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An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico
Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada, Km. 1, Colonia Zootecnia, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, CP 31000, Mexico
National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Animal Production, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, CP 31890, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2012; in revised form: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Abstract: A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS) and phosphorous (P). The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: 2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI < 2.3) in some points during autumn time to high levels (WQI > 2.8) most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season.
Keywords: WQI values; ANOVA; metals; water contamination; Chihuahua; Mexico
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Rubio-Arias, H.; Contreras-Caraveo, M.; Quintana, R.M.; Saucedo-Teran, R.A.; Pinales-Munguia, A. An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1687-1698.
Rubio-Arias H, Contreras-Caraveo M, Quintana RM, Saucedo-Teran RA, Pinales-Munguia A. An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(5):1687-1698.
Rubio-Arias, Hector; Contreras-Caraveo, Manuel; Quintana, Rey Manuel; Saucedo-Teran, Ruben Alfonso; Pinales-Munguia, Adan. 2012. "An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 5: 1687-1698.