion and decoction) was investigated in three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), and HCT-15 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma). Both extracts inhibited the growth of these cell lines; the most potent one being the T. lignosa extract obtained by infusion in the NCI-H460 cells (GI50 of approximately 50 μg/mL). Further assays were carried out with this extract in NCI-H460 cells. At 100 μg/mL or 150 μg/mL it caused an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and a decrease of cells in S phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, these concentrations caused an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. In agreement, a decrease in total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and pro-caspase 3 levels was found. In conclusion, the T. lignosa extract obtained by infusion was more potent in NCI-H460 cells, altering the cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. This work highlights the importance of T. lignosa as a source of bioactive compounds with tumor cell growth inhibitory potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 566; doi:10.3390/molecules21050566
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
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Abstract
Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae) are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers
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Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae) are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%), fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 549; doi:10.3390/molecules21050549
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract
Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the
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Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4) showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6) and tokinolide C (6) exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4). We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1), Z-butylidenephthalide (3) and tokinolide A (6) exhibited significant neuroprotective effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 533; doi:10.3390/molecules21040533
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
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Abstract
The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44′9″S, 72°35′25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems
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The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44′9″S, 72°35′25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm3 and 1.58 × 10−2 mg/cm3). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 467; doi:10.3390/molecules21040467
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
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Abstract
This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to
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This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle NMR Study on the Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin with Isoflavones
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 372; doi:10.3390/molecules21040372
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
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Abstract
The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with daidzein and daidzin in D2O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD
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The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with daidzein and daidzin in D2O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD cavity with different orientations. For the β-CD/daidzin system, a 1:1 complex was formed with the flavonoid part of daidzin entering the CD cavity from the wide rim. The inclusion complexes determined by NMR were constructed using molecular docking. Furthermore, the mixture of puerarin, daidzein and daidzin, which are the major isoflavonoid components present in Radix puerariae, was analyzed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) alone and upon addition of β-CD in order to mimic chromatographic conditions and compare their binding affinities. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Anti-HBV C-Boivinopyranosyl Flavones from Alternanthera philoxeroides
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 336; doi:10.3390/molecules21030336
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract
C-boivinopyranosyl flavones have rarely been isolated from nature. In the search for anti-HBV (hepatitis b virus) constituents of Alternanthera philoxeroides, two new compounds, luteolin-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and chrysoeriol-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-4′-O-β-
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C-boivinopyranosyl flavones have rarely been isolated from nature. In the search for anti-HBV (hepatitis b virus) constituents of Alternanthera philoxeroides, two new compounds, luteolin-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and chrysoeriol-6-C-β-d-boivinopyranosyl-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), along with three known C-boivinopyranosyl flavones (compounds 3–5) were isolated. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR spectra. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed significant anti-HBV activities through specifically inhibiting the secretion of HBsAg in HepG2.2.15. Full article
Open AccessArticle Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Sensitive Method for the Determination of Dehydrodiisoeugenol in Rat Cerebral Nuclei
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 321; doi:10.3390/molecules21030321
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
A new liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the quantification of dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei after single intravenous administration. DDIE and daidzein (internal standard) were separated on a Diamonsil™ ODS C18 column with methanol–water containing 0.1% formic
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A new liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the quantification of dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei after single intravenous administration. DDIE and daidzein (internal standard) were separated on a Diamonsil™ ODS C18 column with methanol–water containing 0.1% formic acid (81:19, v/v) as a mobile phase. Detection of DDIE was performed on a positive electrospray ionization source using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. DDIE and daidzein were monitored at m/z 327.2→188.0 and m/z 255.0→199.2, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method enabled quantification of DDIE in various brain areas, including, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, cerebellum and brainstem, with high specificity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. The data herein demonstrate that our new LC-MS/MS method is highly sensitive and suitable for monitoring cerebral nuclei distribution of DDIE. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Cerebroside and Nucleoside Derivatives from a Red Sea Strain of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 324; doi:10.3390/molecules21030324
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
In the course of our ongoing efforts to identify marine-derived bioactive compounds, the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens was investigated. The organic extract of the Red Sea cyanobacterium afforded one new cerebroside, mooreaside A (1), two new nucleoside derivatives, 3-acetyl-2′-deoxyuridine (2) and 3-phenylethyl-2′-deoxyuridine (3),
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In the course of our ongoing efforts to identify marine-derived bioactive compounds, the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens was investigated. The organic extract of the Red Sea cyanobacterium afforded one new cerebroside, mooreaside A (1), two new nucleoside derivatives, 3-acetyl-2′-deoxyuridine (2) and 3-phenylethyl-2′-deoxyuridine (3), along with the previously reported compounds thymidine (4) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyl heptacosanoate (5). The structures of the compounds were determined by different spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS), as well as comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1–5 showed variable cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Metastatic Properties of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide-Based Derivative Designed to Mimic Glycosaminoglycans
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 309; doi:10.3390/molecules21030309
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
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Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases. In this study, the effect of three oversulfated low molecular weight marine bacterial exopolysaccharides (OS-EPS) with different molecular weights (4, 8 and 15 kDa) were
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Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases. In this study, the effect of three oversulfated low molecular weight marine bacterial exopolysaccharides (OS-EPS) with different molecular weights (4, 8 and 15 kDa) were first evaluated in vitro on human and murine osteosarcoma cell lines. Different biological activities were studied: cell proliferation, cell adhesion and migration, matrix metalloproteinase expression. This in vitro study showed that only the OS-EPS 15 kDa derivative could inhibit the invasiveness of osteosarcoma cells with an inhibition rate close to 90%. Moreover, this derivative was potent to inhibit both migration and invasiveness of osteosarcoma cell lines; had no significant effect on their cell cycle; and increased slightly the expression of MMP-9, and more highly the expression of its physiological specific tissue inhibitor TIMP-1. Then, the in vivo experiments showed that the OS-EPS 15 kDa derivative had no effect on the primary osteosarcoma tumor induced by osteosarcoma cell lines but was very efficient to inhibit the establishment of lung metastases in vivo. These results can help to better understand the mechanisms of GAGs and GAG-like derivatives in the biology of the tumor cells and their interactions with the bone environment to develop new therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 302; doi:10.3390/molecules21030302
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
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Abstract
Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro.
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Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Five Major Bioactive Compounds from Flos Sophorae Immaturus (Cultivars of Sophora japonica L.) Using Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 296; doi:10.3390/molecules21030296
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
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Abstract
Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design
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Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was employed to optimize experimental conditions (liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time) based on the results of single factor tests to extract the five major components in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Data were also analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction solvent; 100% methanol; particle size; 100 mesh; extraction frequency; 1; liquid-to-solid ratio; 50:1; microwave power; 287 W; and extraction time; 80 s. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Kinetex C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm; 2.6 μm) at 40 °C within 5 min. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile (71:29; v/v). Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The constituents of Flos Sophorae Immaturus were simultaneously identified by EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. During quantitative analysis; all of the calibration curves showed good linear relationships (R2 > 0.999) within the tested ranges; and mean recoveries ranged from 96.0216% to 101.0601%. The precision determined through intra- and inter-day studies showed an RSD% of <2.833%. These results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and effective and could be readily utilized for the comprehensive quality control of Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sesquiterpenoids from Chinese Agarwood Induced by Artificial Holing
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 274; doi:10.3390/molecules21030274
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
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Abstract
Two new sesquiterpenoids, 3-oxo-7-hydroxylholosericin A (1) and 1,5;8,12-diepoxy-guaia-12-one (2), together with seven known sesquiterpenoids 3–9, were isolated from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR)
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Two new sesquiterpenoids, 3-oxo-7-hydroxylholosericin A (1) and 1,5;8,12-diepoxy-guaia-12-one (2), together with seven known sesquiterpenoids 3–9, were isolated from Chinese agarwood induced by artificial holing originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and MS analyses. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by comparison of its measured CD curve with that of calculated data for 1 and ent-1. The NMR data of 3 were reported in this study for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, 4–6, together with the EtOAc extract showed moderate inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase, and compounds 4–6, 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus or Ralstonia solanacearum. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biochemical Characteristics of Three Laccase Isoforms from the Basidiomycete Pleurotus nebrodensis
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 203; doi:10.3390/molecules21020203
Received: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
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Abstract
The characterization of three laccase isoforms from Pleurotus nebrodensis is described. Isoenzymes Lac1, Lac2 and Lac3 were purified to homogeneity using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and a gel filtration step on Superdex 75. The molecular weights of the purified
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The characterization of three laccase isoforms from Pleurotus nebrodensis is described. Isoenzymes Lac1, Lac2 and Lac3 were purified to homogeneity using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and a gel filtration step on Superdex 75. The molecular weights of the purified laccases were estimated to be 68, 64 and 51 kDa, respectively. The isoenzymes demonstrated the same optimum pH at 3.0 but slightly different temperature optima: 50–60 °C for Lac1 and Lac3 and 60 °C for Lac2. Lac2 was always more stable than the other two isoforms and exposure to 50 °C for 120 min caused 30% loss in activity. Lac2 was relatively less stable than the other two isoforms when exposed to the pH range of 3.0–8.0 for 24 h, but inactivation only occurred initially, with around 70% residual activity being maintained during the whole process. Oxidative ability towards aromatic compounds varied substantially among the isoforms and each of them displayed preference toward some substrates. Kinetic constants (Km, Kcat) were determined by using a 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay, with Lac3 showing the best affinity and Lac2 displaying the highest catalytic efficiency. Amino acid sequences from peptides derived from digestion of isoenzymes showed great consistency with laccases in the databases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation of Flavonoids from Deguelia duckeana and Their Effect on Cellular Viability, AMPK, eEF2, eIF2 and eIF4E
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 192; doi:10.3390/molecules21020192
Received: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
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Abstract
Preparations of Deguelia duckeana, known in Brazil as timbó, are used by indigenous people to kill fish. Reinvestigation of its extracts resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 known flavonoids identified as 3,5,4’-trimethoxy-4-prenylstilbene (1), 4-methoxyderricidine (2), lonchocarpine (
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Preparations of Deguelia duckeana, known in Brazil as timbó, are used by indigenous people to kill fish. Reinvestigation of its extracts resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 known flavonoids identified as 3,5,4’-trimethoxy-4-prenylstilbene (1), 4-methoxyderricidine (2), lonchocarpine (3), 4-hydroxylonchocarpine (4), 4-methoxylonchocarpine (5), 5-hydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxy-6-prenylflavanone (6), 4’-hydroxyisolonchocarpine (7), 4’-methoxyisolonchocarpine (8), 3’,4’,7-trimethoxyflavone (9), 3’,4’-methylenedioxy-7-methoxyflavone (10), and 2,2-dimethyl-chromone-5,4’-hydroxy-5’-methoxyflavone (11). Except for 1, 3, and 4 all of these flavonoids have been described for the first time in D. duckeana and the flavanone 6 for the first time in nature. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 were studied for their potential to induce cell death in neuronal SK-N-SH cells. Only the chalcone 4 and the flavanone 7 significantly induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and impairment of energy homeostasis in the MTT assay and may explain the killing effect on fish. Interestingly, the flavone 10 reduced cell metabolism in the MTT assay without inducing cytotoxicity in the LDH assay. Furthermore, the flavonoids 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 induced phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). The initiation factor eIF4E was dephosphorylated in the presence of these compounds. The initiation factor eIF2alpha was not affected. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the observed effects on protein synthesis and potential therapeutic perspectives. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Bioactive Metabolite Isolated from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios erectus
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 82; doi:10.3390/molecules21010082
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the lipophilic fraction of Hyrtios erectus, a Red Sea sponge, yielded a new pentacyclic nitrogen-containing scalarane; 24-methoxypetrosaspongia C (1), together with the previously reported scalaranes sesterstatin 3 (2), 12-deacetyl-12-epi-scalaradial (3) and
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Chemical investigation of the lipophilic fraction of Hyrtios erectus, a Red Sea sponge, yielded a new pentacyclic nitrogen-containing scalarane; 24-methoxypetrosaspongia C (1), together with the previously reported scalaranes sesterstatin 3 (2), 12-deacetyl-12-epi-scalaradial (3) and 12-deacetyl-12,18-di-epi-scalaradial (4). The compounds were identified using HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The isolated compounds showed growth inhibitory activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) and breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional and Biochemical Profiling of Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer Wild Mushroom
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 99; doi:10.3390/molecules21010099
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 30 December 2015 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
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Abstract
The wild mushroom Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer was studied for the first time to obtain information about its chemical composition, nutritional value and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L.
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The wild mushroom Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer was studied for the first time to obtain information about its chemical composition, nutritional value and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. candidus methanolic extract was tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). L. candidus was shown to be an interesting species in terms of nutritional value, with high content in proteins and carbohydrates, but low fat levels, with the prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mannitol was the most abundant free sugar and β-tocopherol was the main tocopherol isoform. Other compounds detected were oxalic and fumaric acids, p-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids. The methanolic extract revealed antioxidant activity and did not show hepatoxicity in porcine liver primary cells. The present study provides new information about L. candidus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Terpenoids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 31; doi:10.3390/molecules21010031
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 28 December 2015
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Abstract
Two new β-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-β-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and β-trans-2β,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 35. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods
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Two new β-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-β-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and β-trans-2β,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 35. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Antiproliferative effects on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were measured in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited potent activity against the U937 cell line with an IC50 value of 4.2 μM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 34; doi:10.3390/molecules21010034
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 26 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge–derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (
[...] Read more.
Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge–derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (17) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Properties of Tabebuia impetiginosa-Based Phytopreparations and Phytoformulations: A Comparison between Extracts and Dietary Supplements
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22863-22871; doi:10.3390/molecules201219885
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
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Abstract
Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries, being nowadays marketed as dried plant material (inner bark) for infusions, pills, and syrups. The main objective of the present work was to validate its popular use through
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Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries, being nowadays marketed as dried plant material (inner bark) for infusions, pills, and syrups. The main objective of the present work was to validate its popular use through the bioactivity evaluation of the inner bark (methanolic extract and infusion) and of two different formulations (pills and syrup) also based on the same plant-material. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by in vitro assays testing free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. The cytotoxicity was determined in four human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2, and also in non-tumor cells (porcine liver primary cells, PLP2)). Furthermore, the sample was chemically characterized regarding free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, and tocopherols. Syrup and methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, related to their highest amount of phenolics and flavonoids. Methanolic extract was the only sample showing cytotoxic effects on the tested human tumor cell lines, but none of the samples showed toxicity in PLP2. Glucose and oxalic acid were, respectively, the most abundant sugar and organic acid in the sample. Unsaturated predominated over the saturated fatty acids, due to oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids expression. α- and γ-Tocopherols were also identified and quantified. Overall, T. impetiginosa might be used in different phytoformulations, taking advantage of its interesting bioactive properties and chemical composition. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22872-22880; doi:10.3390/molecules201219887
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 13 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
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Abstract
It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected
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It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils—linseed (LO) and rapeseed (RO) oils—were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Guignardones P–S, New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Guignardia mangiferae A348 Derived from the Medicinal Plant Smilax glabra
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22900-22907; doi:10.3390/molecules201219890
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new meroterpenoids, guignardones P–S (14), and three known analogues (57) were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Guignardia mangiferae A348. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray
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Four new meroterpenoids, guignardones P–S (14), and three known analogues (57) were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Guignardia mangiferae A348. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited weak inhibitions of cell proliferation against MCF-7 cell line. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22553-22564; doi:10.3390/molecules201219867
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior
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The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Argentatin B Inhibits Proliferation of Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells by Inducing Cell Senescence
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21125-21137; doi:10.3390/molecules201219757
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
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Abstract
Argentatin B has been shown to inhibit the growth of colon HCT-15, and prostate PC-3 cancer cells. However, the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation.
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Argentatin B has been shown to inhibit the growth of colon HCT-15, and prostate PC-3 cancer cells. However, the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which argentatin B inhibits cell proliferation. The cell cycle was studied by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V-Fluos, and Hoechst 33342 dye staining. Cell senescence was evaluated by proliferation tests, and staining for SA-β-galactosidase. Senescence-related proteins (PCNA, p21, and p27) were analyzed by Western blotting. Potential toxicity of argentatin B was evaluated in CD-1 mice. Its effect on tumor growth was tested in a HCT-15 and PC-3 xenograft model. Argentatin B induced an increment of cells in sub G1, but did not produce apoptosis. Proliferation of both cell lines was inhibited by argentatin B. Forty-three percent HCT-15, and 66% PC-3 cells showed positive SA-β-galactosidase staining. The expression of PCNA was decreased, p21 expression was increased in both cell lines, but p27 expression increased only in PC-3 cells after treatment. Administration of argentatin B to healthy mice did not produce treatment-associated pathologies. However, it restricted the growth of HCT-15 and PC-3 tumors. These results indicate that treatment with argentatin B induces cell senescence. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pyranocoumarins from Root Extracts of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn with Multidrug Resistance Reversal and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 20967-20978; doi:10.3390/molecules201219738
Received: 18 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
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Abstract
In the search for novel herbal-based anticancer agents, we isolated a new angular-type pyranocoumarin, (+)-cis-(3′S,4′S)-3′-angeloyl-4′-tigloylkhellactone (1) along with 12 pyranocoumarins (213), two furanocoumarins (14, 15), and a polyacetylene
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In the search for novel herbal-based anticancer agents, we isolated a new angular-type pyranocoumarin, (+)-cis-(3′S,4′S)-3′-angeloyl-4′-tigloylkhellactone (1) along with 12 pyranocoumarins (213), two furanocoumarins (14, 15), and a polyacetylene (16) were isolated from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum using chromatographic separation methods. The structures of the compounds were determined using spectroscopic analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The multidrug-resistance (MDR) reversal and anti-inflammatory effects of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in human sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among the 16 tested compounds, two (2 and 16) downregulated nitric oxide (NO) production and five (1, 7, 8, 11, and 13) inhibited the efflux of drugs by MDR protein, indicating the reversal of MDR. Therefore, these compounds may be potential candidates for the development of effective agents against MDR forms of cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Derinat Protects Skin against Ultraviolet-B (UVB)-Induced Cellular Damage
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20297-20311; doi:10.3390/molecules201119693
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
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Abstract
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) is one of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic stresses that contribute to skin damage and aging through increasing intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Derinat (sodium deoxyribonucleate) has been utilized as an immunomodulator for the treatment of ROS-associated diseases
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Ultraviolet-B (UVB) is one of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic stresses that contribute to skin damage and aging through increasing intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Derinat (sodium deoxyribonucleate) has been utilized as an immunomodulator for the treatment of ROS-associated diseases in clinics. However, the molecular mechanism by which Derinat protects skin cells from UVB-induced damage is poorly understood. Here, we show that Derinat significantly attenuated UVB-induced intracellular ROS production and decreased DNA damage in primary skin cells. Furthermore, Derinat reduced intracellular ROS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and DNA damage in the skin of the BALB/c-nu mice exposed to UVB for seven days in vivo. Importantly, Derinat blocked the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (TRPCs), as demonstrated by calcium imaging. Together, our results indicate that Derinat acts as a TRPCs blocker to reduce intracellular ROS production and DNA damage upon UVB irradiation. This mechanism provides a potential new application of Derinat for the protection against UVB-induced skin damage and aging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Activities, SAR and Anti-Invasion Effects of Butylphthalide Derivatives on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20312-20319; doi:10.3390/molecules201119699
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
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Abstract
A series of butylphthalide derivatives (BPDs) 18 were isolated from the extract of the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae). The cytotoxic activities of BPDs 18 were evaluated using a panel of human cancer cell lines. In addition,
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A series of butylphthalide derivatives (BPDs) 18 were isolated from the extract of the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae). The cytotoxic activities of BPDs 18 were evaluated using a panel of human cancer cell lines. In addition, the SAR analysis and potential anti-invasion activities were investigated. The sp2 carbons at C-7 and C-7a appeared to be essential for the cytotoxic activities of BPDs. BPDs 5 and 6 remarkably inhibited the migration and invasion of cancer cells. The anti-invasion activity of dimer 6 was demonstrated to be significantly higher than monomer 5. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Wang L.K., et al. Two New Lanostane Triterpenoids from the Branches and Leaves of Polyalthia oblique. Molecules 2014, 19, 7621–7628
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20268; doi:10.3390/molecules201119690
Received: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
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Abstract The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [1], published recently in Molecules. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Antihypertensive Effects of Artemisia scoparia Waldst in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Identification of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19789-19804; doi:10.3390/molecules201119657
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
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Abstract
We investigated the antihypertensive effects of Artemisia scoparia (AS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were fed diets containing 2% (w/w) hot water extracts of AS aerial parts for 6 weeks. The AS group had significantly lower systolic
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We investigated the antihypertensive effects of Artemisia scoparia (AS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were fed diets containing 2% (w/w) hot water extracts of AS aerial parts for 6 weeks. The AS group had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels than the control group. The AS group also had lower angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II content in serum compared to the control group. The AS group showed higher vascular endothelial growth factor and lower ras homolog gene family member A expression levels in kidney compared to the control group. The AS group had significantly lower levels of plasma lipid oxidation and protein carbonyls than the control group. One new and six known compounds were isolated from AS by guided purification. The new compound was determined to be 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoyl (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl benzoate, based on its nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Triterpenes from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim in HepG-2 Cancer Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19252-19262; doi:10.3390/molecules201019252
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
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Abstract
Among the classes of identified natural products, triterpenoids, one of the largest families, have been studied extensively for their diverse structures and variety of biological activities, including antitumor effects. In the present study, a phytochemical study of the green walnut husks of Juglans
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Among the classes of identified natural products, triterpenoids, one of the largest families, have been studied extensively for their diverse structures and variety of biological activities, including antitumor effects. In the present study, a phytochemical study of the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim led to the isolation of a new dammarane triterpene, 12β, 20(R), 24(R)-trihydroxydammar-25-en-3-one (6), together with sixteen known compounds, chiefly from chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. According to their structural characteristics, these compounds were divided into dammarane-type, oleanane- and ursane-type. Dammarane-type triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the Juglans genus. As part of our continuing search for biologically active compounds from this plant, all of these compounds were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by the MTT assay. The results were shown that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro with IC50 values of 10.32 ± 1.13, 16.13 ± 3.83, 15.97 ± 2.47 μM, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from Pinus morrisonicola Hay Needles by Supercritical Fluid and Identification of Possible Active Compounds by GC/MS
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19051-19065; doi:10.3390/molecules201019051
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 11 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
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Abstract
Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hay, PM) needles have been used as folk medicine for their antihypertension and lipid-lowering effects. As supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is considered an ideal technique for the extraction of essential oil from plant materials, the present work investigated the
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Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hay, PM) needles have been used as folk medicine for their antihypertension and lipid-lowering effects. As supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is considered an ideal technique for the extraction of essential oil from plant materials, the present work investigated the optimal SFE conditions and the protective effects of different resulting fractions of PM needles on lipid peroxidation and foam cell production in macrophages. Nine PM needle extracts (PME1–9) were obtained in 1%–4% yields using different SFE conditions, of which PME1 had the lowest yield (1.1%) and PME3 the highest (3.9%). PME3 exhibited lower cytotoxic effects and stronger inhibition of lipid peroxidation and formation of foam cell in RAW 264.7 macrophages than those of other PME extracts. PME3-1 purified from PME3 by column and thin layer chromatography inhibited LDL oxidation more effectively than did PME3 in a cell-free system oxidized by Cu2+. PME3-1 dose-dependently (25–100 μg/mL) decreased conjugated diene levels and foam cell formation induced by ox-LDL. GC/MS analyses revealed that 1-docosene, neophytadiene, and methyl abietate were increased 5.2-, 1.7- and 4.3-fold in PME3-1 relative to PME3. A new hydrocarbon compound, cedrane-8,13-diol, was identified in PME3-1. Overall, the present study demonstrates the optimal extraction conditions of SFE of PM and identifies the most potent antioxidant fractions and possible active compounds in PM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17872-17882; doi:10.3390/molecules201017872
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
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Abstract
Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was
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Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was not known if it induces autophagy or decreases the autophagic flux. The treatment of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with the mushroom extract increased the formation of autophagosomes (vacuoles typical from autophagy). Moreover, the cellular levels of LC3-II were also increased, and the cellular levels of p62 decreased, confirming that the extract affects cellular autophagy. Treating the cells with the extract together with lysossomal protease inhibitors, the cellular levels of LC3-II and p62 increased. The results obtained proved that, in AGS cells, the methanolic extract of G. lucidum causes an induction of autophagy, rather than a reduction in the autophagic flux. To our knowledge, this is the first study proving that statement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Constituents from the Leaves of Perilla frutescens
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 17848-17859; doi:10.3390/molecules201017848
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
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Abstract
Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory compounds from the leaves of Perilla frutescens. The total extract was evaluated in vitro on XO inhibitory activity and in vivo in an experimental model with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia
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Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory compounds from the leaves of Perilla frutescens. The total extract was evaluated in vitro on XO inhibitory activity and in vivo in an experimental model with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia in mice which was used to evaluate anti-hyperuricemic activity. The crude extract showed expressive urate-lowering activity results. Solvent partitioning of the total extract followed by macroporous resin column chromatography of the n-butanol extract yielded four extracts and eluted parts. Among them, only the 70% ethanol eluted part of the n-butanol extract showed strong activity and therefore was subjected to separation and purification using various chromatographic techniques. Five compounds showing potent activity were identified by comparing their spectral data with literature values to be caffeic acid, vinyl caffeate, rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, and apigenin. These results indicate that pending further study, these compounds could be used as novel natural product agents for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Insecticidal Constituents and Activity of Alkaloids from Cynanchum mongolicum
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 17483-17492; doi:10.3390/molecules200917483
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
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Abstract
Based on MS and NMR data and bioassay-guided tracing, three insecticidal alkaloids I, II and III from Cynanchum mongolicum were identified to be antofine N-oxide, antofine and tylophorine. Alkaloid I was more toxic than alkaloids II and III, but they
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Based on MS and NMR data and bioassay-guided tracing, three insecticidal alkaloids I, II and III from Cynanchum mongolicum were identified to be antofine N-oxide, antofine and tylophorine. Alkaloid I was more toxic than alkaloids II and III, but they were less active against Spodoptera litura than total alkaloids. The contact toxicity from these alkaloids against the aphid Lipaphis erysimi was significant, as the 24 h-LC50 values of alkaloids I, II, III and total alkaloids were 292.48, 367.21, 487.791 and 163.52 mg/L, respectively. The development disruption of S. litura larvae was tested, the pupation and emergence rates of S. litura decreased and the acute mortality of S. litura increased significantly by day 3 after being injected in their body cavity with 10–40 mg/L of total alkaloid. The ecdysone titer of treated S. litura larvae and prepupae declined with increasing alkaloid concentration. The alkaloids of Cynanchum mongolicum are potential insect growth inhibitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Studies on Cytotoxic Activity against HepG-2 Cells of Naphthoquinones from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15572-15588; doi:10.3390/molecules200915572
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 16 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
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Abstract
Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these
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Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The results were shown that most naphthoquinones in an aglycone form exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro than naphthalenyl glucosides with IC50 values in the range of 7.33–88.23 μM. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Vauquelinia corymbosa
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15330-15342; doi:10.3390/molecules200815330
Received: 4 July 2015 / Revised: 15 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
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Abstract
The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of an aqueous extract and compounds from the aerial parts of V. corymbosa was demonstrated with yeast and rat small intestinal α-glucosidases. The aqueous extract inhibited yeast α-glucosidase with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 28.6
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The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of an aqueous extract and compounds from the aerial parts of V. corymbosa was demonstrated with yeast and rat small intestinal α-glucosidases. The aqueous extract inhibited yeast α-glucosidase with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 28.6 μg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of several compounds, including one cyanogenic glycoside [prunasin (1)], five flavonoids [(−)-epi-catechin (2), hyperoside (3), isoquercetin (4), quercitrin (5) and quercetin-3-O-(6′′-benzoyl)-β-galactoside (6)] and two simple aromatic compounds [picein (7) and methylarbutin (8)]. The most active compound was 6 with IC50 values of 30 μM in the case of yeast α-glucosidase, and 437 μM in the case of the mammalian enzyme. According to the kinetic analyses performed with rat and yeast enzymes, this compound behaved as mixed-type inhibitor; the calculated inhibition constants (Ki) were 212 and 50 μM, respectively. Molecular docking analyses with yeast and mammalian α-glucosidases revealed that compound 6 bind differently to these enzymes. Altogether, the results of this work suggest that preparations of V. corymbosa might delay glucose absorption in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14504-14521; doi:10.3390/molecules200814504
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
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Abstract
Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia
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Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker), nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker), and Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca2+ entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca2+ release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca2+ influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca2+ influx pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Management of Hyperglycaemia by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Balanites aegyptiaca (Desert Date)
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14425-14434; doi:10.3390/molecules200814425
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species play a significant role in the pathogenesis of retinopathy in diabetes patients. The current study aimed to assess the effect of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) from Balanites aegyptiaca (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg b.w.) in experimental diabetic rats. To achieve
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Reactive oxygen species play a significant role in the pathogenesis of retinopathy in diabetes patients. The current study aimed to assess the effect of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) from Balanites aegyptiaca (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg b.w.) in experimental diabetic rats. To achieve this aim, five groups of male rats were included: control, diabetic, and diabetic rats treated with 10, 25, and 50 µg/kg b.w. of EAE for eight weeks. Our results suggests a protective role of EAE against oxidative stress induced by streptozocine. EAE treatment produced a reduction in blood glucose levels, HbA1c, malondialdehyde and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diabetic retina (p < 0.001), as well as an enhancement in antioxidant capacity against streptozocine-induced oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-1β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with EAE, compared with untreated diabetic rats. Analysis of EAE by GC-MS indicated the presence of β-sistosterol. Overall, EAE modulates oxidative stress induced by streptozocine and enhances antioxidant activity, which may provide additional endothelial protection in retina of diabetic rats. These results hold great promise in the management of diabetic complications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation, Characterization, Crystal Structure Elucidation of Two Flavanones and Simultaneous RP-HPLC Determination of Five Major Compounds from Syzygium campanulatum Korth
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14212-14233; doi:10.3390/molecules200814212
Received: 24 May 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two flavanones named (2S)-7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethyl flavanone (1), (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-flavanone (2), along with known chalcone, namely, (E)-2ʹ,4ʹ- dihydroxy-6ʹ-methoxy-3ʹ,5ʹ-dimethylchalcone (3) and two triterpenoids, namely, betulinic and ursolic acids (4 and 5), were isolated from the leaves of Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae). The structures of compounds (1 and
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Two flavanones named (2S)-7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethyl flavanone (1), (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-flavanone (2), along with known chalcone, namely, (E)-2ʹ,4ʹ- dihydroxy-6ʹ-methoxy-3ʹ,5ʹ-dimethylchalcone (3) and two triterpenoids, namely, betulinic and ursolic acids (4 and 5), were isolated from the leaves of Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae). The structures of compounds (1 and 2) were determined on the basis of UV-visible, FTIR, NMR spectroscopies and LC-EIMS analytical techniques. Furthermore, new, simple, precise, selective, accurate, highly sensitive, efficient and reproducible RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of the compounds (1–5) from S. campanulatum plants of five different age. RP-HPLC method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity (r2 ≤ 0.999), precision (2.0% RSD), and recoveries (94.4%–105%). The LOD and LOQ of these compounds ranged from 0.13–0.38 and 0.10–2.23 μg·mL−1, OPEN ACCESS respectively. Anti-proliferative activity of isolated flavanones (1 and 2) and standardized extract of S. campanulatum was evaluated on human colon cancer (HCT 116) cell line. Compounds (1 and 2) and extract revealed potent and dose-dependent activity with IC50 67.6, 132.9 and 93.4 μg·mL−1, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on isolation, characterization, X-ray crystallographic analysis of compounds (1 and 2) and simultaneous RP-HPLC determination of five major compounds (1–5) from different age of S. campanulatum plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link Fruiting Body Reduces the Growth of a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line by Increasing Cellular Levels of p53 and p21
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 13927-13940; doi:10.3390/molecules200813927
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 16 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
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Abstract
Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link, an edible entomopathogenic fungus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, has numerous potential medicinal properties including antitumor activity. The methanolic extract of C. militaris fruiting body was recently shown to have tumor cell growth inhibitory activity in several human
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Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link, an edible entomopathogenic fungus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, has numerous potential medicinal properties including antitumor activity. The methanolic extract of C. militaris fruiting body was recently shown to have tumor cell growth inhibitory activity in several human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, the mechanism of action involved is still not known. This work aimed at further studying the effect of the methanolic extract of C. militaris regarding its antitumor mechanism of action, using the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460) as a model. Results showed that treatment with the extract decreased cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and increased apoptosis. In addition, the extract increased the levels of p53 and p21. Moreover, an increase in p-H2A.X and 53BP1 levels, together with an increase in the number of 53BP1 foci/cell (all indicative of DNA damage), were also observed after treatment with the extract. This work suggests that this extract affected NCI-H460 cellular viability through a mechanism involving DNA damage and p53 activation. This further supports the potential of this extract as a source of bioactive compounds, which may be used in anticancer strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Eupatilin from Artemisia argyi as a Selective PPARα Agonist Using Affinity Selection Ultrafiltration LC-MS
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 13753-13763; doi:10.3390/molecules200813753
Received: 7 May 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
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Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are necessary to improve the safety and efficacy of available drugs. To expedite the search for new natural agonists of PPARs, we developed a screening assay based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) that is compatible with complex samples such as dietary foods or botanical extracts. The known PPARα and/or PPARγ ligands resveratrol and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls to validate the developed method. When applied to the screening of an Artemisia argyi extract, eupatilin was identified as a selective PPARα ligand. A PPAR competitive binding assay based on FRET detection also confirmed eupatilin as a selective PPARα agonist exhibiting a binding affinity of 1.18 μM (IC50). Furthermore, eupatilin activation of the transcriptional activity of PPARα was confirmed using a cell-based transactivation assay. Thus, ultrafiltration LC-MS is a suitable assay for the identification of PPAR ligands in complex matrixes such as extracts of dietary foods and botanicals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Fungal α-Galactosidase from Tricholoma matsutake with Broad Substrate Specificity and Good Hydrolytic Activity on Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 13550-13562; doi:10.3390/molecules200813550
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An acidic α-galactosidase designated as TMG was purified from the fruiting bodies The purification protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and of Tricholoma matsutake with 136-fold purification and a specific activity of 909 units/mg. Mono-Q and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex
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An acidic α-galactosidase designated as TMG was purified from the fruiting bodies The purification protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and of Tricholoma matsutake with 136-fold purification and a specific activity of 909 units/mg. Mono-Q and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. TMG is a monomeric protein exhibiting a molecular mass of 47 kDa in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The purified enzyme was identified by LC-MS/MS and three inner amino acid sequences were obtained. The optimum pH and temperature for TMG with pNPGal as substrate were pH 4.5 and 55 °C, respectively. The α-galactosidase activity was strongly inhibited by K+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Ag+ and Zn2+ ions. The enzyme activity was inhibited by the chemical modification agent N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), indicating the importance of tryptophan residue(s) at or near the active site. Besides hydrolyzing pNPGal, TMG also efficaciously catalyzed the degradation of natural substrates such as stachyose, raffinose, and melibiose. Thus TMG can be exploited commercially for improving the nutritional value of soy milk by degradation of indigestible oligosaccharides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Aeschynomene fascicularis, a Mayan Medicinal Plant
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 13563-13574; doi:10.3390/molecules200813563
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
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Abstract
The plant Aeschynomene fascicularis (Fabaceae) has been used in Mayan traditional medicine in the Yucatan peninsula. However, the compounds present in the plant responsible for its curative properties have not yet been investigated. Aeschynomene fascicularis root bark was extracted with 100% methanol to
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The plant Aeschynomene fascicularis (Fabaceae) has been used in Mayan traditional medicine in the Yucatan peninsula. However, the compounds present in the plant responsible for its curative properties have not yet been investigated. Aeschynomene fascicularis root bark was extracted with 100% methanol to obtain a crude extract. The methanol extract was partitioned successively with solvents with increasing polarity to obtain the corresponding hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate fractions (EtOAc), as well as a residual water-alcoholic fraction. These fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activities using an MTT assay against Hep-2 cancer cell lines. The Hx fraction led to the isolation of spinochalcone C (1), spinochalcone A (2), isocordoin (3) and secundiflorol G (4). Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic evidence and chemical properties. All compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity and antiproliferative assays against a panel of seven cell lines, including one normal-type cell line. Spinochalcone A (2) exhibited cytotoxic activity against DU-145 cell line and antiproliferative activity against the KB cell line. Secundiflorol G (4) showed strong cytotoxic activity towards KB and Hep-2 cell lines. In addition, isocordoin (3) showed moderate activity on KB, Hep-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The active Compounds 2, 3 and 4 are potential therapeutic entities against cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12787-12803; doi:10.3390/molecules200712787
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
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Abstract
Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1)
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Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1) and B3 (2), and two procyanidin trimmers, procyanidin C4 (4) and cinnamtannin D1 (5), were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of a new procyanidin dimer, rhodonidin A (3), was elucidated by 2D-NMR, CD spectrum and MS. The procyanidin trimmers and rhodonidin A are reported for the first time in Ericaceae. The biological activities of these procyanidins were evaluated using anti-bacterial and anti-oxidative assays. Only the new compound 3 demonstrated strong anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC value of 4 μg/mL. All compounds showed pronounced antioxidant activities and the activities are enhanced as the amount of OH groups in procyanidins increased. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effects of procyanidins isolated from the leaves of R. formosanum can be a source of promising compounds for the development of future pharmacological applications. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Enzyme Inhibitory Radicinol Derivative from Endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12, Associated with Rhazya stricta
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12198-12208; doi:10.3390/molecules200712198
Received: 3 May 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
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Abstract
Endophytes, living inside plant tissues, play an essential role in plant growth and development, whilst producing unique bioactive secondary metabolites. In the current study, the endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12 was isolated from the leaves of ethno-medicinal and alkaloidal rich Rhazya stricta. The
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Endophytes, living inside plant tissues, play an essential role in plant growth and development, whilst producing unique bioactive secondary metabolites. In the current study, the endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12 was isolated from the leaves of ethno-medicinal and alkaloidal rich Rhazya stricta. The bulk amount of ethyl acetate extract of fungus was subjected to advance column chromatographic techniques, which resulted in the isolation of a new radicinol derivative, bipolarisenol (1). It was found to be a derivative of radicinol. The structure elucidation was carried out by the combined use of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, mass, and UV spectrometric analyses. The bipolarisenol was assessed for its potential role in enzyme inhibition of urease and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE). Results showed that bipolarisenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity with low IC50 (67.23 ± 5.12 µg·mL−1). Bipolarisenol inhibited urease in a dose-dependent manner with high IC50 (81.62 ± 4.61 µg·mL−1). The new compound also showed a moderate anti-lipid peroxidation potential (IC50 = 168.91 ± 4.23 µg·mL−1). In conclusion, endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possess a unique potential to be considered for future drug discovery. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11941-11958; doi:10.3390/molecules200711941
Received: 7 May 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
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Abstract
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C) was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg) while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C) showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg). Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h) between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22–24 °C and high relative humidity (RH). This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Flavonoids in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves and Their Antioxidant Activity Using Macroporous Resin Chromatography Coupled with LC-MS/MS and Antioxidant Biochemical Assays
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10553-10565; doi:10.3390/molecules200610553
Received: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are rich in flavonoids. In an effort to thoroughly analyze their flavonoid components, macroporous resin chromatography coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously enrich and identify flavonoids from lotus leaves. Flavonoids extracted
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Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are rich in flavonoids. In an effort to thoroughly analyze their flavonoid components, macroporous resin chromatography coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously enrich and identify flavonoids from lotus leaves. Flavonoids extracted from lotus leaves were selectively enriched in the macroporous resin column, eluted subsequently as fraction II, and successively subjected to analysis with the HPLC-MS/MS and bioactivity assays. Altogether, fourteen flavonoids were identified, four of which were identified from lotus leaves for the first time, including quercetin 3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, diosmetin 7-O-hexose, and isorhamnetin 3-O-arabino- pyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside. Further bioactivity assays revealed that these flavonoids from lotus leaves possess strong antioxidant activity, and demonstrate very good potential to be explored as food supplements or even pharmaceutical products to improve human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10280-10297; doi:10.3390/molecules200610280
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
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Abstract
Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect
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Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) and 6-gingerol (6G) in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 (0–150 µg/mL) and 6G (0–300 µg/mL) on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg/mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg/mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 (CI: 0.89 ± 0.02,) and SW837 (CI: 0.79 ± 0.10) apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 (p < 0.05) after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation of an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Protein with Antihypertensive Effect in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats from the Edible Wild Mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10141-10153; doi:10.3390/molecules200610141
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 1 June 2015
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Abstract
An 86-kDa homodimeric angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory protein designated as LTP was isolated from fruit bodies of the mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor. The isolation procedure involved ultrafiltration through a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10-kDa, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose,
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An 86-kDa homodimeric angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory protein designated as LTP was isolated from fruit bodies of the mushroom Leucopaxillus tricolor. The isolation procedure involved ultrafiltration through a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10-kDa, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, and finally fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. LTP exhibited an IC50 value of 1.64 mg∙mL−1 for its ACE inhibitory activity. The unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of LTP was disclosed by Edman degradation to be DGPTMHRQAVADFKQ. In addition, seven internal sequences of LTP were elucidated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Results of the Lineweaver-Burk plot suggested that LTP competitively inhibited ACE. Both LTP and the water extract of L. tricolor exhibited a clear antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Inhibitory Effects of Verrucarin A on Tunicamycin-Induced ER Stress in FaO Rat Liver Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8988-8996; doi:10.3390/molecules20058988
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 2 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
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Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked with development and maintenance of cancer, and serves as a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer. Verrucarin A, isolated from the broth of Fusarium sp. F060190, showed potential inhibitory activity on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked with development and maintenance of cancer, and serves as a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer. Verrucarin A, isolated from the broth of Fusarium sp. F060190, showed potential inhibitory activity on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells. In addition, the compound decreased tunicamycin-induced GRP78 promoter activity in a dose dependent manner without inducing significant inhibition of luciferase activity and cell growth for 6 and 12 h. Moreover, the compound decreased the expression of GRP78, CHOP, XBP-1, and suppressed XBP-1, and reduced phosphorylation of IRE1α in FaO rat liver cells. This evidence suggests for the first time that verrucarin A inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8875-8892; doi:10.3390/molecules20058875
Received: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
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Abstract
Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study
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Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the −0.0188 to −0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of −0.0122 to −0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8287-8302; doi:10.3390/molecules20058287
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
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Abstract
Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain) and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and vitamin content (vitamin E and
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Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain) and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C). The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Composition of the Essential Oil of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae) and Its Insecticidal Activity
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8048-8059; doi:10.3390/molecules20058048
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 5 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae) were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The
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Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae) were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL−1 resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50) corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL−1. This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%), and β-caryophyllene (12.74%), which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL1, giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL1 reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL1 giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL1 and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL1, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of the Fatty Oil from Plukenetia polyadenia Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7925-7939; doi:10.3390/molecules20057925
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
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Abstract
Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to
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Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models. Additionally, its toxicity was determined. The Pp-oil proved to have no toxicological effects, showing dose-dependent antinociceptive effect under chemical stimulation. At oral doses of 25–100 mg/kg, Pp-oil significantly reduced the abdominal writhes in the writhing test. A higher oral dose of 200 mg/kg did not induce alterations in the latency time of the hot plate test when compared to the control, suggesting an analgesic activity of peripheral origin. At oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the Pp-oil significantly reduced the second phase of the algic stimulus in the formalin test. In addition, the antinociception of Pp-oil was reversed by naloxone in the evaluation of its mechanism of action. Therefore, the Pp-oil proved to be safe at very high doses and to show significant analgesic properties. The role of Pp-oil is still being investigated with respect the mechanism of action, but the results suggest that opiod receptors could be involved in the antinociception action observed for the oil of P. polyadenia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Skin Aging-Related Enzymes by Prenylated Chalcones and Other Flavonoids from Helichrysum teretifolium
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 7143-7155; doi:10.3390/molecules20047143
Received: 8 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ten flavonoid-related structures viz. heliteretifolin (1), isoxanthohumol (2), 2',4',6'-trihydroxy-3'-prenylchalcone (3), isoglabranin (4), glabranin (5), 7-methoxy-isoglabranin (6), quercetin (7), 4'-methoxyquercetin (8), 4'-methoxykaempferol (9) and mosloflavone (
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Ten flavonoid-related structures viz. heliteretifolin (1), isoxanthohumol (2), 2',4',6'-trihydroxy-3'-prenylchalcone (3), isoglabranin (4), glabranin (5), 7-methoxy-isoglabranin (6), quercetin (7), 4'-methoxyquercetin (8), 4'-methoxykaempferol (9) and mosloflavone (10) were isolated from a H. teretifolium methanolic extract and identified. One of them (compound 1) is reported for the first time from a natural source, while compounds 6, 810 were isolated for the first time from the genus Helichrysum. The total extract of H. teretifolium showed potent antioxidant activity. When tested for total antioxidant capacity compound 3 possesses moderate biological activity compared to 2, which displayed some of the highest TEAC values (4529.01 ± 2.44; 4170.66 ± 6.72) µM TE/g, respectively. Compounds 7 and 8 demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities on Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 2.931; 6.449 µg/mL); tyrosinase (8.092; 27.573) and elastase (43.342; 86.548). Additionally, the total antioxidant capacities measured as FRAP (4816.31 ± 7.42; 3584.17 ± 0.54) µM AAE/g, and ORAC for hydroxyl radical (7.265 ± 0.71; 6.779 ± 3.40) × 106 and peroxyl radical (17.836 ± 2.90; 12.545 ± 5.07) × 103 µM TE/g were also observed for compounds 7 and 8, respectively. In conclusion, H. teretifolium total extract represents a rich source of bioactive constituents with potent antioxidant and moderate anti-tyrosinase and anti-elastase activities that can help to avert accumulation of free radicals in the body, and could therefore be good candidates for the prevention and/or treatment of skin-related conditions, such as aging. This is the first scientific report on the chemical and biological profile of H. teretifolium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Alkylamides of Acmella oleracea
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6970-6977; doi:10.3390/molecules20046970
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
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Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Acmella oleracea had resulted in the isolation of one new alkylamide, (2E,5Z)-N-isobutylundeca-2,5-diene-8,10-diynamide (1), together with four known analogues (2-5). The structures of these compounds were
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Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Acmella oleracea had resulted in the isolation of one new alkylamide, (2E,5Z)-N-isobutylundeca-2,5-diene-8,10-diynamide (1), together with four known analogues (2-5). The structures of these compounds were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic methods, especially NMR technologies (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). In addition, a convenient method for concentrating the alkylamide-rich fraction and analyzing fingerprint profile of A. oleracea was established. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of Five Components in Rat Plasma by UPLC–MS/MS and Its Application to a Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study in Baihe Zhimu Tang and Zhimu Extract
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6700-6714; doi:10.3390/molecules20046700
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
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Abstract
Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe to treat dry coughing due to yin deficiency and for moisturizing the lungs. Zhimu is an essential ingredient in BZT used to treat inflammation, fever and diabetes. The most important active components
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Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe to treat dry coughing due to yin deficiency and for moisturizing the lungs. Zhimu is an essential ingredient in BZT used to treat inflammation, fever and diabetes. The most important active components in Zhimu are flavonoids such as neomangiferin, mangiferin, and steroid saponins (e.g., timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII, timosaponin AIII). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of mangiferin, neomangiferin, timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII in rat plasma after oral administration of BZT and Zhimu extract (ZME). A sensitive, reliable and robust LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine steroid saponins and flavonoids in rat plasma was successfully validated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII between BZT and ZME. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of BZT and our study is the first to study the administration of BZT based on pharmacokinetic studies. Full article
Open AccessReview Studies on the Alkaloids of the Calycanthaceae and Their Syntheses
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6715-6738; doi:10.3390/molecules20046715
Received: 14 February 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
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Abstract
Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric
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Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation, Identification and Cytotoxicity of a New Noroleanane-Type Triterpene Saponin from Salicornia bigelovii Torr.
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6419-6431; doi:10.3390/molecules20046419
Received: 14 February 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salicornia bigelovii Torr. has been consumed not only as a popular kind of vegetable, but also as a medicinal plant to treat hypertension, cephalalgia, scurvy and cancer. The present study was designed to investigate its chemical components and cytotoxic activity. A new noroleanane-type
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Salicornia bigelovii Torr. has been consumed not only as a popular kind of vegetable, but also as a medicinal plant to treat hypertension, cephalalgia, scurvy and cancer. The present study was designed to investigate its chemical components and cytotoxic activity. A new noroleanane-type triterpene saponin, bigelovii C (1), was separated and purified from Salicornia bigelovii Torr., along with four known triterpene saponins 25. The structure of bigelovii C was elucidated as 3-O-(6-O-butyl ester)-β-D-glucuropyranosyl-23-aldehyde-30-norolean-12, 20 (29)-dien-28-oic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, according to various spectroscopic analysis and chemical characteristics. Besides Compounds 3 and 5, bigelovii C had potent cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines, MCF7 (breast cancer), Lovo (colon cancer) and LN229 (glioblastoma), especially MCF7. Bigelovii C inhibited the growth of MCF7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased upon bigelovii C treatment. Rh123 staining assay indicated that bigelovii C reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mechanism of cell death by bigelovii C may be attributed to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-7 and PARP. These results suggested that bigelovii C may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a potential chemopreventative agent for cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Sinomenine in Human Plasma after Transdermal Delivery of the Zhengqing Fengtongning Injection
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6454-6465; doi:10.3390/molecules20046454
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
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Abstract
A sensitive, precise and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of trace amounts of sinomenine (ng/mL) in minute volumes of human plasma. Fifty microliter plasma samples were precipitated using methanol to
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A sensitive, precise and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of trace amounts of sinomenine (ng/mL) in minute volumes of human plasma. Fifty microliter plasma samples were precipitated using methanol to extract sinomenine. Separation was carried out on a C18 column with a water and acetonitrile mobile phase gradient with formic acid as an additive. The mass spectrometry data were obtained in the positive ion mode, and the transition of multiple reactions was monitored at m/z 330.2→181.0 for sinomenine quantification. The working assay range for sinomenine was linear from 0.1173 to 15.02 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification of 0.1173 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy of the method was less than 15% in intra-day and inter-day experiments with a matrix effect of less than 6.5%. After validation, the quantitative method was applied to analyze sinomenine levels in human plasma after transdermal delivery of the Zhengqing Fengtongning Injection. The results showed that some samples contained sinomenine within the concentration range 0.4131–4.407 ng/mL. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Flavonoids and Extracts from Jatropha gossypifolia L.
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6181-6193; doi:10.3390/molecules20046181
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but there are few scientific reports validating its activity in this area. In this work and through a bioguided assay, a crude extract stimulated glucose
[...] Read more.
Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but there are few scientific reports validating its activity in this area. In this work and through a bioguided assay, a crude extract stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes up to 30%, thereby reducing insulin resistance induced by fatty acids compared to the basal control. A chromatographic fraction applied intraperitoneally (IP) in mice reduced glucose by 42% in a mouse model of T2DM, after administration of 10 doses during 20 days. A flavanone was purified from this active fraction and its structure was assigned by 1H- and 13C-NMR (1D and 2D) and MS. This compound retains the previously reported activity, stimulating in vitro the glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. This study indicates that Jatropha gossypifolia L. extracts enhance glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and adipocytes and also improving glucose tolerance in an in vivo model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biological Activities and Cytotoxicity of Diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6194-6210; doi:10.3390/molecules20046194
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity
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Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5%) at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%). Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3%) and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9%) at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%), kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%), kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%), and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%), respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Covalent Modification of Human Serum Albumin by the Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone Parthenolide
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6211-6223; doi:10.3390/molecules20046211
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
The reactivity of parthenolide (PRT), a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae), with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by UHPLC/+ESI-QqTOF MS analysis after tryptic digestion of albumin samples after incubation with this compound. It was found that the single free cysteine
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The reactivity of parthenolide (PRT), a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae), with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by UHPLC/+ESI-QqTOF MS analysis after tryptic digestion of albumin samples after incubation with this compound. It was found that the single free cysteine residue, C34, of HSA (0.6 mM) reacted readily with PRT when incubated at approximately 13-fold excess of PRT (8 mM). Time-course studies with PRT and its 11β,13-dihydro derivative at equimolar ratios of the reactants revealed that PRT under the chosen conditions reacts preferably with C34 and does so exclusively via its α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety, while the epoxide structure is not involved in the reaction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stevia Rebaudiana Bert. Leaf Extracts as a Multifunctional Source of Natural Antioxidants
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5468-5486; doi:10.3390/molecules20045468
Received: 4 December 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 February 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of the presented study was to characterize the content and biological activity of extracts prepared from dried Stevia rebaudiana leaves with potential application in the food or cosmetic industry. Aqueous (A), ethanolic (E) and glycol-aqueous (GA) extracts were analyzed for the
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The aim of the presented study was to characterize the content and biological activity of extracts prepared from dried Stevia rebaudiana leaves with potential application in the food or cosmetic industry. Aqueous (A), ethanolic (E) and glycol-aqueous (GA) extracts were analyzed for the content of polyphenols and proteins, showing that the highest amount of phenols (15.50 mg/g) and flavonoids (3.85 mg/g) contained GA. All extracts contained significant amount of protein (69.40–374.67 mg/g). Between analyzed stevia extracts (HPLC) GA contained the highest amount of polyphenols, especially ferulic (5.50 mg/g) and rozmaric (4.95 mg/g) acids derivates. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH and ABTS•+ was noted for GA and E (IC50 = 0.38 and 0.71 µg flavonoids/mL). The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ was observed for E (IC50 = 2.08 µg flavonoids/mL). Stevia extracts were also analyzed for their cytotoxicity and fibroblast irritation potential in vitro. E and GA were the most cytotoxic and irritating, probably due to the high content of biologically active phytochemicals. On the other hand, a extract was the most tolerable by the cells. To summarize, the presented study evaluated the potential application of A, E and GA stevia extracts as natural source of antioxidants in the food and cosmetic industry. Full article
Open AccessArticle Economical Synthesis of 13C-Labeled Opiates, Cocaine Derivatives and Selected Urinary Metabolites by Derivatization of the Natural Products
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5329-5345; doi:10.3390/molecules20045329
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The illegal use of opiates and cocaine is a challenge world-wide, but some derivatives are also valuable pharmaceuticals. Reference samples of the active ingredients and their metabolites are needed both for controlling administration in the clinic and to detect drugs of abuse. Especially,
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The illegal use of opiates and cocaine is a challenge world-wide, but some derivatives are also valuable pharmaceuticals. Reference samples of the active ingredients and their metabolites are needed both for controlling administration in the clinic and to detect drugs of abuse. Especially, 13C-labeled compounds are useful for identification and quantification purposes by mass spectroscopic techniques, potentially increasing accuracy by minimizing ion alteration/suppression effects. Thus, the synthesis of [acetyl-13C4]heroin, [acetyl-13C4-methyl-13C]heroin, [acetyl-13C2-methyl-13C]6-acetylmorphine, [N-methyl-13C-O-metyl-13C]codeine and phenyl-13C6-labeled derivatives of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine and cocaethylene was undertaken to provide such reference materials. The synthetic work has focused on identifying 13C atom-efficient routes towards these derivatives. Therefore, the 13C-labeled opiates and cocaine derivatives were made from the corresponding natural products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neferine Attenuates the Protein Level and Toxicity of Mutant Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells via Induction of Autophagy
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3496-3514; doi:10.3390/molecules20033496
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 February 2015 / Published: 18 February 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mutant huntingtin aggregation is highly associated with the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease, an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder, which leads to a loss of motor control and decline in cognitive function. Recent literature has revealed the protective role of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases through
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Mutant huntingtin aggregation is highly associated with the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease, an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder, which leads to a loss of motor control and decline in cognitive function. Recent literature has revealed the protective role of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases through degradation of mutant toxic proteins, including huntingtin or a-synuclein. Through the GFP-LC3 autophagy detection platform, we have  identified  neferine,  isolated  from  the  lotus  seed  embryo  of Nelumbo nucifera, which is able to induce autophagy through an AMPK-mTOR-dependent pathway. Furthermore, by overexpressing huntingtin with 74 CAG repeats (EGFP-HTT 74) in PC-12 cells, neferine reduces both the protein level and toxicity of mutant huntingtin through an autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7)-dependent mechanism. With the variety of novel active compounds present in medicinal herbs, our current study suggests the possible protective mechanism of an autophagy inducer isolated from Chinese herbal medicine, which is crucial for its further development into a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Gedunin on Acute Articular Inflammation and Hypernociception in Mice
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2636-2657; doi:10.3390/molecules20022636
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 24 January 2015 / Published: 3 February 2015
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Abstract
Gedunin, a natural limonoid from Meliaceae species, has been previously described as an antiinflammatory compound in experimental models of allergic inflammation. Here, we report the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of gedunin in an acute model of articular inflammation induced by zymosan (500 μg/cavity;
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Gedunin, a natural limonoid from Meliaceae species, has been previously described as an antiinflammatory compound in experimental models of allergic inflammation. Here, we report the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of gedunin in an acute model of articular inflammation induced by zymosan (500 μg/cavity; intra-articular) in C57BL/6 mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with gedunin (0.005–5 mg/kg) impaired zymosan-induced edema formation, neutrophil accumulation and hypernociception in mouse knee joints, due to decreased expression of preproET-1 mRNA and production of LTB4, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6. Mouse post-treatment with gedunin (0.05 mg/kg; i.p.) 1 and 6 h after stimulation also impaired articular inflammation, by reverting edema formation, neutrophil accumulation and the production of lipid mediators, cytokines and endothelin. In addition, gedunin directly modulated the functions of neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. The pre-incubation of neutrophil with gedunin (100 µM) impaired shape change, adhesion to endothelial cells, chemotaxis and lipid body formation triggered by different stimuli. Macrophage pretreatment with gedunin impaired intracellular calcium mobilization, nitric oxide production, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and induced the expression of the antiinflammatory chaperone heat shock protein 70. Our results demonstrate that gedunin presents remarkable antiinflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects on zymosan-induced inflamed knee joints, modulating different cell populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial and Seasonal Evaluation of the Carvacrol-Chemotype Oil from Lippia origanoides Kunth.
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1860-1871; doi:10.3390/molecules20021860
Received: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the influence of seasonal variation on the yield and composition of essential oil of Lippia origanoides occurring in the Middle Rio Amazonas, Brazil, and the impact on its antimicrobial potential. The average oil yield was 1.7% ± 0.2% in the
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This study evaluated the influence of seasonal variation on the yield and composition of essential oil of Lippia origanoides occurring in the Middle Rio Amazonas, Brazil, and the impact on its antimicrobial potential. The average oil yield was 1.7% ± 0.2% in the rainy season and 1.6% ± 0.3% in the dry season. Some correlations with climatic parameters were observed. The major components were carvacrol (rainy, 43.5% ± 1.9%; dry, 41.4% ± 2.04%), thymol (rainy, 10.7% ± 1.1%; dry, 10.6% ± 0.9%), p-cymene (rainy, 9.8% ± 0.7%; dry, 10.0% ± 1.4%) and p-methoxythymol (rainy, 9.6% ± 0.8%; dry, 10.4% ± 1.4%). It was found that the antibacterial activity of L. origanoides against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was little influenced by the changes in oil composition due to seasonal variation. Against S. aureus, the oil Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value was 1.25 μL/mL over ten months. Against E. coli, the oil MIC values ranged from 0.15 μL/mL to 0.31 μL/mL in different months of the year. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) value was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and 1.25 μL/mL against E. coli. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity identified in the oil remain unchanged for the full year, allowing its medicinal use without any risk of loss or absence of the active principles of the plant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Activity and Composition of Petroleum Ether Extract from Magydaris tomentosa (Desf.) W. D. J. Koch (Apiaceae)
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 1571-1578; doi:10.3390/molecules20011571
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The petroleum ether extract of Magydaris tomentosa flowers (Desf.) W. D. J. Koch has been analyzed by GC-MS. It is mainly constituted by furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isopimpinellin, and bergaptene. Other coumarins such as 7-methoxy-8-(2-formyl-2-methylpropyl) coumarin and osthole also occurred. The antiproliferative
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The petroleum ether extract of Magydaris tomentosa flowers (Desf.) W. D. J. Koch has been analyzed by GC-MS. It is mainly constituted by furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isopimpinellin, and bergaptene. Other coumarins such as 7-methoxy-8-(2-formyl-2-methylpropyl) coumarin and osthole also occurred. The antiproliferative activity of Magydaris tomentosa flower extract has been evaluated in vitro on murine monocye/macrophages (J774A.1), human melanoma (A375) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumor cell lines, showing a major activity against the latter. Full article
Open AccessReview Halofuginone — The Multifaceted Molecule
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 573-594; doi:10.3390/molecules20010573
Received: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Halofuginone is an analog of febrifugine—an alkaloid originally isolated from the plant Dichroa febrifuga. During recent years, halofuginone has attracted much attention because of its wide range of beneficial biological activities, which encompass malaria, cancer, and fibrosis-related and autoimmune diseases. At present
[...] Read more.
Halofuginone is an analog of febrifugine—an alkaloid originally isolated from the plant Dichroa febrifuga. During recent years, halofuginone has attracted much attention because of its wide range of beneficial biological activities, which encompass malaria, cancer, and fibrosis-related and autoimmune diseases. At present two modes of halofuginone actions have been described: (1) Inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation downstream of the TGFβ signaling pathway results in inhibition of fibroblasts-to-myofibroblasts transition and fibrosis. (2) Inhibition of prolyl-tRNA synthetase (ProRS) activity in the blood stage of malaria and inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation thereby inhibiting inflammation and the autoimmune reaction by activation of the amino acid starvation and integrated stress responses. This review deals with the history and origin of this natural product, its synthesis, its known modes of action, and it’s various biological activities in pre-clinical animal models and in humans. Full article

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Open AccessCommunication Characterization of Ambrette Seed Oil and Its Mode of Action in Bacteria
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 384-395; doi:10.3390/molecules20010384
Received: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
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Abstract
In the present study, chemical composition and the antibacterial mechanism of ambrette seed oil are investigated. Chemical composition of the oil was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-five compounds were identified and the major compounds were found to be farnesol acetate (51.45%)
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In the present study, chemical composition and the antibacterial mechanism of ambrette seed oil are investigated. Chemical composition of the oil was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-five compounds were identified and the major compounds were found to be farnesol acetate (51.45%) and ambrettolide (12.96%). The antibacterial activity was performed by well diffusion assay and the mechanisms were studied by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protein leakage assays. The antibacterial effect of the ambrette seed oil showed inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The LDH activity was high in all tested bacteria compared with control, whereas the ALP and protein concentrations were also increased in E. faecalis. Molecular docking revealed the ligands farnesol acetate and ambrettolide had satisfactory binding energy towards the beta lactamase TEM-72 and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein. Due to its better antibacterial properties, the ambrette seed oil could be used as a source of antibacterial agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Asperaculanes A and B, Two Sesquiterpenoids from the Fungus Aspergillus aculeatus
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 325-334; doi:10.3390/molecules20010325
Received: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 25 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (848 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Six sesquiterpenoids 16, including two new ones, an ent-daucane-type sesquiterpenoid, asperaculane A (1), and a nordaucane one, asperaculane B (2), and four known nordaucane derivatives, aculenes A–D 36, together with the known
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Six sesquiterpenoids 16, including two new ones, an ent-daucane-type sesquiterpenoid, asperaculane A (1), and a nordaucane one, asperaculane B (2), and four known nordaucane derivatives, aculenes A–D 36, together with the known secalonic acid D (7), were isolated from a fermentation culture of the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus. Their structures and absolute configurations were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D-NMR spectra, HR-ESIMS, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and quantum chemical calculations. These metabolites were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against two cell lines, human cancer cell lines (HeLa) and one normal hamster cell line (CHO). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Depressant-Like Effect of Kaempferitrin Isolated from Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae) in Two Behavior Models in Mice: Evidence for the Involvement of the Serotonergic System
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21442-21461; doi:10.3390/molecules191221442
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of kaempferitrin (Km) isolated from the plant Justicia spicigera (Asteraceae), which is used in traditional medicine for relieving emotional disorders, such as “la tristeza” (sadness or dysthymia) and “el humor” (mood changes). The actions of Km were evaluated
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We evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of kaempferitrin (Km) isolated from the plant Justicia spicigera (Asteraceae), which is used in traditional medicine for relieving emotional disorders, such as “la tristeza” (sadness or dysthymia) and “el humor” (mood changes). The actions of Km were evaluated in a forced swimming test (FST) and a suspension tail test (TST) in mice. We explored the involvement of the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis (HPA) in the antidepressant-like effect of Km. To evaluate nonspecific effects of Km on general activity, the open field test (OFT) was performed. Km at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg induced an antidepressant-like effect. Sub-effective dose of Km (1 mg/kg) produced a synergistic effect with imipramine (6.25 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) but not with desipramine (3.12 mg/kg). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, N-{2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and 8OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A agonist, but not pindolol (10 mg/kg) blocked the anti- immobility effect induced by Km. Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of Km is related to the serotonergic system, principally 5-HT1A. This effect was not related to changes in locomotor activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents from Licania cruegeriana and Their Cardiovascular and Antiplatelet Effects
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21215-21225; doi:10.3390/molecules191221215
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new lupane-type triterpenoids: 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid glucopyranosyl ester (4), 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid (5) and 6β-hydroxybetulinic acid (6), were isolated from Licania cruegeriana Urb. along with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods,
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Three new lupane-type triterpenoids: 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid glucopyranosyl ester (4), 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid (5) and 6β-hydroxybetulinic acid (6), were isolated from Licania cruegeriana Urb. along with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including IR, ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of related compounds. All compounds were evaluated in vivo for their effects on the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and also in vitro for their capacity to inhibit the human platelet aggregation. None of the isolated flavonoids 13 showed cardiovascular effects on SHR and among the isolated triterpenoids 49 only 5 and 6 produced a significant reduction in MABP (60.1% and 17.2%, respectively) and an elevation in HR (11.0% and 41.2%, respectively). Compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6 were able to inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid with different selectivity profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Efficiency of Different Disruption Methods on Yeast Cell Wall Preparation for β-Glucan Isolation
