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Special Issue "Hydrogen Storage"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Michael Hirscher

Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Interests: hydrogen storage; micro-porous materials; activated carbons; metal-organic frameworks (MOFs); metal hydrides; complex hydrides; scaffold materials; nanoconfinement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a future world with renewable energies and less environmental pollution the major problem is energy storage. Owing to the high energy content by weight, hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for mobile applications. However, hydrogen storage is still the major bottleneck for a fast commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles. The present technologies, as compressed gas or liquefied hydrogen, possess severe disadvantages and storage of hydrogen in light-weight solids or liquids could be the solution to this problem.

This Special Issue will focus on newest developments in hydrogen storage. Submission of papers on novel materials, possessing high and reversible hydrogen storage capacities, are especially emphasized.

Dr. Michael Hirscher
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • metal hydrides
  • complex hydrides
  • amides
  • imides
  • clathrates
  • micro-porous materials
  • MOFs
  • nanoparticles
  • hybrid materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Affects of Mechanical Milling and Metal Oxide Additives on Sorption Kinetics of 1:1 LiNH2/MgH2 Mixture
Energies 2011, 4(5), 826-844; doi:10.3390/en4050826
Received: 18 March 2011 / Revised: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 6 May 2011 / Published: 20 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The destabilized complex hydride system composed of LiNH2:MgH2 (1:1 molar ratio) is one of the leading candidates of hydrogen storage with a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 8.1 wt%. A low sorption enthalpy of ~32 kJ/mole H2 was first
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The destabilized complex hydride system composed of LiNH2:MgH2 (1:1 molar ratio) is one of the leading candidates of hydrogen storage with a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 8.1 wt%. A low sorption enthalpy of ~32 kJ/mole H2 was first predicted by Alapati et al. utilizing first principle density function theory (DFT) calculations and has been subsequently confirmed empirically by Lu et al. through differential thermal analysis (DTA). This enthalpy suggests that favorable sorption kinetics should be obtainable at temperatures in the range of 160 °C to 200 °C. Preliminary experiments reported in the literature indicate that sorption kinetics are substantially lower than expected in this temperature range despite favorable thermodynamics. Systematic isothermal and isobaric sorption experiments were performed using a Sievert’s apparatus to form a baseline data set by which to compare kinetic results over the pressure and temperature range anticipated for use of this material as a hydrogen storage media. Various material preparation methods and compositional modifications were performed in attempts to increase the kinetics while lowering the sorption temperatures. This paper outlines the results of these systematic tests and describes a number of beneficial additions which influence kinetics as well as NH3 formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage)

Review

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Open AccessReview Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy
Energies 2011, 4(2), 254-275; doi:10.3390/en4020254
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 8 January 2011 / Accepted: 28 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen
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The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) à 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage)
Figures

Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Metal Borohydrides for Hydrogen Storage
Energies 2011, 4(1), 185-214; doi:10.3390/en4010185
Received: 23 November 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
Cited by 228 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prerequisite for widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the development of new materials that can safely store it at high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal borohydrides M(BH4)n (n is the valence of metal M
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The prerequisite for widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the development of new materials that can safely store it at high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal borohydrides M(BH4)n (n is the valence of metal M), in particular, have high hydrogen density, and are therefore regarded as one such potential hydrogen storage material. For fuel cell vehicles, the goal for on-board storage systems is to achieve reversible store at high density but moderate temperature and hydrogen pressure. To this end, a large amount of effort has been devoted to improvements in their thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. This review provides an overview of recent research activity on various M(BH4)n, with a focus on the fundamental dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation properties and on providing guidance for material design in terms of tailoring thermodynamics and promoting kinetics for hydrogen storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage)
Open AccessReview A Review of Recent Advances on the Effects of Microstructural Refinement and Nano-Catalytic Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of Metal and Complex Hydrides
Energies 2011, 4(1), 1-25; doi:10.3390/en4010001
Received: 11 November 2010 / Revised: 10 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 24 December 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (1129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent advances on the effects of microstructural refinement and various nano-catalytic additives on the hydrogen storage properties of metal and complex hydrides obtained in the last few years in the allied laboratories at the University of Waterloo (Canada) and Military University of
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The recent advances on the effects of microstructural refinement and various nano-catalytic additives on the hydrogen storage properties of metal and complex hydrides obtained in the last few years in the allied laboratories at the University of Waterloo (Canada) and Military University of Technology (Warsaw, Poland) are critically reviewed in this paper. The research results indicate that microstructural refinement (particle and grain size) induced by ball milling influences quite modestly the hydrogen storage properties of simple metal and complex metal hydrides. On the other hand, the addition of nanometric elemental metals acting as potent catalysts and/or metal halide catalytic precursors brings about profound improvements in the hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics for simple metal and complex metal hydrides alike. In general, catalytic precursors react with the hydride matrix forming a metal salt and free nanometric or amorphous elemental metals/intermetallics which, in turn, act catalytically. However, these catalysts change only kinetic properties i.e. the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate but they do not change thermodynamics (e.g., enthalpy change of hydrogen sorption reactions). It is shown that a complex metal hydride, LiAlH4, after high energy ball milling with a nanometric Ni metal catalyst and/or MnCl2 catalytic precursor, is able to desorb relatively large quantities of hydrogen at RT, 40 and 80 °C. This kind of behavior is very encouraging for the future development of solid state hydrogen systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage)

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