Special Issue "Current Developments in Cellulose Based Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yulin Deng

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Renewable Bioproducts Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street N.W., Atlanta, GA 30332-0620, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 404 894 5759
Fax: 404 894 4771
Interests: Nanomaterial synthesis and self-assembling; biofuel and biomass materials; colloid and interface science and engineering polymer synthesis; papermaking and paper recycling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), not only offer a sustainable and greener alternative for petroleum products, but also have high Young’s modulus, high strength, and are light weight, biodegradable, and biocompatible. These advantageous properties of cellulosic materials led to great interest in both fundamental studies and practical applications of CNCs and CNFs. The applications of cellulose based nanomaterials are very broad, such as high strength and low density composites, aerogels, oil/water separations, soft electronics, biosensors, hydrogels, drug delivery, energy devices, etc. According to the TAPPI (Technology Association of Pulp and Paper Institute) report, global demand for nanocellulose market was valued at USD 65.0 million in 2015, and is expected to reach USD 530.0 million in 2021, a growth of around 30.0% between 2016 and 2021. In terms of volume, the global nanocellulose market stood at 13,870 tons in 2015.

This Special Issue will publish both original studies and review articles, focusing on the following topics related to CNFs and CNCs

  • New technologies on high quality low cost manufacturing nanocellulosic materials
  • Characterization method developments
  • Chemical and physical modifications
  • Novel applications
  • Economic and environmental analysis of using CNFs and CNCs

Prof. Dr. Yulin Deng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cellulose
  • Nanocrystals
  • Nanofibers
  • Biodegradable
  • Composites
  • Modifications

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Composite Fibers Based on Cellulose and Betulin
Fibers 2018, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6020023
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Composite fibers and films based on cellulose and betulin were spun for the first time from solutions in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide using the dry–wet jet method. The rheological properties of the composite solutions did not reveal any fundamental difference from those of
[...] Read more.
Composite fibers and films based on cellulose and betulin were spun for the first time from solutions in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide using the dry–wet jet method. The rheological properties of the composite solutions did not reveal any fundamental difference from those of the cellulose solutions. Introduction of betulin into the cellulose matrix (up to 10%) led to a decrease in the mechanical properties of the obtained fibers. The structure of the composite fibers was analyzed using SEM and X-ray diffraction methods. It was shown that the introduction of an additive into the cellulose matrix led to a decrease in the structural ordering of the cellulose. Comparative studies of the antibacterial activity of the composite films on Escherichia coli (E. coli) were carried out. The antifungal activity of the composite films was estimated using the strain of the O-97 Trichoderma viride Pers ex Fr (Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, Moscow, Russia). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Developments in Cellulose Based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of Highly Hydrophobic Cellulose Nanoparticles through Post-Esterification Microfluidization
Fibers 2018, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6020022
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
A post-esterification with a high degree of substitution (hDS) mechanical treatment (Pe(hDS)M) approach was used for the production of highly hydrophobic cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs). The process has the advantages of substantially reducing the mechanical energy input for the production
[...] Read more.
A post-esterification with a high degree of substitution (hDS) mechanical treatment (Pe(hDS)M) approach was used for the production of highly hydrophobic cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs). The process has the advantages of substantially reducing the mechanical energy input for the production of CNPs and avoiding CNP aggregation through drying or solvent exchange. A conventional esterification reaction was carried out using a mixture of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and concentrated sulfuric acid, but at temperatures of 60–85 °C. The successful hDS esterification of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp fibers was confirmed by a variety of techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid state 13C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analyses, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The CNP morphology and size were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as dynamic light scattering. The hydrophobicity of the PeM-CNP was confirmed by the redispersion of freeze-dried CNPs into organic solvents and water contact-angle measurements. Finally, the partial conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II through esterification improved PeM-CNP thermal stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Developments in Cellulose Based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cellulose Acetate Fibers
Fibers 2017, 5(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib5040042
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers were reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain and toughness of the nanocomposite fiber increased up to 1.5 wt. % of the carbon nanotube (CNT) loading, however,
[...] Read more.
Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers were reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain and toughness of the nanocomposite fiber increased up to 1.5 wt. % of the carbon nanotube (CNT) loading, however, further inclusion (2.0%) of MWCNTs in CA decreased the mechanical properties. Experimental properties were also compared with analytical predictions using a Shear lag model for strength and the rule of mixture for modulus. A solution spinning process, coupled with sonication, mixing, and extrusion, was used to process the CNT-reinforced composite fiber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the cross sections of neat CA and CA-MWCNT fibers showed the formation of voids and irregular features. The enhanced interconnected fibrillation in the CNT-reinforced CA samples resulted in improved mechanical properties, which were observed by tensile testing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra showed the area under the curve for C–H bonding after the inclusion of CNT. There was no significant shift of wavenumber for the inclusion of MWCNT in the CA matrix, which indicates that the sonication process of the CNT-loaded solution did not degrade the CA bonding structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Developments in Cellulose Based Nanomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Synthetic Strategies for the Fabrication of Cationic Surface-Modified Cellulose Nanocrystals
Fibers 2018, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6010015
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable nanosized materials with exceptional physicochemical properties that continue to garner a high level of attention in both industry and academia for their potential high-end material applications. These rod-shaped CNCs are appealing due to their non-toxic, carbohydrate-based chemical structure,
[...] Read more.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable nanosized materials with exceptional physicochemical properties that continue to garner a high level of attention in both industry and academia for their potential high-end material applications. These rod-shaped CNCs are appealing due to their non-toxic, carbohydrate-based chemical structure, large surface area, and the presence of ample surface hydroxyl groups for chemical surface modifications. CNCs, generally prepared from sulfuric acid-mediated hydrolysis of native cellulose, display an anionic surface that has been exploited for a number of applications. However, several recent studies showed the importance of CNCs’ surface charge reversal towards the design of functional cationic CNCs. Cationization of CNCs could further open up other innovative applications, in particular, bioapplications such as gene and drug delivery, vaccine adjuvants, and tissue engineering. This mini-review focuses mainly on the recent covalent synthetic methods for the design and fabrication of cationic CNCs as well as their potential bioapplications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Developments in Cellulose Based Nanomaterials)
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