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20941-20961; doi:10.3390/molecules191220941
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selected methods for yeast cell disruption were evaluated to establish their suitability for cell wall preparation in the process of β-glucan isolation. The effect of different disruption methods on contents of total saccharides, β-glucans and proteins in the produced cell walls preparations was
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Selected methods for yeast cell disruption were evaluated to establish their suitability for cell wall preparation in the process of β-glucan isolation. The effect of different disruption methods on contents of total saccharides, β-glucans and proteins in the produced cell walls preparations was analyzed. The degree of cell wall purification from intracellular components was established on the basis of the ratio of solubilised material. The investigated methods included: cell exposure to hot water (autoclaving), thermally-induced autolysis, homogenization in a bead mill, sonication and their combinations. Experimental systems were prepared in water (pH 5.0 and pH 7.0) and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell wall preparations with the highest degree of cytosol component release and purification of β-glucans were produced by 30 min of cell homogenization with zirconium-glass beads (0.5 mm in diameter). This was confirmed by the highest ratio of solubilised material (approx. 64%–67%). The thus-produced preparations contained ca. 60% of total saccharides, 13%–14% of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucans, and approx. 35% of crude proteins. Similar results were obtained after autolysis coupled with bead milling as well as with sonication, but the time required for these processes was more than 24 h. Homogenization in a bead mill could be valuable for general isolation procedures because allows one to eliminate the different autolytic activity of various yeast strains. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Biological Activities of Cinnamon, Geranium and Lavender Essential Oils
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20929-20940; doi:10.3390/molecules191220929
Received: 24 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine
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Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Expanding Current Knowledge on the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Genus Lactarius
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20650-20663; doi:10.3390/molecules191220650
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
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Abstract
Despite the presence of toxic compounds in inedible mushrooms, the question whether the chemical nutrients and non-nutrients compositions in edible and inedible Lactarius species are similar remains unanswered. To answer this question, Lactarius citriolens Pouzar and Lactarius turpis (Weinm.) Fr., two inedible species,
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Despite the presence of toxic compounds in inedible mushrooms, the question whether the chemical nutrients and non-nutrients compositions in edible and inedible Lactarius species are similar remains unanswered. To answer this question, Lactarius citriolens Pouzar and Lactarius turpis (Weinm.) Fr., two inedible species, were studied in order to obtain information about their chemical composition and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. citriolens and L. turpis methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). The composition of macronutrients varied among the two species, but the profiles were similar between them and among other Lactarius species; L. citriolens gave the highest energy contribution, saturated fatty acids and organic acids, while the L. turpis sample was richer in free sugars, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. L. turpis methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. The absence of hepatoxicity of the methanolic extracts was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells (in vitro conditions). The present study provided new information about wild L. citriolens and L. turpis, comparing their chemical composition and antioxidant properties with other Lactarius species, and expanding the knowledge about this genus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biflavans, Flavonoids, and a Dihydrochalcone from the Stem Wood of Muntingia calabura and Their Inhibitory Activities on Neutrophil Pro-Inflammatory Responses
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20521-20535; doi:10.3390/molecules191220521
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Muntingia calabura (Tiliaceae) is commercially used in healthcare for the improvement of hypertension, myocardial infarction, spasm, and inflammatory conditions. Its fruits can be processed into jam and the leaves can be used for making tea. In the work reported herein a new biflavan,
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Muntingia calabura (Tiliaceae) is commercially used in healthcare for the improvement of hypertension, myocardial infarction, spasm, and inflammatory conditions. Its fruits can be processed into jam and the leaves can be used for making tea. In the work reported herein a new biflavan, (M),(2S),(2''S)-,(P),(2S),(2''S)-7,8,3',4',5',7'',8'',3''',4''',5'''-decamethoxy-5,5'' biflavan (1), a new flavone, 4'-hydroxy-7,8,3',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (2), and a new dihydrochalcone, (R)-2',β-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (3), have been isolated from the stem wood of M. calabura, together with 12 known compounds (415). The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by the interpretations of extensive spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (5), quercetin (6), and (2S)-7-hydroxyflavanone (10) exhibited potent inhibition of fMLP-induced superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils, with IC50 values of 1.77 ± 0.70, 3.82 ± 0.46, and 4.92 ± 1.71 μM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessReview Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20557-20569; doi:10.3390/molecules191220557
Received: 19 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
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Abstract
It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds
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It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Saikosaponin D Isolated from Bupleurum falcatum Inhibits Selectin-Mediated Cell Adhesion
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20340-20349; doi:10.3390/molecules191220340
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 4 December 2014
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Abstract
Three saikosaponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L.: saikosaponins B3 (1); B4 (2); and D (3). Of the three, compound 3 inhibited the interaction of selectins (E, L, and P)
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Three saikosaponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L.: saikosaponins B3 (1); B4 (2); and D (3). Of the three, compound 3 inhibited the interaction of selectins (E, L, and P) and THP-1 cells with IC50 values of 1.8, 3.0 and 4.3 µM, respectively. Also, the aglycone structure 4 of compound 3 showed moderate inhibitory activity on L-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. From these results, we suspect that compound 3 isolated from Bupleurum falcatum roots would be a good candidate for therapeutic strategies to treat inflammation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Potential Mechanism of Action of meso-Dihydroguaiaretic Acid on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20170-20182; doi:10.3390/molecules191220170
Received: 19 September 2014 / Revised: 8 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
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Abstract
The isolation and characterization of the lignan meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA) from Larrea tridentata and its activity against Mycobacterial tuberculosis has been demonstrated, but no information regarding its mechanism of action has been documented. Therefore, in this study we carry out the gene
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The isolation and characterization of the lignan meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA) from Larrea tridentata and its activity against Mycobacterial tuberculosis has been demonstrated, but no information regarding its mechanism of action has been documented. Therefore, in this study we carry out the gene expression from total RNA obtained from M. tuberculosis H37Rv treated with MDGA using microarray technology, which was validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the alpha subunit of coenzyme A transferase of M. tuberculosis H37Rv is present in both geraniol and 1-and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways, which are targeted by MDGA. This assumption was supported by molecular docking which showed stable interaction between MDGA with the active site of the enzyme. We propose that inhibition of coenzyme A transferase of M. tuberculosis H37Rv results in the accumulation of geraniol and 1-and 2-methylnaphtalene inside bacteria, causing membrane destabilization and death of the pathogen. The natural product MDGA is thus an attractive template to develop new anti-tuberculosis drugs, because its target is different from those of known anti-tubercular agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19980-19994; doi:10.3390/molecules191219980
Received: 13 September 2014 / Revised: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
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Abstract
Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and
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Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer), Hep G2 (hepatoma), FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer) cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial and EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Activities of Polyhydroxylated Xanthones from Garcinia succifolia
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19923-19934; doi:10.3390/molecules191219923
Received: 3 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
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Abstract
Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6
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Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanisms Underlying Vasorelaxation Induced in Rat Aorta by Galetin 3,6-Dimethyl Ether, a Flavonoid from Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19678-19695; doi:10.3390/molecules191219678
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 27 November 2014
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Abstract
In this study, we investigated the relaxant action of galetin 3,6-dimethyl ether (FGAL) on rat aorta. The flavonoid relaxed both PMA‑ and phenylephrine (Phe)-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.36 ± 0.11 and 4.17 ± 0.10, respectively), suggesting the involvement of PKC and Phe
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In this study, we investigated the relaxant action of galetin 3,6-dimethyl ether (FGAL) on rat aorta. The flavonoid relaxed both PMA‑ and phenylephrine (Phe)-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.36 ± 0.11 and 4.17 ± 0.10, respectively), suggesting the involvement of PKC and Phe pathways or α1 adrenergic receptor blockade. FGAL inhibited and rightward shifted Phe-induced cumulative contraction‑response curves, indicating a noncompetitive antagonism of α1 adrenergic receptors. The flavonoid was more potent in relaxing 30 mM KCl- than 80 mM KCl-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.50 ± 0.22 and 4.37 ± 0.12). The vasorelaxant potency of FGAL on Phe-induced contraction was reduced in the presence of 10 mM TEA+. Furthermore, in the presence of apamin, glibenclamide, BaCl2 or 4-AP, FGAL-induced relaxation was attenuated, indicating the participation of small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (SKCa), ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir) and voltage-dependent K+ channels (KV), respectively. FGAL inhibited and rightward shifted CaCl2-induced cumulative contraction-response curves in both depolarizing medium (high K+) and in the presence of verapamil and phenylephrine, suggesting inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) and receptor operated channels (ROCs), respectively. Likewise, FGAL inhibited Phe-induced contractions in Ca2+-free medium, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). FGAL potentiated the relaxant effect of aminophylline and sildenafil but not milrinone, suggesting the involvement of phosphodiesterase V (PDE V). Thus, the FGAL vasorelaxant mechanism involves noncompetitive antagonism of α1 adrenergic receptors, the non-selective opening of K+ channels, inhibition of Ca2+ influx through CaV or ROCs and the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release. Additionally, there is the involvement of cyclic nucleotide pathway, particularly through PDE V inhibition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Salinomycin N-Benzyl Amides
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19435-19459; doi:10.3390/molecules191219435
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
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Abstract
A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL) was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal
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A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL) was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal X-ray method. All compounds obtained were screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines as well as against the most problematic bacteria strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel salinomycin derivatives exhibited potent anticancer activity against drug-resistant cell lines. Additionally, two N-benzyl amides of salinomycin revealed interesting antibacterial activity. The most active were N-benzyl amides of SAL substituted at -ortho position and the least anticancer active derivatives were those substituted at the -para position. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Cholinesterase Activity of Lycopodium Alkaloids from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19172-19179; doi:10.3390/molecules191119172
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8α-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa.
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A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8α-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa. Among them, lycosquarosine A (1) is the new metabolite of the natural source. Lycosquarosine A completely inhibited AChE activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 54.3 μg/mL, while acetylaposerratinine (2) showed stronger inhibitory activity than 1 with an IC50 value of 15.2 µg/mL. This result indicates that these alkaloids may be a potent source of AChE inhibitors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Gunnii Hook. As a Novel Source of Antioxidant, Antimutagenic and Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19007-19020; doi:10.3390/molecules191119007
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
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Abstract
The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro). Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8%) and
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The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro). Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8%) and α-pinene (14.12%) were the major compounds comprising almost 82% of total EO. EO exhibited moderate DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, with IC50 value of 7.19 µL/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against the spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli IC202 oxyR mutant strain, deficient in removing radical oxygen species (ROS). Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in the presence of E. gunnii EO was only slight, up to 12% at the highest concentration tested. However, when the oxidative mutagen was used, EO displayed more significant reduction of mutagenesis (maximum 23%) in a concentration dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was tested against the selected strains from ATTC and NCIB collections: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the two Escherichia coli strains from our laboratory collection (SY252 and IB112) using both the disk-diffusion and MIC assays. The greatest sensitivity was shown by M. flavus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli lpcA (MIC = 0.83 mg/mL), while the highest resistance was shown by E. coli (ATTC 25922) and S. epidermidis. This study represents the first report on chemical composition and biological activity of the Eucalyptus gunnii in the South Balkan region and beyond. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Antiosteoporotic Activity of Central-Icaritin (CIT) on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18690-18704; doi:10.3390/molecules191118690
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract
Central-icaritin (CIT) is a flavonoid aglycone first discovered in our laboratory, which is an isomeric aglycone of icaritin (IT). We wanted to know whether CIT also had anti-osteoporosis activity. In this study, CIT was investigated in an ovariectomized rat (OVX) model. Fifty-six 6-month
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Central-icaritin (CIT) is a flavonoid aglycone first discovered in our laboratory, which is an isomeric aglycone of icaritin (IT). We wanted to know whether CIT also had anti-osteoporosis activity. In this study, CIT was investigated in an ovariectomized rat (OVX) model. Fifty-six 6-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operated group (Sham) and six OVX subgroups (n = 8 each). The OVX rats were then subdivided into six groups treated with vehicle (OVX), icaritin (IT, 40 mg/kg body weight/day), estradiol valerate (EV, 100 μg/kg body weight/day) or CIT (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for 12 weeks, respectively. Then, the serum biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical properties, bone microarchitecture, bone immunohistochemistry and related protein and gene expressions were evaluated. In OVX rats, the increases of body weight, HOP, AKP, and TRACP5b levels, and the decreases of uterus wet weight, femurs weight, BMD, serum OPG/RANKL and OCN were significantly inhibited by CIT treatment. Micro-CT analysis results showed that CIT apparently enhanced trabecular bone compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). Total femur BMD and biomechanical strength of tibia were significantly improved (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks of CIT administration. In addition, the CIT administration also significantly enhanced the OPG expression, whereas reduced the RANKL expression in femurs according to RT-PCR, western blot assays and immunohistochemical evaluation. CIT had the antiosteoporotic activity, and its antiosteoporotic effects in OVX rats may be stronger than that of IT. Full article
Open AccessArticle External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver — A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18479-18492; doi:10.3390/molecules191118479
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
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Abstract
Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera), also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil
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Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera), also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%), were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v) increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Proliferation and Production of Cytokine and IgG by Human PBMCs Stimulated with Polysaccharide Extract from Plants Endemic to Gabon
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18543-18557; doi:10.3390/molecules191118543
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
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Abstract
Polysaccharides were extracted from seven plants endemic to Gabon to study their potential immunological activities. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) (5 × 105 cells/mL) proliferation, cytokine and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays were performed after stimulation with different concentrations of polysaccharide fractions compared
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Polysaccharides were extracted from seven plants endemic to Gabon to study their potential immunological activities. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) (5 × 105 cells/mL) proliferation, cytokine and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays were performed after stimulation with different concentrations of polysaccharide fractions compared with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA) from healthy volunteers. The culture supernatants were used for cytokine and IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that pectin and hemicellulose extracts from Uvaria klainei, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Trichoscypha addonii, Aphanocalyx microphyllus, Librevillea klaineana, Neochevalierodendron stephanii and Scorodophloeus zenkeri induced production levels that were variable from one individual to another for IL-12 (3–40 pg/mL), IL-10 (6–443 pg/mL), IL-6 (7–370 pg/mL), GM-CSF (3–170 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (5–80 pg/mL). Only hemicelluloses from Aphanocalyx microphyllus produce a small amount of IgG (OD = 0.034), while the proliferation of cells stimulated with these polysaccharides increased up to 318% above the proliferation of unstimulated cells. However, this proliferation of PBMCs was abolished when the pectin of some of these plants was treated with endopolygalacturonase (p < 0.05), but the trend of cytokine synthesis remained the same, both before and after enzymatic treatment or saponification. This study suggests that these polysaccharides stimulate cells in a structure-dependent manner. The rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI) fragment alone was not able to induce the proliferation of PBMC. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18317-18331; doi:10.3390/molecules191118317
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
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Abstract
The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
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The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dysidinoid A, an Unusual Meroterpenoid with Anti-MRSA Activity from the South China Sea Sponge Dysidea sp.
