Special Issue "Fire and the Atmosphere"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Scott L. Goodrick

Center for Forest Disturbance Science, USDA Forest Service, Athens, USA
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fire is an integral component of many ecosystems. However, fire also poses a growing threat to human lives and property. The role of fire management is to maintain the ecological benefits of fire while minimizing the adverse impacts of fire on society. The atmosphere plays a critical role in fire management as it is a key driver of fire acting through an array of coupled processes spanning a wide range of space and time scales. The focus of this Special Issue is to explore the atmosphere’s role in a range of fire related topics including fire spread, fuels, climate change, fire behavior, smoke, fire weather and fire climate. Manuscripts based on field studies and/or modeling from around the world are welcome. The goal for the issue is to extend fire and forest meteorology science, as well as offer applied concepts for fire management practitioners.

Dr. Scott L. Goodrick
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fire weather
  • fire climate
  • smoke management
  • fire-atmosphere interactions
  • fire behavior
  • fire danger

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Experimental Design of a Prescribed Burn Instrumentation
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080296
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
Observational data collected during experiments, such as the planned Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE), are critical for evaluating and transitioning coupled fire-atmosphere models like WRF-SFIRE and WRF-SFIRE-CHEM into operational use. Historical meteorological data, representing typical weather conditions for the anticipated burn
[...] Read more.
Observational data collected during experiments, such as the planned Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE), are critical for evaluating and transitioning coupled fire-atmosphere models like WRF-SFIRE and WRF-SFIRE-CHEM into operational use. Historical meteorological data, representing typical weather conditions for the anticipated burn locations and times, have been processed to initialize and run a set of simulations representing the planned experimental burns. Based on an analysis of these numerical simulations, this paper provides recommendations on the experimental setup such as size and duration of the burns, and optimal sensor placement. New techniques are developed to initialize coupled fire-atmosphere simulations with weather conditions typical of the planned burn locations and times. The variation and sensitivity analysis of the simulation design to model parameters performed by repeated Latin Hypercube Sampling is used to assess the locations of the sensors. The simulations provide the locations for the measurements that maximize the expected variation of the sensor outputs with varying the model parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Application of a Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW) Climatology
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070285
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we describe and analyze a climatology of the Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW), with the goal of providing fire-weather forecasters with information about the daily and seasonal variability of the index. The 30-year climatology (1981–2010) was produced using the Climate Forecast System
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe and analyze a climatology of the Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW), with the goal of providing fire-weather forecasters with information about the daily and seasonal variability of the index. The 30-year climatology (1981–2010) was produced using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) for the contiguous United States, using percentiles to show seasonal and geographical variations of HDW contained within the climatology. The method for producing this climatology is documented and the application of the climatology to historical fire events is discussed. We show that the HDW climatology provides insight into near-surface climatic conditions that can be used to identify temperature and humidity trends that correspond to climate classification systems. Furthermore, when used in conjunction with daily traces of HDW values, users can follow trends in HDW and compare those trends with historical values at a given location. More usefully, this climatology adds value to HDW forecasts; by combining the CFSR climatology and a Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) ensemble history and forecast, we can produce a single product that provides seasonal, climatological, and short-term context to help determine the appropriate fire-management response to a given HDW value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle The Hot-Dry-Windy Index: A New Fire Weather Index
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070279
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Fire weather indices are commonly used by fire weather forecasters to predict when weather conditions will make a wildland fire difficult to manage. Complex interactions at multiple scales between fire, fuels, topography, and weather make these predictions extremely difficult. We define a new
[...] Read more.
Fire weather indices are commonly used by fire weather forecasters to predict when weather conditions will make a wildland fire difficult to manage. Complex interactions at multiple scales between fire, fuels, topography, and weather make these predictions extremely difficult. We define a new fire weather index called the Hot-Dry-Windy Index (HDW). HDW uses the basic science of how the atmosphere can affect a fire to define the meteorological variables that can be predicted at synoptic-and meso-alpha-scales that govern the potential for the atmosphere to affect a fire. The new index is formulated to account for meteorological conditions both at the Earth’s surface and in a 500-m layer just above the surface. HDW is defined and then compared with the Haines Index (HI) for four historical fires. The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) is used to provide the meteorological data for calculating the indices. Our results indicate that HDW can identify days on which synoptic-and meso-alpha-scale weather processes can contribute to especially dangerous fire behavior. HDW is shown to perform better than the HI for each of the four historical fires. Additionally, since HDW is based on the meteorological variables that govern the potential for the atmosphere to affect a fire, it is possible to speculate on why HDW would be more or less effective based on the conditions that prevail in a given fire case. The HI, in contrast, does not have a physical basis, which makes speculation on why it works or does not work difficult because the mechanisms are not clear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle The Weather Conditions for Desired Smoke Plumes at a FASMEE Burn Site
