Special Issue "Storms, Jets and Other Meteorological Phenomena in Coastal Seas"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology and Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Hans von Storch

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (HZG), Max-Planck-Straße 1, Geesthacht, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: climate science; coastal climate; storms; storm surges; statistical climatology
Guest Editor
Dr. Delei Li

Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanhai Street No. 7, Qingdao, China
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: dynamical downscaling; climate change; low level jets; wind energy
Guest Editor
Dr. Leone Cavicchia

School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, 3010 Victoria, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: east coast lows; tropical cyclones; Mediterranean cyclones; regional climate modelling; extreme events; Mediterranean climate
Guest Editor
Dr. Oliver Krueger

Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
E-Mail
Interests: long-term mid-latitude storminess; climate and weather extreme events; feedback mechanisms between the ocean; waves and atmosphere

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal regions are featured by high population densities and high levels of development, especially in the 21st century. However, properties, life and environment in coastal regions are greatly threatened by coastal hazards, which is, in most cases, caused by coastal meteorological events. This Special Issue aims to collect current state-of-the-art studies on the statistics and the changes of hazardous regional meteorological events in coastal regions, in particular meso-scale and synoptic scale storms (polar lows, Mediterranean cyclones including medicanes, Australian east coast lows, tropical and midlattude baroclinic storms) and coastal low-level jets.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  1. Analyses of the frequency and characteristics of regional meteorological events based on observation data, re-analyses and simulations, both regionally and globally;
  2. Identification of links between low-frequency large-scale atmospheric configurations and the tendency for generating such regional phenomena;
  3. Historical and future climate changes in coastal meteorological events;
  4. Changes in ocean states, such as waves and storm surges related to coastal meteorological events;
  5. Risks and impact assessment of such phenomena for human activities and coastal environment.
Prof. Hans von Storch
Dr. Delei Li
Dr. Leone Cavicchia
Dr. Oliver Krueger
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Extreme Wave Storms and Atmospheric Variability at the Spanish Coast of the Bay of Biscay
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080316
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper examines the characteristics and long-term variability of storminess for the Spanish coast of the Bay of Biscay for the period 1948 to 2015, by coupling wave (observed and modelled) and atmospheric datasets. The diversity of atmospheric mechanisms that are responsible for
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This paper examines the characteristics and long-term variability of storminess for the Spanish coast of the Bay of Biscay for the period 1948 to 2015, by coupling wave (observed and modelled) and atmospheric datasets. The diversity of atmospheric mechanisms that are responsible for wave storms are highlighted at different spatial and temporal scales: synoptic (cyclone) and low frequency (teleconnection patterns) time scales. Two types of storms, defined mostly by wave period and storm energy, are distinguished, resulting from the distance to the forcing cyclones, and the length of the fetch area. No statistically significant trends were found for storminess and the associated atmospheric indices over the period of interest. Storminess reached a maximum around the decade of the 1980s, while less activity occurred at the beginning and end of the period of study. In addition, the results reveal that only the WEPI (West Europe Pressure Anomaly Index), EA (Eastern Atlantic), and EA/WR (Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia) teleconnection patterns are able to explain a substantial percentage of the variability in storm climate, suggesting the importance of local factors (W-E exposition of the coast) in controlling storminess in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storms, Jets and Other Meteorological Phenomena in Coastal Seas)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Wave Distribution Simulated by WAVEWATCH-III Model in Typhoons Passing Beibu Gulf, China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070265
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
The Beibu Gulf is an important offshore region in the South China Sea for the fishing industry and other human activities. In 2017, typhoons Doksuri and Khanun passed the Beibu Gulf in two paths, at maximum wind speeds of up to 50 m/s.
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The Beibu Gulf is an important offshore region in the South China Sea for the fishing industry and other human activities. In 2017, typhoons Doksuri and Khanun passed the Beibu Gulf in two paths, at maximum wind speeds of up to 50 m/s. Typhoon Doksuri passed the Beibu Gulf through the open waters of the South China Sea and Typhoon Khanun moved towards the Beibu Gulf through the narrow Qiongzhou Strait. The aim of this study is to analyze the typhoon-induced wave distribution in the Beibu Gulf. WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) is a third-generation numeric wave model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which has been widely used for sea wave research. The latest version of the WW3 (5.16) model provides three packages of nonlinear term for four wave components (quadruplets) wave–wave interactions, including Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), Full Boltzmann Integral (WRT), and Generalized Multiple DIA (GMD) with two kinds of coefficients, herein called GMD1 and GMD2. These four packages have been conveniently implemented for simulating wave fields in two typhoons after taking winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at 0.125° grids as the forcing fields. It was found that the GMD2 package was the recommended option of the nonlinear term for quadruplets wave–wave interactions due to the minimum error when comparing a number of simulated results from the WW3 model with significant wave height (SWH) from ECMWF and altimeter Jason-2. Then the wave distribution simulated by the WW3 model employing the GMD2 package was analyzed. In the case of Typhoon Doksuri, wind-sea dominated in the early and middle stages while swell dominated at the later stage. However, during Typhoon Khanun, wind-sea dominated throughout and swell distributed outside the bay around the east of Hainan Island, because the typhoon-induced swell at mesoscale was difficult to propagate into the Beibu Gulf through the narrow Qiongzhou Strait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storms, Jets and Other Meteorological Phenomena in Coastal Seas)
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Open AccessArticle Detecting Coastline Change with All Available Landsat Data over 1986–2015: A Case Study for the State of Texas, USA
Atmosphere 2018, 9(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9030107
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coastline change often results from social and natural factors, such as human activities in the coastal zone, long-term and short-term sea level change, hurricane occurrences, subsequent recovery, and so on. Tracking coastline change is essential to deepen our understanding of coastal responses to
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Coastline change often results from social and natural factors, such as human activities in the coastal zone, long-term and short-term sea level change, hurricane occurrences, subsequent recovery, and so on. Tracking coastline change is essential to deepen our understanding of coastal responses to these factors. Such information is also required for land use planning and sustainable development of coastal zones. In this context, we aimed to collect all available Landsat data (TM: Thematic Mapper, ETM+: Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and OLI: Operational Land Imager) over 1986–2015 for tracking the coastline dynamic and estimating its change rate in the State of Texas, USA. First, the land vs. water maps at an annual scale were derived from the satellite images. The border between land and water represents the coastline in this study. Second, the annual land area was obtained to characterize the coastline dynamic and a linear regression model was used for estimating the change rate. We also analyzed the potential driving factors of the observed coastline change. The results reveal that the coastline in the State of Texas changed at a rate of −0.154 ± 0.063 km2/year from 1986 to 2015, which indicates that the coastline has mainly experienced an erosion over the past three decades. Specifically, 52.58% of the entire coastline retreated to the land while a 47.42% portion advanced to the ocean. Long-term sea level rise can result in the erosion of coastline. Hurricane occurrences can explain the relatively strong coastline erosion. Besides, significant difference between the coastline change rate with a higher curvature and a lower curvature was observed. This study establishes a general method for detecting coastline change at large spatial and long-term temporal scales, by using remote sensing that can give fundamental information on coastline change. This is important for making scientific and reasonable policies of sustainable development of coastal zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storms, Jets and Other Meteorological Phenomena in Coastal Seas)
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