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Energies 2011, 4(1), 1-25; doi:10.3390/en4010001
Review

A Review of Recent Advances on the Effects of Microstructural Refinement and Nano-Catalytic Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of Metal and Complex Hydrides

1,* , 1
, 2
 and 2
Received: 11 November 2010; in revised form: 10 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 24 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage)
Download PDF [1129 KB, uploaded 27 December 2010]
Abstract: The recent advances on the effects of microstructural refinement and various nano-catalytic additives on the hydrogen storage properties of metal and complex hydrides obtained in the last few years in the allied laboratories at the University of Waterloo (Canada) and Military University of Technology (Warsaw, Poland) are critically reviewed in this paper. The research results indicate that microstructural refinement (particle and grain size) induced by ball milling influences quite modestly the hydrogen storage properties of simple metal and complex metal hydrides. On the other hand, the addition of nanometric elemental metals acting as potent catalysts and/or metal halide catalytic precursors brings about profound improvements in the hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics for simple metal and complex metal hydrides alike. In general, catalytic precursors react with the hydride matrix forming a metal salt and free nanometric or amorphous elemental metals/intermetallics which, in turn, act catalytically. However, these catalysts change only kinetic properties i.e. the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate but they do not change thermodynamics (e.g., enthalpy change of hydrogen sorption reactions). It is shown that a complex metal hydride, LiAlH4, after high energy ball milling with a nanometric Ni metal catalyst and/or MnCl2 catalytic precursor, is able to desorb relatively large quantities of hydrogen at RT, 40 and 80 °C. This kind of behavior is very encouraging for the future development of solid state hydrogen systems.
Keywords: solid state hydrogen storage; ball milling; microstructural refinement; particle/grain size; nano-catalytic additives; simple metal and complex hydride solid state hydrogen storage; ball milling; microstructural refinement; particle/grain size; nano-catalytic additives; simple metal and complex hydride
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Varin, R.A.; Zbroniec, L.; Polanski, M.; Bystrzycki, J. A Review of Recent Advances on the Effects of Microstructural Refinement and Nano-Catalytic Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of Metal and Complex Hydrides. Energies 2011, 4, 1-25.

AMA Style

Varin RA, Zbroniec L, Polanski M, Bystrzycki J. A Review of Recent Advances on the Effects of Microstructural Refinement and Nano-Catalytic Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of Metal and Complex Hydrides. Energies. 2011; 4(1):1-25.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Varin, Robert A.; Zbroniec, Leszek; Polanski, Marek; Bystrzycki, Jerzy. 2011. "A Review of Recent Advances on the Effects of Microstructural Refinement and Nano-Catalytic Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of Metal and Complex Hydrides." Energies 4, no. 1: 1-25.


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