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Special Issue "Coal, Biomass & Solid Refuse Combustion"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vasily Novozhilov

Centre for Environmental Safety and Risk Engineering (CESARE), Victoria University, Room 4203, Level 2, Building 4, Hoppers Lane, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 61 3 9919 8612
Fax: (61) 3 9919 8058
Interests: fire safety science; combustion; heat transfer; computational fluid dynamics; applied mathematics Contribution: Special Issue: Combustion for Aerospace Propulsion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The focus of the present issue is on fundamentals and application of combustion processes involving various solid fuels. Increasing demand for energy, on the one hand, and necessity to mitigate environmental impact on the other, are major forces driving development of efficient and clean technologies for energy production. Such development is impossible without better understanding of complicated combustion in multiphase systems. Content of the volume is expected to show key interactions between combustion science and technological design. Issues of primary interest are various system arrangements for industrial combustion of solid fuels, for example, fixed and fluidized beds, pulverised systems, and others. Fundamental issues demanding analysis are solid fuel devolatilisation, kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, heat, mass transfer and dynamics in multiphase mixtures. A blend of experimental and modelling studies is sought to cover recent progress in the area. With current environmental concerns, a range of solid fuels applied for energy generation continues to expand significantly, especially to include more biomass and refuse-derived fuels. This change brings about new technologies, related for example to incineration with energy recovery. Contribution concerning such new technologies will also be very important. Both original and review papers may be submitted for consideration.

Prof. Dr. Vasily Novozhilov
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • solid fuel devolitilisation
  • combustion kinetics
  • heat
  • mass
  • transfer and dynamics in multiphase systems
  • fixed and fluidized beds
  • pulverised combustion
  • incineration

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Application of the NOx Reaction Model for Development of Low-NOx Combustion Technology for Pulverized Coals by Using the Gas Phase Stoichiometric Ratio Index
Energies 2011, 4(3), 545-562; doi:10.3390/en4030545
Received: 9 December 2010 / Revised: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 16 March 2011 / Published: 23 March 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously proposed the gas phase stoichiometric ratio (SRgas) as an index to evaluate NOx concentration in fuel-rich flames. The SRgas index was defined as the amount of fuel required for stoichiometric combustion/amount of gasified fuel, where the amount of
[...] Read more.
We previously proposed the gas phase stoichiometric ratio (SRgas) as an index to evaluate NOx concentration in fuel-rich flames. The SRgas index was defined as the amount of fuel required for stoichiometric combustion/amount of gasified fuel, where the amount of gasified fuel was the amount of fuel which had been released to the gas phase by pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification reactions. In the present study we found that SRgas was a good index to consider the gas phase reaction mechanism in fuel-rich pulverized coal flames. When SRgas < 1.0, NOx concentration was strongly influenced by the SRgas value. NOx concentration was also calculated by using a reaction model. The model was verified for various coals, particle diameters, reaction times, and initial oxygen concentrations. The most important reactions were gas phase NOx reduction reactions by hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon concentration was estimated based on SRgas. We also investigated the ratio as an index to develop a new low-NOx combustion technology for pulverized coals. We examined the relation between local SRgas distribution in the fuel-rich region in the low-NOx flame and NOx emissions at the furnace exit, by varying burner structures. The relationship between local SRgas value and local NOx concentration was also examined. When a low-NOx type burner was used, the value of SRgas in the flame was readily decreased. When the local SRgas value was the same, it was difficult to influence the local NOx concentration by changing the burner structure. For staged combustion, the most important item was to design the burner structure and arrangement so that SRgas could be lowered as much as possible just before mixing with staged air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal, Biomass & Solid Refuse Combustion)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China
Energies 2011, 4(1), 26-38; doi:10.3390/en4010026
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 23 December 2010 / Accepted: 23 December 2010 / Published: 27 December 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of
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With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of scale, efficiency and structure. The indicators associated with urban energy consumption show large spatial variance across regions, possibly due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability in China. In absolute terms, cities with the highest total energy consumption are mostly distributed in economic-developed regions as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta of China, however, the per capita urban energy use is significantly higher in the Mid-and-Western regions. With regard to the energy mix, coal still plays the dominant role and cities in Mid-and-Western regions rely more on coal. In contrast, high quality energy carrier as electricity and oils are more used in southeast coastal zone and northern developed areas. The energy intensive cities are mainly located in the northwest, while the cities with higher efficiency are in southeast areas. The large spatial variance of urban energy consumption was also verified by the Theil indices. Considering the Chinese economy-zones of East, Middle and West, the within-group inequalities are the main factor contributing to overall difference, e.g., the Theil index for per capita energy consumption of within-group is 0.18, much higher than that of between group (0.07), and the same applies to other indicators. In light of the spatial variance of urban energy consumptions in China, therefore, regionalized and type-based management of urban energy systems is badly needed to effectively address the ongoing energy strategies and targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal, Biomass & Solid Refuse Combustion)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics
Energies 2010, 3(9), 1576-1585; doi:10.3390/en3091576
Received: 19 August 2010 / Revised: 26 August 2010 / Accepted: 30 August 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet
[...] Read more.
Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal, Biomass & Solid Refuse Combustion)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Evaluation of Various Solid Biomass Fuels Using Thermal Analysis and Gas Emission Tests
Energies 2011, 4(4), 616-627; doi:10.3390/en4040616
Received: 21 February 2011 / Revised: 28 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Various recently proposed biomass fuels are reviewed from the point of view of their safety. Many biomass materials are proposed for use as fuels, such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), wood chips, coal-wood mixtures, etc. However, these fuels have high energy potentials
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Various recently proposed biomass fuels are reviewed from the point of view of their safety. Many biomass materials are proposed for use as fuels, such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), wood chips, coal-wood mixtures, etc. However, these fuels have high energy potentials and can cause fires and explosions. We have experienced many such incidents. It is very difficult to extinguish fires in huge piles of biomass fuel or storage facilities. Here current studies on heat generation for these materials and proposed evaluation methods for these new developing materials in Japan are introduced, which are consistent with measurements using highly sensitive calorimeters such as C80, or TAM, and gas emission tests. The highly sensitive calorimeters can detect small heat generation between room temperature and 80 °C, due to fermentation or other causes. This heat generation sometimes initiates real fires, and also produces combustible gases which can explode if fuel is stored in silos or indoor storage facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal, Biomass & Solid Refuse Combustion)

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