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Special Issue "Carbohydrate Polymers"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joel D. Bumgardner

Biomedical Engineering, Herff College of Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
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Phone: 901-678-5243
Fax: 901 678 5281

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbohydrate polymers are long chains of saccharides linked via glycosidic bonds and are also known as polysaccharides. They are the most abundant natural polymer on the planet serving as major structural elements in plants [ i.e. cellulose] and animals [i.e. chitin in arthropods and hyaluronan in mammals], or as a food storage mechanism [ i.e. starch and glycogen]. Because of their wide distribution and availability from animal and plant sources, and versatility for chemical modification, carbohydrate polymers have received much attention as a renewable resource.  As processing, manufacturing, and chemical and physical modification advances, carbohydrate polymeric materials will emerge with many exciting applications and unprecedented functionalities from directing tissue regeneration and targeting drugs/therapeutics for treating disease/infection, to improving food safety, and acting as biosensors and environmentally sensitive membranes.

In this special issue we aim at covering recent progress and novel applications of carbohydrate polymers in the food, agricultural/environmental, medical, and sensor fields.  We invite reviews, new concept ideas, basic research and developmental papers on biotechnology, processing/manufacturing, characterization, chemical and physical modification and engineering of carbohydrate polymers with special emphasis on structure-property-application relationships.

Prof. Dr. Joel D. Bumgardner
Guest Editor

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Formulation Optimization of Gluten-Free Functional Spaghetti Based on Maize Flour and Oat Bran Enriched in b-Glucans
Materials 2011, 4(12), 2119-2135; doi:10.3390/ma4122119
Received: 4 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 December 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of gluten-free functional spaghetti based on maize flour and oat bran, enriched with b-glucans (22%). More specifically, the goal of the study was to obtain oat bran-loaded maize spaghetti with sensory properties close to
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of gluten-free functional spaghetti based on maize flour and oat bran, enriched with b-glucans (22%). More specifically, the goal of the study was to obtain oat bran-loaded maize spaghetti with sensory properties close to unloaded pasta. To this aim, the study has been organized in two subsequent trials. In the first one, the oat bran amount added to spaghetti was continuously increased until the overall sensory quality of pasta reached the set sensory threshold (oat bran concentration = 20%). The second experimental step was aimed to improve the overall sensory quality of oat bran loaded maize spaghetti. In particular, an attempt was made to increase the sensory quality of spaghetti added with 20% oat bran by means of structuring agents. To this aim, the effects of different kinds of some hydrocolloids and egg white powder on the rheological properties of dough, as well as on quality attributes of pasta were examined. The rheological analysis showed that the addition of hydrocolloids and white egg to the dough enriched with 20% oat bran did not cause any substantial difference in the viscoelastic properties, compared to samples without any structuring agents. The best overall quality for both fresh and dry spaghetti was obtained by the addition of carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan at a concentration of 2%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Cellulose Isolation Methodology for NMR Analysis of Cellulose Ultrastructure
Materials 2011, 4(11), 1985-2002; doi:10.3390/ma4111985
Received: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to obtain accurate information about the ultrastructure of cellulose from native biomass by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy the cellulose component must be isolated due to overlapping resonances from both lignin and hemicellulose. Typically, cellulose isolation
[...] Read more.
In order to obtain accurate information about the ultrastructure of cellulose from native biomass by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy the cellulose component must be isolated due to overlapping resonances from both lignin and hemicellulose. Typically, cellulose isolation has been achieved via holocellulose pulping to remove lignin followed by an acid hydrolysis procedure to remove the hemicellulose components. Using 13C CP/MAS NMR and non-linear line-fitting of the cellulose C4 region, it was observed that the standard acid hydrolysis procedure caused an apparent increase in crystallinity of ~10% or less on the cellulose isolated from Populus holocellulose. We have examined the effect of the cellulose isolation method, particularly the acid treatment time for hemicellulose removal, on cellulose ultrastructural characteristics by studying these effects on cotton, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and holocellulose pulped Populus. 13C CP/MAS NMR of MCC indicated that holocellulose pulping and acid hydrolysis has little effect on the crystalline ultrastructural components of cellulose. Although any chemical method to isolate cellulose from native biomass will invariably alter substrate characteristics, especially those related to regions accessible to solvents, we found those changes to be minimal and consistent in samples of typical crystallinity and lignin/hemicellulose content. Based on the rate of the hemicellulose removal, as determined by HPLC-carbohydrate analysis and magnitude of cellulose ultrastructural alteration, the most suitable cellulose isolation methodology utilizes a treatment of 2.5 M HCl at 100 °C for a standard residence time between 1.5 and 4 h. However, for the most accurate crystallinity results this residence time should be determined empirically for a particular sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Sol-Gel Behavior of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) in Ionic Media Including Drug Release
Materials 2011, 4(10), 1861-1905; doi:10.3390/ma4101861
Received: 20 September 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 13 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sol-gel transformations in HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) are being increasingly studied because of their role in bio-related applications. The thermo-reversible behavior of HPMC is particularly affected by its properties and concentration in solvent media, nature of additives, and the thermal environment it is exposed
[...] Read more.
Sol-gel transformations in HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) are being increasingly studied because of their role in bio-related applications. The thermo-reversible behavior of HPMC is particularly affected by its properties and concentration in solvent media, nature of additives, and the thermal environment it is exposed to. This article contains investigations on the effects of salt additives in Hofmeister series on the HPMC gelation. Various findings regarding gelation with salt ions as well as with the ionic and non-ionic surfactants are presented. The gel formation in physiological salt fluids such as simulated gastric and intestine fluids is also examined with the interest in oral drug delivery systems. The processes of swelling, dissolution and dispersion of HPMC tablets in simulated bio-fluids are explored and the release of a drug from the tablet affected by such processes is studied. Explanations are provided based on the chemical structure and the molecular binding/association of HPMC in a media. The test results at the body or near-body temperature conditions helped in understanding the progress of the gelation process within the human body environment. The detailed interpretation of various molecule level interactions unfolded the sol-gel mechanisms and the influence of a few other factors. The obtained test data and the established mathematical models are expected to serve as a guide in customizing applications of HPMC hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of κ-Carrageenan Fibers by Wet Spinning: Spinning Parameters
Materials 2011, 4(10), 1805-1817; doi:10.3390/ma4101805
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general,
[...] Read more.
This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general, the ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break both increased for KCl concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 M with and without ethanol, with no significant change above 0.5 M. Spinning rate affected the dope flow and thus the polymer orientation (apparent viscosity) and fiber morphology. At spinning rates between 0.25 mL/min and 0.33 mL/min, the fiber diameter reached a minimum and the fiber surface was smooth. Both an increase and decrease from this spinning rate range increased the fiber diameter and roughness of the fiber surface. Post-spinning drawing of the fiber resulted in even smaller fiber diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Gelation and Retrogradation Mechanism of Wheat Amylose
Materials 2011, 4(10), 1763-1775; doi:10.3390/ma4101763
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 24 September 2011 / Accepted: 27 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The flow behavior, dynamic viscoelasticity, and optical rotation of aqueous solutions of wheat amylose were measured using a rheogoniometer and a polarimeter. The amylose solutions, at 25 °C, showed shear-thinning behavior at a concentration of 1.2%, but plastic behavior at 1.4 and 1.6%,
[...] Read more.
