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J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1(1), 22-107; doi:10.3390/jfb1010022
Review

Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

Received: 21 October 2010; in revised form: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 30 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes)
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Abstract: In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.
Keywords: calcium orthophosphates; hydroxyapatite; bioceramics; biomaterials; biomedical applications; bone grafts; tissue engineering calcium orthophosphates; hydroxyapatite; bioceramics; biomaterials; biomedical applications; bone grafts; tissue engineering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dorozhkin, S.V. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art. J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1, 22-107.

AMA Style

Dorozhkin SV. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2010; 1(1):22-107.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dorozhkin, Sergey V. 2010. "Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art." J. Funct. Biomater. 1, no. 1: 22-107.



J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert