E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Junji Cao

Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 10 Fenghui South Road, High-Tech Zone Xi’an 710075, China
E-Mail
Phone: +86-29-8832-6488
Fax: +86-29-8832-0456
Interests: PM2.5, Haze pollution, Source apportionment, Air quality
Guest Editor
Dr. Ru-Jin Huang

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute(PSI), 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
E-Mail
Interests: secondary organic aerosol, source apportionment, new particle formation, heterogeneous chemistry, mass spectrometry
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guohui Li

Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 99 Yanxiang Rd, Qujiang Zone Xi’an 710061, China
E-Mail
Interests: numerical simulation, human health, climatic impact

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atmospheric aerosol particles strongly affect air quality and human health. They are the main cause of severe haze pollution in Eastern-Southern Asia and induced ~7 million premature deaths in 2012, as recently reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Aerosol is also the most uncertain component in the radiative forcing of climate. A quantitative understanding of these impacts requires a detailed knowledge of the particle sources and composition, atmospheric transformation, and physical/chemical properties. However, such quantification has proven to be a challenging task, due in part to the major uncertainties in the production and atmospheric aging of secondary aerosol.

Numerous studies have shown that organic aerosol typically constitutes 20-90% of the total submicron aerosol. Organic aerosol can be directly emitted (primary organic aerosol, POA), or formed by atmospheric reactions of gas-phase precursors, of either biogenic or anthropogenic origin (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Organic aerosol is typically dominated by SOA even in near-source regions, thus highlighting the important effects of rapid aging processes on aerosol concentrations and physical/chemical properties.

Considerable advances have been made in the past decade in terms of better understanding of atmospheric aerosol and its impacts. However, more studies are needed, especially those concerning the sources, formation, and transformation of secondary aerosols and their impacts on human health and climate. Manuscripts on these aspects are welcome for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Junji Cao
Dr. Ru-Jin Huang
Prof. Dr. Guohui Li
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle A Case Study of Chemical Characteristics of Daytime and Nighttime Ambient Particles in Shanghai, China
Atmosphere 2015, 6(8), 1141-1153; doi:10.3390/atmos6081141
Received: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ambient daytime and nighttime PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and TSP (the total suspended particulates) samples were collected at two sites (named Pudong and Jinshan) in Shanghai. The concentrations of PM2.5 and TSP were lower at
[...] Read more.
Ambient daytime and nighttime PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and TSP (the total suspended particulates) samples were collected at two sites (named Pudong and Jinshan) in Shanghai. The concentrations of PM2.5 and TSP were lower at Pudong than at Jinshan. Higher PM2.5 and TSP concentrations were observed during daytime than nighttime for both sites. Carbonaceous aerosol and secondary sulfate were the most abundant components. Larger enrichment factor (EFs) of Zn, Pb, Cl, and S for Jinshan nighttime were observed than for other sampling periods. PM2.5 showed higher relative spatial uniformity (the coefficients of divergence, COD = 0.18) than TSP (COD = 0.23) during the sampling period. The variations of chemical components and the species ratios showed that the contributions of primary particulate emissions in Jinshan (industrial zone) were more significant than in Pudong (residential zone). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle In-Situ Aircraft Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Black Carbon in the Lower Troposphere of Beijing, China, in the Spring and Summer Time
Atmosphere 2015, 6(5), 713-731; doi:10.3390/atmos6050713
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to rapid economic development in recent years, China has become a major global source of refractory black carbon (rBC) particles. However, surface rBC measurements have been limited, and the lower troposphere suffers from a complete lack of measurements, especially in heavily rBC-polluted
[...] Read more.