The flow behavior, dynamic viscoelasticity, and optical rotation of aqueous solutions of wheat amylose were measured using a rheogoniometer and a polarimeter. The amylose solutions, at 25 °C, showed shear-thinning behavior at a concentration of 1.2%, but plastic behavior at 1.4 and 1.6%, the yield values of which were estimated to be 0.6 and 1.0 Pa, respectively. The viscosity of the wheat amylose increased a little with increase in temperature up to 10 or 20 °C at 1.2% or 1.4 and 1.6%, which was estimated to be a transition temperature. The elastic modulus increased with increase in concentration, and increased with increasing temperature up to 20, 25 and 30 °C, which was estimated to be a transition temperature, respectively, then decreased gradually but stayed at a large value even at high temperature (80 °C). A very low elastic modulus of the wheat amylose was observed upon addition of urea (4.0 M) and in alkaline solution (0.05 M NaOH) even at low temperature. The optical rotation of wheat amylose solution increased a little with decreasing temperature down to 25 °C, then increased rapidly with further decrease in the temperature. The mode of gelation mechanism of amylose molecules, which was previously proposed, was confirmed and a retrogradation mechanism of wheat amylose was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Chitin-Methacrylate: Preparation, Characterization and Hydrogel Formation
Materials 2011, 4(10), 1728-1746; doi:10.3390/ma4101728
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 27 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitin-methacrylate (CM) was prepared by the reaction of methacrylic acid on chitin in 5% LiCl/DMAc in the presence of N,N’-dicyclocarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The resultant chitin-methacrylate product was isolated in 61% yield and was found to be readily water-soluble. The derivative was found to
[...] Read more.
Chitin-methacrylate (CM) was prepared by the reaction of methacrylic acid on chitin in 5% LiCl/DMAc in the presence of N,N’-dicyclocarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The resultant chitin-methacrylate product was isolated in 61% yield and was found to be readily water-soluble. The derivative was found to be a mixture of methacrylate and methacrylic-dimethylaminopyridine complex substituents at the C-6 position in approximately equal amounts. In order to evaluate the activity of the methacrylate double bond, a chitin-methacrylate water solution was photo-crosslinked in the presence of Irgacure 2959 photo-initiator to generate CM-hydrogel. The CM-hydrogel was evaluated for its biodegradability characteristics by enzymatic degradation with lysozyme solutions of varying concentrations. Completely water-soluble products were obtained within 48 h. In vitro cytotoxicity assays of the CM-hydrogel and its extract against three cell lines, NCTC clone 929, IMR-90 and MG-63, indicated the hydrogel was non-cytotoxic with cells able to adhere and proliferate well on the hydrogel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin
Materials 2011, 4(9), 1528-1542; doi:10.3390/ma4091528
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in
[...] Read more.
Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g), CDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g), and granular activated carbon (GAC ~103 m2/g). The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i) surface area of the sorbent; (ii) CD content and accessibility; and (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Deacetylation of Chitosan: Material Characterization and in vitro Evaluation via Albumin Adsorption and Pre-Osteoblastic Cell Cultures
Materials 2011, 4(8), 1399-1416; doi:10.3390/ma4081399
Received: 21 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Degree of deacetylation (DDA) and molecular weight (MW) of chitosans are important to their physical and biological properties. In this study, two chitosans, HS (DDA = 73.3%) and AT (DDA = 76.8%), were deacetylated with 45% sodium hydroxide under nitrogen atmosphere at 80
[...] Read more.
Degree of deacetylation (DDA) and molecular weight (MW) of chitosans are important to their physical and biological properties. In this study, two chitosans, HS (DDA = 73.3%) and AT (DDA = 76.8%), were deacetylated with 45% sodium hydroxide under nitrogen atmosphere at 80 °C or 90 °C for up to 120 min, to obtain two series of chitosans. The polymers produced were characterized for MW by gel permeation chromatography, DDA by titration and UV-vis methods, and crystallinity, hydrophilicity and thermal stability by X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry respectively. Films, made by solution casting in dilute acetic acid at ambient conditions, were evaluated for biological activity by albumin adsorption and the attachment and growth of a pre-osteoblast cell line. Chitosans with between 80–93% DDA’s (based on titration) were reproducibly obtained. Even though deacetylation under nitrogen was supposed to limit chain degradation during decetylation, MW decreased (by maximum of 37.4% of HS and 63.0% for AT) with increasing deacetylation reaction time and temperature. Crystallinity and decomposition temperature increased and water contact angles decreased with processing to increase DDA. Significantly less albumin was absorbed on films made with 93% DDA chitosans as compared with the original materials and the AT chitosans absorbed less than the HS chitosans. The cells on higher DDA chitosan films grew faster than those on lower DDA films. In conclusion, processing conditions increased DDA and influenced physicochemical and biological properties. However, additional studies are needed to unambiguously determine the influence of DDA or MW on in vitro and in vivo performance of chitosan materials for bone/implant applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preparation of Chitin Nanofibers from Mushrooms
Materials 2011, 4(8), 1417-1425; doi:10.3390/ma4081417
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitin nanofibers were isolated from the cell walls of five different types of mushrooms by the removal of glucans, minerals, and proteins, followed by a simple grinding treatment under acidic conditions. The Chitin nanofibers thus obtained have a uniform structure and a long
[...] Read more.
Chitin nanofibers were isolated from the cell walls of five different types of mushrooms by the removal of glucans, minerals, and proteins, followed by a simple grinding treatment under acidic conditions. The Chitin nanofibers thus obtained have a uniform structure and a long fiber length. The width of the nanofibers depended on the type of mushrooms and varied in the range 20 to 28 nm. The Chitin nanofibers were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectra, and X-ray diffraction profiles. The results showed that the α-chitin crystal structure was maintained and glucans remained on the nanofiber surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Osteoinductivity Assessment of BMP-2 Loaded Composite Chitosan-Nano-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds in a Rat Muscle Pouch
Materials 2011, 4(8), 1360-1374; doi:10.3390/ma4081360
Received: 30 June 2011 / Revised: 16 July 2011 / Accepted: 27 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteoinductivity of composite chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds in a rat muscle pouch model. Previous in vitro characterization demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to promote bone regeneration and as a carrier for local delivery of BMP-2.
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteoinductivity of composite chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds in a rat muscle pouch model. Previous in vitro characterization demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to promote bone regeneration and as a carrier for local delivery of BMP-2. Composite microspheres were prepared using a co-precipitation method, and scaffolds were fabricated using an acid wash to adhere beads together. To determine the in vivo osteoinductivity of the scaffolds, the following groups (n = 6) were implanted into muscle pouches created in the latissimus dorsi of Sprague Dawley rats: (A) lyophilized scaffolds without rhBMP-2, (B) lyophilized scaffolds with rhBMP-2, (C) non-lyophilized scaffolds with rhBMP-2, and (D) absorbable collagen sponge with rhBMP-2 (control). Groups B, C, and D were loaded with 4 mL of a 9.0 μg/mL solution of rhBMP-2 for 48 h. The rats were sacrificed after one month and samples were analyzed for amount of residual implant material, new bone, and osteoid. Although the experimental groups displayed minimal degradation after one month, all of the scaffolds contained small amounts of woven bone and considerable amounts of osteoid. Approximately thirty percent of the open space available for tissue ingrowth in the scaffolds contained new bone or osteoid in the process of mineralization. The ability of the composite scaffolds (with and without BMP-2) to promote ectopic bone growth in vivo was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)

