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Diagnostics 2015, 5(3), 318-332; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5030318

Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1
Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
4
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
5
Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
6
Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
7
The National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR) Center for Molecular Imaging, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
8
Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krishan Kumar
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Medicine)
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Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; molecular imaging; T1 relaxation time; cancer imaging; tumor detection; protein tyrosine phosphatase; PTPmu magnetic resonance imaging; molecular imaging; T1 relaxation time; cancer imaging; tumor detection; protein tyrosine phosphatase; PTPmu
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Herrmann, K.; Johansen, M.L.; Craig, S.E.; Vincent, J.; Howell, M.; Gao, Y.; Lu, L.; Erokwu, B.; Agnes, R.S.; Lu, Z.-R.; Pokorski, J.K.; Basilion, J.; Gulani, V.; Griswold, M.; Flask, C.; Brady-Kalnay, S.M. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Diagnostics 2015, 5, 318-332.

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