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Special Issue "Vitamin D and Public Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Peter Ebeling

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: musculoskeletal; osteoporosis; bone; mineral; vitamin D; endocrine; endocrinology
Guest Editor
Dr. David Scott

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: falls prevention; fractures; sarcopenia; physical activity; vitamin D; ageing; body composition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health issue. Long recognised as having an important role in bone metabolism, higher vitamin D levels have also been associated with improved immune function, muscle, reproductive and cardiometabolic health, as well as reduced risk of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Vitamin D is primarily obtained through ultraviolet-B light exposure from the sun and achieving adequate vitamin D levels is particularly challenging in specific populations including those with low sun exposure and/or darker skin, and older adults. Vitamin D supplementation is generally recommended for those with, or at increased risk of, vitamin D deficiency. To date there is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials that vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for non-skeletal health, but vitamin D screening and prescription are commonplace in the clinical setting. This Special Issue will focus of the role of vitamin D in public health and address current controversies including, but not limited to, associations of vitamin D metabolites with health outcomes, optimal target levels and response to supplemental doses of vitamin D, food fortification and vitamin D, negative outcomes of high-dose vitamin D supplementation, and health economics of vitamin D testing and supplementation.

Prof. Peter Ebeling
Dr. David Scott
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • cholecalciferol
  • public health
  • disease
  • screening
  • supplementation
  • health economics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D3 Supplementation Reduces the Symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection during Winter Training in Vitamin D-Insufficient Taekwondo Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092003
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in athletes. This study examined the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on salivary immune functions and symptoms of URTI in vitamin D-insufficient taekwondo athletes. Twenty-five male taekwondo
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Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in athletes. This study examined the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on salivary immune functions and symptoms of URTI in vitamin D-insufficient taekwondo athletes. Twenty-five male taekwondo athletes, aged 19–22 years with vitamin D insufficiency [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D concentrations (25(OH)D, 31.3 ± 1.39 nmol/L)], participated in this study. They were randomized to receive 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 (n = 13) or placebo capsule (n = 12) during 4 weeks of winter training. Blood samples were collected two times (pre- and post-tests) for analyzing serum 25(OH)D concentration while salivary samples were obtained three times (pre-, mid-, and post-tests) for secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and lactoferrin analyses. The symptoms of URTI were reported daily during the intervention. Serum 25(OH)D concentration significantly increased by 255.6% in the vitamin D group, whereas in the placebo group it did not change (p < 0.001). While the significant increase in SIgA was observed in both groups (p < 0.001), elevated salivary lactoferrin level in response to winter training was found only in the placebo group (p = 0.011). The change in serum 25(OH)D concentration was negatively associated with total URTI symptoms (r = −0.435, p = 0.015). Vitamin D3 supplementation may be effective in reducing the symptoms of URTI during winter training in vitamin D-insufficient taekwondo athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle The State of Knowledge about Nutrition Sources of Vitamin D, Its Role in the Human Body, and Necessity of Supplementation among Parents in Central Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071489
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
The percentage of children with vitamin D deficiency in Poland is alarming. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge about sources of food and the function of vitamin D, as well as the frequency of its supplementation. A survey was
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The percentage of children with vitamin D deficiency in Poland is alarming. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge about sources of food and the function of vitamin D, as well as the frequency of its supplementation. A survey was conducted among the parents of children from Central Poland attending primary schools, and a questionnaire containing mainly open-ended questions was used to collect the data. Most mothers knew at least one of the functions of vitamin D in the body but had a low level of knowledge about its dietary sources. Only a small group of respondents supplemented themselves and their children with vitamin D. Statistically significant influences on the level of knowledge about the functions and sources of vitamin D were place of residence (i.e., better knowledge in the countryside) and mothers’ level of education (i.e., the better educated, the greater knowledge). In the case of monthly income level, such impact was observed only in relation to the knowledge of vitamin D functions. Concerning the frequency of supplementation, only maternal level of education had a statistically significant effect (i.e., the higher the education level, the higher the frequency of supplementation). In addition, mothers who were aware of functions of vitamin D and nutritional sources, significantly more frequently supplemented vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Public Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease: Recent Evidence and Controversies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081773
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin D (VD) is a pro-hormone essential for life in higher animals. It is present in few types of foods and is produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. The final step of VD activation occurs in the kidneys involving a
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Vitamin D (VD) is a pro-hormone essential for life in higher animals. It is present in few types of foods and is produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. The final step of VD activation occurs in the kidneys involving a second hydroxylation reaction to generate the biologically active metabolite 1,25(OH)2-VD. Extrarenal 1α-hydroxylation has also been described to have an important role in autocrine and paracrine signaling. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major public healthcare issue with an estimated prevalence of more than a billion people worldwide. Among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), VDD prevalence has been reported to be as high as 80%. Classically, VD plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the importance of VD in many vital non-skeletal biological processes such as endothelial function, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulation, redox balance and innate and adaptive immunity. In individuals with CKD, VDD has been associated with albuminuria, faster progression of kidney disease and increased all-cause mortality. Recent guidelines support VD supplementation in CKD based on extrapolation from cohorts conducted in the general population. In this review, we discuss new insights on the multifactorial pathophysiology of VDD in CKD as well as how it may negatively modulate different organs and systems. We also critically review the latest evidence and controversies of VD monitoring and supplementation in CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Public Health)
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