Due to rapid economic development in recent years, China has become a major global source of refractory black carbon (rBC) particles. However, surface rBC measurements have been limited, and the lower troposphere suffers from a complete lack of measurements, especially in heavily rBC-polluted regions such as China’s capital, Beijing (BJ). In this study, we present the first concentration measurements using an airborne Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument, including vertical distributions, size distributions, and the mixing state of rBC particles in the lower troposphere in BJ and its surrounding areas. The measurements were conducted from April to June 2012 during 11 flights. The results show that the vertical rBC distributions had noticeable differences between different air masses. When an air mass originated from the south of BJ (polluted region), the rBC particles were strongly compressed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and showed a large vertical gradient at the top of the PBL. In contrast, when an air mass originated from the north of BJ (clean region), there was a small vertical gradient. This analysis suggests that there was significant regional transport of rBC particles that enhanced the air pollution in BJ, and the transport not only occurred near the surface but also in the middle levels of the PBL (around 0.5 to 1 km). The measured size distributions show that about 80% of the rBC particles were between the diameters of 70 and 400 nm, and the mean diameter of the peak rBC concentrations was about 180–210 nm. This suggests that the rBC particles were relatively small particles. The mixing state of the rBC particles was analyzed to study the coating processes that occurred on the surface of these particles. The results indicate that the air mass strongly affected the number fraction (NF) of the coated particles. As for a southern air mass, the local air pollution was high, which was coupled with a lower PBL height and higher humidity. Consequently, hygroscopic growth occurred rapidly, producing a high NF value (~65%) of coated rBC particles. The correlation coefficient between the NF and the local relative humidity (RH) was 0.88, suggesting that the rBC particles were quickly converted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic particles. This rapid conversion is very important because it suggests a shorter lifetime of rBC particles under heavily polluted conditions. In contrast, under a northern air mass, there was no clear correlation between the NF and the local humidity. This suggests that the coating process occurred during the regional transport in the upwind region. In this case, the lifetime was longer than the southern air mass condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Carbonaceous Species in PM2.5 in Wanzhou in the Hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservior of Northeast Chongqing, China
Atmosphere 2015, 6(4), 534-546; doi:10.3390/atmos6040534
Received: 4 January 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Daily PM2.5 samples were collected in the four consecutive seasons in 2013 in Wanzhou, the second largest city in Chongqing Municipality of China and in the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservior on Yangtze River and analyzed for the mass concentrations and carbonaceous
[...] Read more.
Daily PM2.5 samples were collected in the four consecutive seasons in 2013 in Wanzhou, the second largest city in Chongqing Municipality of China and in the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservior on Yangtze River and analyzed for the mass concentrations and carbonaceous species of PM2.5 to investigate the abundance and seasonal characteristics of PM2.5, and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). The annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 125.3 μg·m−3, while OC and EC were 23.6 μg·m−3 and 8.7 μg·m−3, respectively. The total carbonaceous aerosol (TCA) accounted for 32.6% of the PM2.5 mass. On seasonal average, the OC and EC concentrations ranked in the order of winter > fall > spring > summer, which could be attributed to the combined effects of changes in local emissions and seasonal meteorological conditions. Strong OC-EC correlations were found in the winter and fall, suggesting the contributions of similar sources. The lowest OC-EC correlation occurred in the summer, probably due to the increases in biogenic emission and formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through photochemical activity. Average secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentration was 9.0 μg·m−3, accounting for 32.3% of the total OC. The average ratios of SOA/PM2.5 of 3.8%~15.7% indicated that SOA was a minor fraction in fine particles of Wanzhou. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Policy Influence on Long-Term Indoor Air Quality in Emperor Qin’s Terra-Cotta Museum, China
Atmosphere 2015, 6(4), 474-489; doi:10.3390/atmos6040474
Received: 22 January 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long-term measurement results of indoor air quality (IAQ) from 1989 to 2013 inside Pit No. 1, the largest display hall in Emperor Qin’s Terra-cotta Museum (QTM), were used to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for conservation environment improvement of antiques. By comparing the
[...] Read more.