Other

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Open AccessShort Note Two Types of Inulin Fructotransferases
Materials 2011, 4(9), 1543-1547; doi:10.3390/ma4091543
Received: 28 June 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 7 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inulin is a polysaccharide contained in chicory, dahlia, and other plants. An oligosaccharide DFA III is produced from inulin using a microbial enzyme, inulin fructotransferase (DFA III producing) [EC 2.4.1.93]. The oligosaccharide DFAIII has a unique functionality that accelerates the assimilation of minerals
[...] Read more.
Inulin is a polysaccharide contained in chicory, dahlia, and other plants. An oligosaccharide DFA III is produced from inulin using a microbial enzyme, inulin fructotransferase (DFA III producing) [EC 2.4.1.93]. The oligosaccharide DFAIII has a unique functionality that accelerates the assimilation of minerals (Ca, Fe, and so on) from intestines. Therefore, it has a potential for the improvement of osteoporosis and iron deficiency anemia. The production of DFA III was industrialized in 2004 in Japan. Another oligosaccharide DFA I is produced from inulin by another enzyme, inulin fructotransferase (DFA I producing) [EC 2.4.1.200]. The oligosaccharide DFA I has half the sweetness of sucrose. The genes of the two enzymes were cloned and the nucleotide sequences were determined. The deduced amino acid sequences of two enzyme genes had a homology of 49.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers)

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