Next Article in Journal
Offshore Antarctic Peninsula Gas Hydrate Reservoir Characterization by Geophysical Data Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Application of the NOx Reaction Model for Development of Low-NOx Combustion Technology for Pulverized Coals by Using the Gas Phase Stoichiometric Ratio Index
Previous Article in Journal
A Review of Recent Advances on the Effects of Microstructural Refinement and Nano-Catalytic Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of Metal and Complex Hydrides
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics
Energies 2011, 4(1), 26-38; doi:10.3390/en4010026
Article

Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China

1
, 1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 24 November 2010; in revised form: 23 December 2010 / Accepted: 23 December 2010 / Published: 27 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal, Biomass & Solid Refuse Combustion)
Download PDF [497 KB, uploaded 27 December 2010]
Abstract: With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of scale, efficiency and structure. The indicators associated with urban energy consumption show large spatial variance across regions, possibly due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability in China. In absolute terms, cities with the highest total energy consumption are mostly distributed in economic-developed regions as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta of China, however, the per capita urban energy use is significantly higher in the Mid-and-Western regions. With regard to the energy mix, coal still plays the dominant role and cities in Mid-and-Western regions rely more on coal. In contrast, high quality energy carrier as electricity and oils are more used in southeast coastal zone and northern developed areas. The energy intensive cities are mainly located in the northwest, while the cities with higher efficiency are in southeast areas. The large spatial variance of urban energy consumption was also verified by the Theil indices. Considering the Chinese economy-zones of East, Middle and West, the within-group inequalities are the main factor contributing to overall difference, e.g., the Theil index for per capita energy consumption of within-group is 0.18, much higher than that of between group (0.07), and the same applies to other indicators. In light of the spatial variance of urban energy consumptions in China, therefore, regionalized and type-based management of urban energy systems is badly needed to effectively address the ongoing energy strategies and targets.
Keywords: urban energy system; spatial variance; Theil index; China urban energy system; spatial variance; Theil index; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Yang, Z.; Liang, J.; Cai, Y. Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China. Energies 2011, 4, 26-38.

AMA Style

Zhang L, Yang Z, Liang J, Cai Y. Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China. Energies. 2011; 4(1):26-38.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Lixiao; Yang, Zhifeng; Liang, Jing; Cai, Yanpeng. 2011. "Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China." Energies 4, no. 1: 26-38.


Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert