Special Issue "Membrane Technology for Food and Bioprocessing Applications"

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A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Munir Cheryan

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Agricultural Bioprocess Laboratory, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bioprocessing; bioreactor design; downstream processing; fermentation; food processing and engineering; membrane technology (MF, UF, NF, RO, ED, PV)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Membrane technology is an important unit operation in the food and biotechnology industries. The most well-known and mature food applications are dairy (milk and whey), fruit juice (apple, pear, grape, citrus), fermented products (wine, beer, vinegar), animal products (gelatin, eggs), plant proteins (soy), and sugars (dextrose, sucrose, dextrins, high-fructose syrup). Ultrafiltration (UF) is the dominant technology in most food and dairy applications, e.g., for treating cheese whey, for concentrating milk proteins and clarification of fruit juices and sugar streams.

The industry that has especially benefited by membranes is biotechnology (pharmaceuticals, enzymes, fermentation). In addition, there is a growing nutraceutical industry that uses individual components in plants, milk and whey with specific biological activities to give health-promoting benefits and to treat certain physiological disorders. The separation of bioactive compounds from crude fermentation broths or plant extracts requires unit operations that are quite different from traditional chemical separation processes. It is important to maintain the compound's bioactivity while maximizing its purity and yield. However, these three parameters are often mutually exclusive. One problem is that the compound is at a low concentration of a few hundred ppm to 10% of the broth. Another is that the impurities could have physicochemical properties that are similar to the target compound of interest, making conventional separations difficult. The use of organic solvents for extraction and purification of nutraceuticals is increasing, which creates its own set of challenges. Many of the membranes used today were designed for aqueous systems and not for use with organic solvents.

If R&D activity is an indication of potential commercial application, the biggest users of membranes this past decade were agro-based industries, such as vegetable oil processors, producers of dextrose and hydrolyzed starch from corn and wheat, sugar (beet and cane) processors and manufacturers of biobased products such as ethanol, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, methyl esters, etc. In the vegetable oil industry, degumming and nitrogen production for packaging by gas separation are now established and others are under development, such as solvent recovery by RO or nanofiltration (NF), deacidification by NF, dewaxing by MF and recovery of hydrogenation catalyst by MF. With organic acids produced by fermentation, several membrane technologies can be used in the same process scheme simultaneously, e.g., electrodialysis to purify the organic acid, NF to recycle and/or desalt the sugars and MF to separate microbial cells. Membranes can also be integrated into the reaction scheme to create "continuous membrane bioreactors" which can significantly improve productivity of enzyme hydrolysis and fermentations, as well as enhance treatment of wastewater.

We are seeking papers for this special issue of Membranes that reflect recent advances in the application of membranes in these industries.  Our goal is rapid publication of high-quality papers that will advance the science and facilitate successful commercialization of the technology.

Munir Cheryan
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • animal products
  • alcoholic beverages (e.g., beer, wine)
  • biotechnology
  • biofuels (e.g., ethanol, biodiesel)
  • bioproducts
  • cheese manufacture
  • corn (maize)
  • dairy
  • dextrose (glucose)
  • egg
  • fermentation
  • fish processing
  • food products
  • fruit juices
  • gelatin
  • microorganisms
  • oily wastewaters
  • plant proteins
  • potato processing
  • soybean
  • starch processing
  • stillage (vinasse)
  • sugar, beet and cane
  • vegetable oil
  • whey (WPC, WPI)

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Protein Fouling on Polymeric Membranes Using Ultrasonic Frequency-Domain Reflectometry
Membranes 2011, 1(3), 195-216; doi:10.3390/membranes1030195
Received: 27 May 2011 / Revised: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel signal-processing protocols were used to extend the in situ sensitivity of ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR) for real-time monitoring of microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling during protein purification. Different commercial membrane materials, with a nominal pore size of 0.2 µm, were challenged using bovine
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Novel signal-processing protocols were used to extend the in situ sensitivity of ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR) for real-time monitoring of microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling during protein purification. Different commercial membrane materials, with a nominal pore size of 0.2 µm, were challenged using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and amylase as model proteins. Fouling induced by these proteins was observed in flat-sheet membrane filtration cells operating in a laminar cross-flow regime. The detection of membrane-associated proteins using UFDR was determined by applying rigorous statistical methodology to reflection spectra of ultrasonic signals obtained during membrane fouling. Data suggest that the total power reflected from membrane surfaces changes in response to protein fouling at concentrations as low as 14 μg/cm2, and results indicate that ultrasonic spectra can be leveraged to detect and monitor protein fouling on commercial MF membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technology for Food and Bioprocessing Applications)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates
Membranes 2011, 1(3), 149-161; doi:10.3390/membranes1030149
Received: 20 May 2011 / Revised: 20 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate
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The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 µM TE×g−1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 µM TE×g−1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technology for Food and Bioprocessing Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits
Membranes 2011, 1(4), 327-344; doi:10.3390/membranes1040327
Received: 30 August 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials.
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Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technology for Food and Bioprocessing Applications)

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