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Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats
Centro de Investigación, DACS, Universidad Juarez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), Villahermosa, Tabasco 86150, Mexico
División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, UJAT, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86280, Mexico
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Metabólicas, Hospital de Especialidades, CMN, Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico D.F. 06703, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2011; in revised form: 28 December 2011 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Abstract: The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty animals divided into five groups (n = 6) were fed: (1) Control diet (CD); (2) High-saturated fat diet (HSFD); (3) High-unsaturated fat diet (HUFD); (4) High-digestible starch diet, (HDSD); and (5) High-resistant starch diet (HRSD) during eight weeks. HFDs and HCDs reduced weight gain in comparison with CD, however no statistical significance was reached. Calorie intake was similar in both HFDs and CD, but rats receiving HCDs showed higher calorie consumption than other groups, (p < 0.01). HRSD showed the lowest levels of serum and hepatic lipids. The HUFD induced the lowest fasting glycemia levels and HOMA-IR values. The HDSD group exhibited the highest insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol content. In conclusion, HUFD exhibited the most beneficial effects on glycemic control meanwhile HRSD induced the highest reduction on lipid content and did not modify insulin sensitivity. In both groups, HFDs and HCDs, the diet constituents were more important factors than caloric intake for metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance.
Keywords: metabolic control; high-carbohydrate diet; high-fat diet; resistant starch; insulin resistance
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Ble-Castillo, J.L.; Aparicio-Trapala, M.A.; Juárez-Rojop, I.E.; Torres-Lopez, J.E.; Mendez, J.D.; Aguilar-Mariscal, H.; Olvera-Hernández, V.; Palma-Cordova, L.C.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C. Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1663-1676.
Ble-Castillo JL, Aparicio-Trapala MA, Juárez-Rojop IE, Torres-Lopez JE, Mendez JD, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Olvera-Hernández V, Palma-Cordova LC, Diaz-Zagoya JC. Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(5):1663-1676.
Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trapala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Torres-Lopez, Jorge E.; Mendez, Jose D.; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Palma-Cordova, Leydi C.; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C. 2012. "Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 5: 1663-1676.