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18025-18032; doi:10.3390/molecules191118025
Received: 19 October 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An unusual meroterpenoid, dysidinoid A (1), was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea sp. Its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS and 2D NMR, and its absolute configuration was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Dysidinoid
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An unusual meroterpenoid, dysidinoid A (1), was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea sp. Its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS and 2D NMR, and its absolute configuration was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Dysidinoid A (1) is the first meroterpenoid from Nature bearing a 9,4-friedodrime skeleton and a 2,5-dionepyrrole unit. Dysidinoid A (1) showed potent antibacterial activity against two strains of pathogenic bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MIC90 values of 8.0 μg/mL against both. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methylpenicinoline from a Marine Isolate of Penicillium sp. (SF-5995): Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages and BV2 Microglia
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18073-18089; doi:10.3390/molecules191118073
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1) was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)
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In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1) was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia. It also attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a concentration-dependent manner (from 10 μM to 80 μM) without affecting cell viability. In addition, compound 1 reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effects, compound 1 was shown to block nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-α (IκB-α), thereby suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB dimers, namely p50 and p65, that are known to be crucial molecules associated with iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, compound 1 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that compound 1 might be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Flavonoids from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Exhibit Differential Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest in H460 and A549 Cancer Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17663-17681; doi:10.3390/molecules191117663
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
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Abstract
Flavonoids, containing mainly kaempferol rhamnohexoside derivatives, were extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) and their potential growth inhibition effects against H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells was explored and compared to that on A549 cells. The extracted flavonoids were found to
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Flavonoids, containing mainly kaempferol rhamnohexoside derivatives, were extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) and their potential growth inhibition effects against H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells was explored and compared to that on A549 cells. The extracted flavonoids were found to exhibit antiproliferation effects against H460 cells (IC50 = 50.2 μg/mL), although the IC50 of H460 is 2.5-fold that of A549 cells (IC50 = 19.8 μg/mL). Further investigation revealed that H460 cells are more susceptible to kaempferol than A549, whereas A549 cell growth is better inhibited by kaempferol rhamnohexoside derivatives as compared with H460. In addition, flavonoids from G. pentaphyllum induced cell cycle arrest at both S and G2/M phases with concurrent modulated expression of the cellular proteins cyclin A, B, p53 and p21 in A549 cells, but not H460. On the contrary, apoptosis and concomitant alteration in balance of BCL-2 and BAX expression as well as activation of caspase-3 were equally affected between both cells by flavonoid treatment. These observations strongly suggest the growth inhibition discrepancy between H460 and A549 following flavonoid treatment can be attributed to the lack of cell cycle arrest in H460 cells and the differences between H460 and A549 cells may serve as contrasting models for further mechanistic investigations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Phytochemical Synthesis, Chalcone Synthase Activity and Pharmaceutical Qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in Relation to Plant Age
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17632-17648; doi:10.3390/molecules191117632
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS,
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In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cancer cells with IC50 value of 56.8 µg/mL. These results indicate that early harvesting of snake grass (6-month-old) may yield increased concentrations of secondary metabolites, which are potent antioxidant compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carapanolides J–L from the Seeds of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) and Their Effects on LPS-Activated NO Production
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17130-17140; doi:10.3390/molecules191117130
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel gedunin and two novel phragmalin-type limonoids, named carapanolides J–L (compounds 13) as well as a known gedunin-type limonoid 4 were isolated from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (andiroba). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and
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A novel gedunin and two novel phragmalin-type limonoids, named carapanolides J–L (compounds 13) as well as a known gedunin-type limonoid 4 were isolated from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (andiroba). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRFABMS. Compounds 14 were evaluated for their effects on the production of NO in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Newly Synthesized 4-[(Butylsulfinyl)methyl]-1,2-benzenediol in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglia
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16609-16623; doi:10.3390/molecules191016609
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 4 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of newly synthesized 4-[(butylsulfinyl)methyl]-1,2-benzenediol (SMBD) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia and the subsequent signaling events. Following stimulation with LPS, elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was detected in
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In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of newly synthesized 4-[(butylsulfinyl)methyl]-1,2-benzenediol (SMBD) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia and the subsequent signaling events. Following stimulation with LPS, elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was detected in BV2 cells; however, SMBD pretreatment inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 through suppressing gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, at non-toxic concentrations. LPS-stimulated gene expression and production of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also significantly reduced by SMBD. The anti-inflammatory effects of SMBD were associated with suppression of LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) downstream effector. Therefore, the present results demonstrate that SMBD down-regulates inflammatory gene expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB through interference with the activation of MAPKs and PI3K/Akt signaling. Taken together, our data suggest that SMBD may have potential to be developed into an effective anti-inflammatory agent. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Fungus Alternaria sp. XZSBG-1 from the Saline Lake in Bange, Tibet, China
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16529-16542; doi:10.3390/molecules191016529
Received: 7 August 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
PDF Full-text (1023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new anthraquinone derivatives 14 were obtained along with seven known compounds 511 from the extracts of the fungal strain Alternaria sp. XZSBG-1 which was isolated from the sediments of the carbonate saline lake in Bange, Tibet, China.
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Four new anthraquinone derivatives 14 were obtained along with seven known compounds 511 from the extracts of the fungal strain Alternaria sp. XZSBG-1 which was isolated from the sediments of the carbonate saline lake in Bange, Tibet, China. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly by 2D NMR spectra. Compound 1 is a novel tetrahydroanthraquinone with an epoxy ether bond between C-4a and C-9a. In the primary bioassays, compound 3 (alterporriol T) exhibited inhibition of a-glucosidase with a IC50 value 7.2 μM, and compound 9 showed good inhibitory activity against the HCT-116 and HeLa cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.03 and 8.09 μM, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides Essential Oil on Aedes aegypti Oviposition, Larval Toxicity and Trypsin Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16573-16587; doi:10.3390/molecules191016573
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its
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Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL−1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Polyphenols
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16428-16446; doi:10.3390/molecules191016428
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in
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These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips). The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract) in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood. Full article
Open AccessReview Synthetic Advances in Macrosphelides: Natural Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 15982-16000; doi:10.3390/molecules191015982
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 8 October 2014
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Abstract Total synthesis of macrosphelides is summarized. Synthetic approaches contain the preparation of key fragments and the final ring-closure reaction for unique 16- or 15-membered macrolactone skeletons. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification of Three Elicitins and a Galactan-Based Complex Polysaccharide from a Concentrated Culture Filtrate of Phytophthora infestans Efficient against Pectobacterium atrosepticum
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 15374-15390; doi:10.3390/molecules191015374
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The induction of plant immunity by Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) constitutes a powerful strategy for crop protection. PAMPs indeed induce general defense responses in plants and thus increase plant resistance to pathogens. Phytophthora infestans culture filtrates (CCFs) are known to induce defense
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The induction of plant immunity by Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) constitutes a powerful strategy for crop protection. PAMPs indeed induce general defense responses in plants and thus increase plant resistance to pathogens. Phytophthora infestans culture filtrates (CCFs) are known to induce defense responses and decrease the severity of soft rot due to Pectobacterium atrosepticum in potato tubers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the active compounds from P. infestans filtrate. The filtrate was fractionated by gel filtration, and the protection effects against P. atrosepticum and the ability to induce PAL activity were tested for each fraction. The fraction active in protection (F1) also induced PAL activity, as did the whole filtrate. Three elicitins (INF1, INF4 and INF5) were identified in F1b, subfraction of F1, by MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS analyses. However, deproteinized F1b still showed biological activity against the bacterium, revealing the presence of an additional active compound. GC-MS analyses of the deproteinized fraction highlighted the presence of a galactan-based complex polysaccharide. These experiments demonstrate that the biological activity of the CCF against P. atrosepticum results from a combined action of three elicitins and a complex polysaccharide, probably through the activation of general defense responses. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect Analysis of Mineral Salt Concentrations on Nosiheptide Production by Streptomyces actuosus Z-10 Using Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 15507-15520; doi:10.3390/molecules191015507
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop an optimal combination of mineral salts in the fermentation medium for nosiheptide (Nsh) production using statistical methodologies. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the impacts of eight mineral salts on Nsh production. The
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The objective of this study was to develop an optimal combination of mineral salts in the fermentation medium for nosiheptide (Nsh) production using statistical methodologies. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the impacts of eight mineral salts on Nsh production. The results showed that among the no-significant factors, CaCO3, and K2HPO4·3H2O had positive effects, whereas FeSO4·7H2O, CuSO4·5H2O, and ZnSO4·7H2O had negative effects on Nsh production. The other three significant factors (Na2SO4, MnSO4·H2O, and MgSO4·7H2O) were further optimized by using a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD). Experimental data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial model, which provided an effective way to determine the interactive effect of metal salts on Nsh production. The optimal values were determined to be 2.63, 0.21, and 3.37 g/L, respectively. The model also ensured a good fitting of scale-up Nsh batch fermentation with a maximum production of 1501 mg/L, representing a 1.56-fold increase compared to the original standard condition. All these results revealed that statistical optimization methodology had the potential to achieve comprehensive optimization in Nsh fermentation behaviors, which indicates a possibility to establish economical large-scale production of Nsh. Full article
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Open AccessArticle LC-ESI-MS/MS Analysis and Pharmacokinetics of Plantainoside D Isolated from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao, a Potential Anti-Hypertensive Active Component in Rats
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 15103-15115; doi:10.3390/molecules190915103
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
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Abstract
Plantainoside D (PD) is a potential anti-hypertensive active ingredient newly isolated from the dried plants of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. A sensitive and specific LC-ESI-MS/MS method was first developed and validated for the analysis of PD in rat plasma using genistein as
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Plantainoside D (PD) is a potential anti-hypertensive active ingredient newly isolated from the dried plants of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. A sensitive and specific LC-ESI-MS/MS method was first developed and validated for the analysis of PD in rat plasma using genistein as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated with methanol-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) to precipitate protein, and then chromatographed on a reverse-phase Agilent Zorbax XDB C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm). Gradient elution was utilized, with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile both containing 0.1% formic acid, and the flow rate was set at 0.50 mL/min. The analytes were monitored by tandem-mass spectrometry with negative electrospray ionization. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) in the negative ion mode were 639.2 → 160.9 Thomson (Th) and 268.9 → 158.9 Thomson (Th) for PD and IS, respectively. Linearity was achieved in the 0.10–200 ng/mL range, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.10 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of the analyte were all within ±15%. The present method has been applied for pharmacokinetic study of PD after oral and intravenous administration in rats. The oral absolute bioavailability (F) of PD in rats was estimated to be 1.12% ± 0.46% with an elimination half-life (t1/2) value of 1.63 ± 0.19 h, suggesting its poor absorption and/or strong metabolism in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction, [6]-Gingerol and Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis of Glioma Cancer Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14528-14541; doi:10.3390/molecules190914528
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant bioactives [6]-gingerol (GING), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and asiaticoside (AS) and vitamin E, such as tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), have been reported to possess anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic properties of these bioactive compounds alone or in combination on glioma
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Plant bioactives [6]-gingerol (GING), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and asiaticoside (AS) and vitamin E, such as tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), have been reported to possess anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic properties of these bioactive compounds alone or in combination on glioma cancer cells. TRF, GING, EGCG and AS were tested for cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines 1321N1 (Grade II), SW1783 (Grade III) and LN18 (Grade IV) in culture by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) (MTS) assay. With the exception of AS, combinations of two compounds were tested, and the interactions of each combination were evaluated by the combination index (CI) using an isobologram. Different grades of glioma cancer cells showed different cytotoxic responses to the compounds, where in 1321N1 and LN18 cells, the combination of EGCG + GING exhibited a synergistic effect with CI = 0.77 and CI = 0.55, respectively. In contrast, all combinations tested (TRF + GING, TRF + EGCG and EGCG + GING) were found to be antagonistic on SW1783 with CI values of 1.29, 1.39 and 1.39, respectively. Combined EGCG + GING induced apoptosis in both 1321N1 and LN18 cells, as evidenced by Annexin-V FITC/PI staining and increased active caspase-3. Our current data suggests that the combination of EGCG + GING synergistically induced apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation 1321N1 and LN18 cells, but not SW1783 cells, which may be due to their different genetic profiles. Full article
Open AccessArticle Constituents of the Roots and Leaves of Ekebergia capensis and Their Potential Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14235-14246; doi:10.3390/molecules190914235
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 24 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new triterpenoid, 3-oxo-12β-hydroxy-oleanan-28,13β-olide (1), and six known triterpenoids 27 were isolated from the root bark of Ekebergia capensis, an African medicinal plant. A limonoid 8 and two glycoflavonoids 910 were found in its leaves. The
