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Special Issue "Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2011)

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1626-1629; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051626
Received: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 28 April 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from
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This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Malignant Transformation of Rat Kidney Induced by Environmental Substances and Estrogen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1630-1648; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051630
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of organophosphorous insecticides in agricultural environments and in urban settings has increased significantly. The aim of the present study was to analyze morphological alterations induced by malathion and 17β-estradiol (estrogen) in rat kidney tissues. There were four groups of animals: control,
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The use of organophosphorous insecticides in agricultural environments and in urban settings has increased significantly. The aim of the present study was to analyze morphological alterations induced by malathion and 17β-estradiol (estrogen) in rat kidney tissues. There were four groups of animals: control, malathion, estrogen and combination of both substances. The animals were injected for five days and sacrificed 30, 124 and 240 days after treatments. Kidney tissues were analyzed for histomorphological and immunocytochemical alterations. Morphometric analysis indicated that malathion plus estrogen-treated animals showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher grade of glomerular hypertrophy, signs of tubular damage, atypical proliferation in cortical and hilium zone than malathion or estrogen alone-treated and control animals after 240 days. Results indicated that MFG, ER-α, ER-β, PgR, CYP1A1, Neu/ErbB2, PCNA, vimentin and Thrombospondin 1 (THB) protein expression was increased in convoluted tubules of animals treated with combination of malathion and estrogen after 240 days of 5 day treatment. Malignant proliferation was observed in the hilium zone. In summary, the combination of malathion and estrogen induced pathological lesions in glomeruli, convoluted tubules, atypical cell proliferation and malignant proliferation in hilium zone and immunocytochemical alterations in comparison to control animals or animals treated with either substance alone. It can be concluded that an increased risk of kidney malignant transformation can be induced by exposure to environmental and endogenous substances. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1649-1662; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051649
Received: 16 November 2011 / Revised: 12 December 2011 / Accepted: 13 December 2011 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (1725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital
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The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus induction (MN). For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1663-1676; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051663
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 28 December 2011 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty
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The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty animals divided into five groups (n = 6) were fed: (1) Control diet (CD); (2) High-saturated fat diet (HSFD); (3) High-unsaturated fat diet (HUFD); (4) High-digestible starch diet, (HDSD); and (5) High-resistant starch diet (HRSD) during eight weeks. HFDs and HCDs reduced weight gain in comparison with CD, however no statistical significance was reached. Calorie intake was similar in both HFDs and CD, but rats receiving HCDs showed higher calorie consumption than other groups, (p < 0.01). HRSD showed the lowest levels of serum and hepatic lipids. The HUFD induced the lowest fasting glycemia levels and HOMA-IR values. The HDSD group exhibited the highest insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol content. In conclusion, HUFD exhibited the most beneficial effects on glycemic control meanwhile HRSD induced the highest reduction on lipid content and did not modify insulin sensitivity. In both groups, HFDs and HCDs, the diet constituents were more important factors than caloric intake for metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1687-1698; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051687
Received: 11 January 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a
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A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS) and phosphorous (P). The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: 2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI < 2.3) in some points during autumn time to high levels (WQI > 2.8) most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1677-1686; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051677
Received: 21 October 2011 / Revised: 5 December 2011 / Accepted: 7 December 2011 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of
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The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations. Full article

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