Special Issue "NMR in Medicine"
A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2015
Dr. Krishan Kumar
Director, Laboratory for Translational Research in Imaging Pharmaceuticals; Ohio State Molecular Imaging Pharmaceutical Scholar; Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, 460 West 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43240, USA
Interests: Targeted MRI Contrast Agents, Nano Material Based MRI Contrast Agents, PET Imaging Agents Using Antibodies and Antibody Fragments, and Process Development for PET Radionuclides Production and Separation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become a routine technique in diagnostics imaging. Millions of MRI procedures are performed every year. It is a safe, non-invasive, and non-destructive tool for imaging soft tissues and for detecting tumors in many organs. Significant progress has been made since the first demonstration of the MRI in the 1970’s; increasingly sophisticated instrumentations and T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents (CAs) have been developed. For example, numerous CAs have become available commercially since the introduction of the first gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent in the 1980s. Subsequently, gadolinium-based CAs have become the subject of a black-box warning from the US FDA. This was due to reported serious side effects, termed Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF), in patients with impaired renal functions. Therefore, recent research has been focused on the development of a newer generation of MRI contrast agents with greater efficiency (high relaxivity), and increased safety (i.e., no loss of gadolinium in vivo) and targeting capability; these developments include several nanoparticle-based technologies.
Hybrid technologies involving PET/CT and SPECT/CT are being used routinely in the clinic with many thousands of scanners being used worldwide, while PET/MR imaging has been recently approved for clinical use. This encourages researchers to investigate the further development of SPECT/MR based technology. This Special Issue will provide a forum for communication among chemists, physicists, biologists, biochemists, and medical practitioners, such a radiologists. The issue will focus on research and review articles related to developments in MRI technologies, novel MRI contrast agents, clinical applications, and pharmacovigilance.
Dr. Krishan Kumar
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, NMR
- NMR in Biomedicine
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI
- Contrast Agents
- MRI Contrast Agents
- Enhanced Relaxivity
- T1 Agents, T2 Agents
- Nanoparticulate-Based MRI Contrast Agents
- PET/MR, SPECT/MR
- Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Early Diagnosis of Acute Renal Rejection Based on Using Diffusion MR images
Author: Ayman El-Baz
Abstract: This paper introduces a novel computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for early diagnosis of acute renal rejection (ARR) from 4D diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data (3D + b-value). The proposed CAD system starts with aligning the DW-MRI data using Bsplines based registration to handle the motion effects, which come from breathing and heart beats. This is followed by the segmentation of the kidney tissue using geometric (level-sets based) deformable model, which is guided by a new stochastic speed relationship that takes into account an adaptive kidney shape prior and the visual appearance of the kidney. The voxel-wise guiding of the level-sets is obtained by integrating these image features into a joint Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF) model of the kidney and its background. The final step of the proposed CAD system is to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between different b-values of the segmented DW-MRI data to distinguish between rejection and nonrejection renal transplants. Experimental results on 35 subjects, using a Kn classifier and leave-one-subject-out, have classified 91.5% of the subjects correctly (18 out of 20 rejection kidneys and 14 out of 15 nonrejection kidneys). These initial diagnostic results hold promise of the proposed CAD system as a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool.
Title: Molecular imaging of tumors using a quantitative T1 mapping technique via magnetic resonance imaging
Author: Susann Brady-Kalnay
Abstract: T1-weighted analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a molecular imaging agent demonstrated that the SBK2 probe labels brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents. Unfortunately, T1-weighted images are not truly quantitative. To more accurately compare MRI probes, we used a T1-mapping technique., We find that SBK2, scrambled probe and the non-specific contrast agent Optimark all label flank tumors of human glioma cells with equal peak contrast, but that the retention of the probes differs using T1-mapping. The specific agent SBK2 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery in T1 over 60 minutes while significant recovery is seen within 20 minutes in the non-specific agents. Evaluating MRI with T1-mapping at the peak contrast time point also gives us a numerical value for the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect seen in tumors with non-specific conventional contrast agents. Quantitative T1-mapping demonstrates the superior labeling of the SBK2 probe to non-specific clinical contrast agents currently in use.
Last update: 21 April 2015