Long-term measurement results of indoor air quality (IAQ) from 1989 to 2013 inside Pit No. 1, the largest display hall in Emperor Qin’s Terra-cotta Museum (QTM), were used to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for conservation environment improvement of antiques. By comparing the results of sampling campaigns in 2013 with databases in 1989, 2004–2005, 2006–2007 and 2011, seasonal and inter-annual variation in microclimate, aerosol chemical compositions and gaseous pollutant concentrations were incorporated in estimating the probable influences of the management of the surroundings, tourist flow, excavation and restoration tasks and renovation and/or new construction work on IAQ in the QTM. After the implementation of the environmental policies in 1990s, a significant decrease of indoor particulate matter mass for the QTM was quantified. The mass concentrations of summer TSP decreased from 540.0 μg∙m−3 in 1994 to 172.4 μg∙m−3 in 2004, as well as the winter TSP decreased from 380.0 μg∙m−3 in 1994 to 312.5 μg∙m−3 in 2005. The mass concentrations of summer PM2.5 decreased from 108.4 μg∙m−3 in 2004 to 65.7 μg∙m−3 in 2013, as well as the winter PM2.5 decreased from 242.3 μg∙m−3 in 2005 to 98.6 μg∙m−3 in 2013. However, it is noted that potential hazards due to the fluctuant microclimate conditions, gaseous and secondary particulate acidic species in indoor air should still be considered to ensure the long-term preservation and conservation of the museum’s artifact collection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Organic and Elemental Carbon in PM2.5 and PM0.25 in Indoor and Outdoor Environments of a Middle School: Secondary Formation of Organic Carbon and Sources Identification
Atmosphere 2015, 6(3), 361-379; doi:10.3390/atmos6030361
Received: 24 December 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Secondary organic carbon (SOC) formation and its effects on human health require better understanding in Chinese megacities characterized by a severe particulate pollution and robust economic reform. This study investigated organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 and PM0.25
[...] Read more.
Secondary organic carbon (SOC) formation and its effects on human health require better understanding in Chinese megacities characterized by a severe particulate pollution and robust economic reform. This study investigated organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 and PM0.25 collected 8–20 March 2012. Samples were collected inside and outside a classroom in a middle school at Xi’an. On average, OC and EC accounted for 20%–30% of the particulate matter (PM) mass concentration. By applying the EC-tracer method, SOC’s contribution to OC in both PM size fractions was demonstrated. The observed changes in SOC:OC ratios can be attributed to variations in the primary production processes, the photochemical reactions, the intensity of free radicals, and the meteorological conditions. Total carbon (TC) source apportionment by formula derivation showed that coal combustion, motor vehicle exhaust, and secondary formation were the major sources of carbonaceous aerosol. Coal combustion appeared to be the largest contributor to TC (50%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (25%) and SOC (18%) in both size fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Black Carbon Aerosol during the Chinese Lunar Year and Weekdays in Xi’an, China
Atmosphere 2015, 6(2), 195-208; doi:10.3390/atmos6020195
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 9 January 2015 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Black carbon (BC) aerosol plays an important role in climate forcing. The net radiative effect is strongly dependent on the physical properties of BC particles. A single particle soot photometer and a carbon monoxide analyser were deployed during the Chinese Lunar Year (CLY)
[...] Read more.
Black carbon (BC) aerosol plays an important role in climate forcing. The net radiative effect is strongly dependent on the physical properties of BC particles. A single particle soot photometer and a carbon monoxide analyser were deployed during the Chinese Lunar Year (CLY) and on weekdays at Xi’an, China, to investigate the characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosol (rBC). The rBC mass on weekdays (8.4 μg·m−3) exceeds that during the CLY (1.9 μg·m−3), presumably due to the lower anthropogenic emissions during the latter. The mass size distribution of rBC shows a primary mode peak at ~205 nm and a small secondary mode peak at ~102-nm volume-equivalent diameter assuming 2 g·cm−3 in void-free density in both sets of samples. More than half of the rBC cores are thickly coated during the CLY (fBC = 57.5%); the percentage is slightly lower (fBC = 48.3%) on weekdays. Diurnal patterns in rBC mass and mixing state differ for the two sampling periods, which are attributed to the distinct anthropogenic activities. The rBC mass and CO mixing ratios are strongly correlated with slopes of 0.0070 and 0.0016 μg·m−3·ppbv−1 for weekdays and the CLY, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle PM2.5 Chemical Compositions and Aerosol Optical Properties in Beijing during the Late Fall
Atmosphere 2015, 6(2), 164-182; doi:10.3390/atmos6020164
Received: 21 November 2014 / Revised: 31 December 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Daily PM2.5 mass concentrations and chemical compositions together with the aerosol optical properties were measured from 8–28 November 2011 in Beijing. PM2.5 mass concentration varied from 15.6–237.5 μg∙m−3 and showed a mean value of 111.2 ± 73.4 μg∙m−3.