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A new triterpenoid, 3-oxo-12β-hydroxy-oleanan-28,13β-olide (1), and six known triterpenoids 27 were isolated from the root bark of Ekebergia capensis, an African medicinal plant. A limonoid 8 and two glycoflavonoids 910 were found in its leaves. The metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses, and their cytotoxicity was evaluated against the mammalian African monkey kidney (vero), mouse breast cancer (4T1), human larynx carcinoma (HEp2) and human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. Out of the isolates, oleanonic acid (2) showed the highest cytotoxicity, i.e., IC50’s of 1.4 and 13.3 µM against the HEp2 and 4T1 cells, respectively. Motivated by the higher cytotoxicity of the crude bark extract as compared to the isolates, the interactions of oleanonic acid (2) with five triterpenoids 37 were evaluated on vero cells. In an antiplasmodial assay, seven of the metabolites were observed to possess moderate activity against the D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum (IC50 27.1–97.1 µM), however with a low selectivity index (IC50(vero)/IC50(P. falciparum-D6) < 10). The observed moderate antiplasmodial activity may be due to general cytotoxicity of the isolated triterpenoids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite for Fast Fluorogenic Detection of Bacteria
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13948-13964; doi:10.3390/molecules190913948
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 2 July 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
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Abstract
Current procedures for the detection and identification of bacterial infections are laborious, time-consuming, and require a high workload and well-equipped laboratories. Therefore the work presented herein developed a simple, fast, and low cost method for bacterial detection based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a
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Current procedures for the detection and identification of bacterial infections are laborious, time-consuming, and require a high workload and well-equipped laboratories. Therefore the work presented herein developed a simple, fast, and low cost method for bacterial detection based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a nutritive mixture and the fluorogenic substrate. Calcium phosphate ceramic nanoparticles were characterized and integrated with a nutritive mixture for the early detection of bacteria by visual as well as fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The composite was obtained by combining calcium phosphate nanoparticles (Ca:P ratio, 1.33:1) with a nutritive mixture of protein hydrolysates and carbon sources, which promote fast bacterial multiplication, and the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbellipheryl-β-d-glucuronide (MUG). The composite had an average particle size of 173.2 nm and did not show antibacterial activity against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. After an Escherichia coli suspension was in contact with the composite for 60–90 min, fluorescence detected under UV light or by fluorescence spectrophotometer indicated the presence of bacteria. Intense fluorescence was observed after incubation for a maximum of 90 min. Thus, this calcium phosphate nanocomposite system may be useful as a model for the development of other nanoparticle composites for detection of early bacterial adhesion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Compounds Isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13225-13234; doi:10.3390/molecules190913225
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new compound and seven known compounds were isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang for the first time, and they were identified with NMR and MS spectral analysis. It was confirmed that the new compound was 10-methoxy-7-methyl-2H-benzo[g]chromen-2-one (3) and the
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A new compound and seven known compounds were isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang for the first time, and they were identified with NMR and MS spectral analysis. It was confirmed that the new compound was 10-methoxy-7-methyl-2H-benzo[g]chromen-2-one (3) and the others were β-eudesmol (1), trans-3β-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-8-methyl-5-methylenedecalin-2-one (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-[(Z)-3'-methyl-butan-1',3'-dienyl]coumarin (4), 7-geranyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin (5), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-butyl)coumarin (6), murrangatin acetate (7) and toddalenone (8). Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SMMC-7721), human bladder tumor cells (EJ), human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), and human B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 cells (BALL-1) was evaluated for all compounds. It was found that five of them displayed various degrees of cytotoxicity against different testing targets. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against the five cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721, EJ, Hela and BALL-1). Compounds 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against three cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721 and BALL-1). Compound 4 showed significant cytotoxicity against three cell lines (A549, EJ and BALL-1). However, compound 3 only showed fair cytotoxicity against the BALL-1 cell line. The structure-active relationships were investigated as well. These active compounds might be potential lead compounds for the treatment of cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor from Musa spp. (Baxijiao) Flowers
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10563-10573; doi:10.3390/molecules190710563
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified
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The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified as vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), β-sitosterol (3), daucosterol (4) and 9-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (5). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of compounds 15 were 2004.58, 1258.35, 283.67, 247.35 and 3.86 mg/L, respectively. Compared to a known α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, IC50 = 999.31 mg/L), compounds 3, 4 and 5 showed a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5 is a mixed-competitive inhibitor, while compounds 3 and 4 are competitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki) of compounds 3, 4 and 5 were 20.09, 2.34 and 4.40 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the compounds 3, 4 and 5 are potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Variation in the Bioactive Compound Content at Three Ripening Stages of Strawberry Fruit
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10370-10385; doi:10.3390/molecules190710370
Received: 27 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
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Abstract
During the harvest season of two consecutive years, five strawberry cultivars (‘Arosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Marmolada’, ‘Miss’ and ‘Raurica’), grown in the continental part of the Republic of Croatia, were examined. Strawberry fruits quality was evaluated by individual phenol compounds, individual anthocyanins and fruit color.
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During the harvest season of two consecutive years, five strawberry cultivars (‘Arosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Marmolada’, ‘Miss’ and ‘Raurica’), grown in the continental part of the Republic of Croatia, were examined. Strawberry fruits quality was evaluated by individual phenol compounds, individual anthocyanins and fruit color. Fruits were harvested in three different periods. Analyzed strawberry cultivars show very good average values of the studied phenolic acids and flavonoids with predominant caffeic acid and epicatechin content in all researched strawberry cultivars. Considering the content of individual anthocyanins, pelargonidin 3-glucoside is predominant in strawberry extract followed by cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. The correlation between individual anthocyanin content and chromaticity parameters was detected in all strawberry cultivars, additionally correlation coefficients and statistical significance were much lower. The results show a positive association between cultivar and harvest time on strawberry pulp color, with each of the color variables, a, b, a/b ratio, C, L and values. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Green Method Stabilized to Synthetic Human Stomach Fluid
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6737-6753; doi:10.3390/molecules19056737
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
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Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) have been attracted much attention in recent years in biomedical applications due to their antimicrobial activity, but their drawbacks include toxicity and instability to aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions. Ag NPs have now been successfully prepared by a simple and
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Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) have been attracted much attention in recent years in biomedical applications due to their antimicrobial activity, but their drawbacks include toxicity and instability to aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions. Ag NPs have now been successfully prepared by a simple and “green” synthesis method by reducing Ag+ ions in the presence of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) thiol (PVA-SH) in aqueous acidic solution. In this respect, Ag NPs were stabilized by coating different types of citrate-reduced Ag NPs with different weight ratios (1–3 Wt. %) of PVSH derivatives. The as-prepared Ag NPs were characterized using UV-Visible, high resolution transmission electron microscopy/ energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM/EDS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) combined with Rietveld analysis. The changes in size, shape, and hydrodynamic diameter of Ag NPs after different duration exposure to synthetic stomach fluid (SSF) and1 M HCl were determined using TEM, XRD and UV-Visible analyses. The data indicated that these Ag NPs possessed high stability to SSF for more than 90 days, which was not previously reported in the literature. Full article
Open AccessArticle Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6809-6821; doi:10.3390/molecules19056809
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 18 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
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Abstract
Avicennia marina (AM) exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R) [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of
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Avicennia marina (AM) exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R) [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) causing androgenic alopecia (AGA). An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs), the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1) inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6504-6523; doi:10.3390/molecules19056504
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis). A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis). A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD) that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity) during one growing season. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fucoidan Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Urinary Bladder Cancer T24 Cells by Blocking Cell Cycle Progression and Inducing Apoptosis
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 5981-5998; doi:10.3390/molecules19055981
Received: 29 March 2014 / Revised: 2 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
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Abstract
Although fucoidan has been shown to exert anticancer activity against several types of cancer cell lines, no reports have explored fucoidan-affected cell growth in human urinary bladder cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of fucoidan in human bladder cancer
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Although fucoidan has been shown to exert anticancer activity against several types of cancer cell lines, no reports have explored fucoidan-affected cell growth in human urinary bladder cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of fucoidan in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Our results indicated that fucoidan decreased the viability of T24 cells through the induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Fucoidan-induced G1 arrest is associated with the enhanced expression of the Cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and dephosphorylation of the pRB along with enhanced binding of p21 to Cdk4/6 as well as pRB to the transcription factor E2Fs. Further investigations showed the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, proving mitochondrial dysfunction upon fucoidan treatment with a corresponding increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio. Fucoidan-triggered apoptosis was also accompanied by the up-regulation of Fas and truncated Bid as well as the sequential activation of caspase-8. Furthermore, a significant increased activation of caspase-9/-3 was detected in response to fucoidan treatment with the decreased expression of IAPs and degradation of PARP, whereas a pan-caspase inhibitor significantly suppressed apoptosis and rescued the cell viability reduction. In conclusion, these observations suggest that fucoidan attenuates G1-S phase cell cycle progression and serves as an important mediator of crosstalk between caspase-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in T24 cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Five New Alkaloids from the Stem Bark of Daphniphyllum macropodum
Molecules 2014, 19(3), 3055-3067; doi:10.3390/molecules19033055
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new alkaloids, daphnicyclidins M and N (compounds 1 and 2) and calyciphyllines Q–S (compounds 35), along with four known ones, paxiphylline C (6), macropodumine B (7), macropodumine C (8) and daphnicyclidin A
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Five new alkaloids, daphnicyclidins M and N (compounds 1 and 2) and calyciphyllines Q–S (compounds 35), along with four known ones, paxiphylline C (6), macropodumine B (7), macropodumine C (8) and daphnicyclidin A (9) were isolated from the stem bark of Daphniphyllum macropodum. Calyciphylline Q (3) is the first calyciphylline A derivative possessing a double bond between C-18 and C-19. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1, 2, 8 and 9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against P-388 cells with IC50 values of 5.7, 6.5, 10.3 and 13.8 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also showed cytotoxic activity against SGC-7901 cells with IC50 values of 22.4 and 25.6 µM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Unravelling the Complex Antimicrobial Interactions of Essential Oils — The Case of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme)
Molecules 2014, 19(3), 2896-2910; doi:10.3390/molecules19032896
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 22 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thymus vulgaris has gained tremendous popularity as an ornamental, culinary herb and its use in phytotherapy is well established and supported in the literature. The objective of this study was to explore possible interactions between selected molecules within Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TvEO)
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Thymus vulgaris has gained tremendous popularity as an ornamental, culinary herb and its use in phytotherapy is well established and supported in the literature. The objective of this study was to explore possible interactions between selected molecules within Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TvEO) to gain a better understanding of how this complex essential oil exerts its antimicrobial activity. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy and interactions were assessed on the essential oil and volatile constituents against various pathogens. Interactions between molecules at various ratios were graphically observed through the construction of isobolograms. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed 22 compounds which collectively represent >95% of the oil composition. Based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, they were categorised into weak (≥4 mg mL−1), moderate (2–4 mg mL−1) and noteworthy active (≤2 mg mL−1) compounds. For the combination study, 21% synergistic, 42% additive, 36% indifferent and 1% antagonistic interactions were observed. Most of the interactions were observed between the weak and highly active molecules, and interestingly, no synergistic interaction was observed between the highly active compounds. Synergistic and additive interactions between the strong and weaker antimicrobial constituents present in TvEO enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of this commercially important essential oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore
Molecules 2014, 19(2), 2121-2134; doi:10.3390/molecules19022121
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 15, together with five known saponins 610. Their structures were determined by
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Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 15, together with five known saponins 610. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma). The monodesmosidic saponins 68 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25–22.38 μM range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Docking Studies in Target Proteins Involved in Antibacterial Action Mechanisms: Extending the Knowledge on Standard Antibiotics to Antimicrobial Mushroom Compounds
Molecules 2014, 19(2), 1672-1684; doi:10.3390/molecules19021672
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
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Abstract
In the present work, the knowledge on target proteins of standard antibiotics was extended to antimicrobial mushroom compounds. Docking studies were performed for 34 compounds in order to evaluate their affinity to bacterial proteins that are known targets for some antibiotics with different
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In the present work, the knowledge on target proteins of standard antibiotics was extended to antimicrobial mushroom compounds. Docking studies were performed for 34 compounds in order to evaluate their affinity to bacterial proteins that are known targets for some antibiotics with different mechanism of action: inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, inhibitors of protein synthesis, inhibitors of nucleic acids synthesis and antimetabolites. After validation of the molecular docking approach, virtual screening of all the compounds was performed against penicillin binding protein 1a (PBP1a), alanine racemase (Alr), d-alanyl-d-alanine synthetase (Ddl), isoleucyl-tRNA sinthetase (IARS), DNA gyrase subunit B, topoisomerase IV (TopoIV), dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) using AutoDock4. Overall, it seems that for the selected mushroom compounds (namely, enokipodins, ganomycins and austrocortiluteins) the main mechanism of the action is the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, being Alr and Ddl probable protein targets. Full article
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