[...] Read more.
Daily PM2.5 mass concentrations and chemical compositions together with the aerosol optical properties were measured from 8–28 November 2011 in Beijing. PM2.5 mass concentration varied from 15.6–237.5 μg∙m−3 and showed a mean value of 111.2 ± 73.4 μg∙m−3. Organic matter, NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were the major constituents of PM2.5, accounting for 39.4%, 15.4%, and 14.9% of the total mass, respectively, while fine soil, chloride salt, and elemental carbon together accounted for 27.7%. Daily scattering and absorption coefficients (σsc and σap) were in the range of 31.1–667 Mm−1 and 8.24–158.0 Mm−1, with mean values of 270 ± 200 Mm−1 and 74.3 ± 43.4 Mm−1. Significant increases in σsc and σap were observed during the pollution accumulation episodes. The revised IMPROVE algorithm was applied to estimate the extinction coefficient (bext). On average, organic matter was the largest contributor, accounting for 44.6% of bext, while (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, elemental carbon, and fine soil accounted for 16.3% 18.0%, 18.6%, and 2.34% of bext, respectively. Nevertheless, the contributions of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 were significantly higher during the heavy pollution periods than those on clean days. Typical pollution episodes were also explored, and it has been characterized that secondary formation of inorganic compounds is more important than carbonaceous pollution for visibility impairment in Beijing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle Variations in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 in an Urban Area of the Sichuan Basin and Their Relation to Meteorological Factors
Atmosphere 2015, 6(1), 150-163; doi:10.3390/atmos6010150
Received: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 9 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Daily average monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 and meteorological parameters at Chengdu from 2009 to 2011 are analyzed using statistical methods to replicate the effect of urban air pollution in Chengdu metropolitan region of the Sichuan Basin.
[...] Read more.
Daily average monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 and meteorological parameters at Chengdu from 2009 to 2011 are analyzed using statistical methods to replicate the effect of urban air pollution in Chengdu metropolitan region of the Sichuan Basin. The temporal distribution of, and correlation between, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 particles are analyzed. Additionally, the relationships between particulate matter (PM) and certain meteorological parameters are studied. The results show that variations in the average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 generally have the same V-shaped distributions (except for April), with peak/trough values for PM average mass concentrations appearing in January/September, respectively. From 2009 to 2011, the inter-annual average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 fall year on year. The correlation coefficients of daily concentrations of PM10 with PM2.5, PM10 with PM1.0, and PM2.5 with PM1.0 were high, reaching 0.91, 0.83 and 0.98, respectively. In addition, the average ratios of PM2.5/PM10, PM1.0/PM10 and PM1.0/PM2.5 were 85%, 78% and 92%, respectively. From this, fine PM is determined to be the principal pollutant in the Chengdu region. Except for averaged air pressure values, negative correlations exist between other meteorological parameters and PM. Temperature and air pressure influenced the transport and accumulation of PM by affecting convection. Winds promoted PM dispersion. Precipitation not only accelerated the deposition of wet PM, but also inhibited surface dust transport. There was an obvious correlation between PM and visibility; the most important cause of visibility degradation was due to the light extinction of aerosol particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources, Formation and Impacts of Secondary Aerosol)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Atmosphere Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
atmosphere@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Atmosphere
Back to Top