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070259
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Weather is an important factor that determines smoke development, which is essential information for planning smoke field measurements. This study identifies the synoptic systems that would favor to produce the desired smoke plumes for the Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE). Daysmoke
[...] Read more.
Weather is an important factor that determines smoke development, which is essential information for planning smoke field measurements. This study identifies the synoptic systems that would favor to produce the desired smoke plumes for the Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE). Daysmoke and PB-Piedmont (PB-P) models are used to simulate smoke plume evolution during the day time and smoke drainage and fog formation during the nighttime for hypothetical prescribed burns on 5–8 February 2011 at the Stewart Army Base in the southeastern United States. Daysmoke simulation is evaluated using the measured smoke plume heights of two historical prescribed burns at the Eglin Air Force Base. The simulation results of the hypothetical prescribed burns show that the smoke plume is not fully developed with low plume height during the daytime on 5 February when the burn site is under the warm, moist, and windy conditions connected to a shallow cyclonic system and a cold front. However, smoke drainage and fog are formed during the nighttime. Well-developed smoke plumes, which rise mainly vertically, extend to a majority portion of the planetary boundary layer, and have steady clear boundaries, appear on both 6 and 7 February when the air is cool but dry and calm during a transition between two low-pressure systems. The plume rises higher on the second day, mainly due to lighter winds. The smoke on 8 February shows a loose structure of large horizontal dispersion and low height after passage of a deep low-pressure system with strong cool and dry winds. Smoke drainage and fog formation are rare for the nights during 5–8 February. It is concluded that prescribed burns conducted during a period between two low-pressure systems would likely generate the desired plumes for FASMEE measurement during daytime. Meanwhile, as the fire smolders into the night, the burns would likely lead to fog formation when the burn site is located in the warm and moist section of a low-pressure system or a cold front. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Thermochemical Properties of PM2.5 as Indicator of Combustion Phase of Fires
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060230
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Past studies suggest that certain properties of fire emitted particulate matter (PM) relate to the combustion phase (flaming, smoldering) of biomass burning, but to date there has been little consideration of such properties for use as combustion phase indicators. We studied the thermochemical
[...] Read more.
Past studies suggest that certain properties of fire emitted particulate matter (PM) relate to the combustion phase (flaming, smoldering) of biomass burning, but to date there has been little consideration of such properties for use as combustion phase indicators. We studied the thermochemical properties of PM2.5 emitted from experimental and prescribed fires using multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA). Resulting thermograms show that the carbon from PM2.5 generally can be grouped into three temperature categories: low (peak ~180 °C), medium (peak between 180–420 °C), and high (peak > 420 °C) temperature carbons. PM2.5 from smoldering phase combustion is composed of much more low-temperature carbon (fraction of total carbon = 0.342 ± 0.067, n = 9) than PM2.5 from the flaming phase (fraction of total carbon = 0.065 ± 0.018, n = 9). The fraction of low-temperature carbon of the PM2.5 correlates well with modified combustion efficiency (MCE; r2 = 0.76). Therefore, this MESTA thermogram method can potentially be used as a combustion phase indicator solely based on the property of PM2.5. Since the MESTA thermogram of PM2.5 can be determined independently of MCE, we have a second parameter to describe the combustion condition of a fire, which may refine our understanding of fire behavior and improve the accuracy of emission factor determinations. This PM2.5 indicator should be useful for discerning differential diffusion between PM2.5 and gases and providing insight into the impact of PM emission on atmospheric environment and the public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting the Impacts of Prescribed Fires for Dynamic Air Quality Management
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060220
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Prescribed burning (PB) is practiced throughout the USA, most extensively in the southeast, for the purpose of maintaining and improving the ecosystem and reducing wildfire risk. However, PB emissions contribute significantly to trace gas and particulate matter loads in the atmosphere. In places
[...] Read more.
Prescribed burning (PB) is practiced throughout the USA, most extensively in the southeast, for the purpose of maintaining and improving the ecosystem and reducing wildfire risk. However, PB emissions contribute significantly to trace gas and particulate matter loads in the atmosphere. In places where air quality is already stressed by other anthropogenic emissions, PB can lead to major health and environmental problems. We developed a PB impact forecasting system to facilitate the dynamic management of air quality by modulating PB activity. In our system, a new decision tree model predicts burn activity based on the weather forecast and historic burning patterns. Emission estimates for the forecast burn activity are input into an air quality model, and simulations are performed to forecast the air quality impacts of the burns on trace gas and particulate matter concentrations. An evaluation of the forecasts for two consecutive burn seasons (2015 and 2016) showed that the modeling system has promising forecasting skills that can be further improved with refinements in burn area and plume rise estimates. Since 2017, air quality and burn impact forecasts are being produced daily with the ultimate goal of incorporating them into the management of PB operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of a Large Wildfire in a Coupled Fire-Atmosphere Model
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060218
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
The Aullene fire devastated more than 3000 ha of Mediterranean maquis and pine forest in July 2009. The simulation of combustion processes, as well as atmospheric dynamics represents a challenge for such scenarios because of the various involved scales, from the scale of
[...] Read more.
The Aullene fire devastated more than 3000 ha of Mediterranean maquis and pine forest in July 2009. The simulation of combustion processes, as well as atmospheric dynamics represents a challenge for such scenarios because of the various involved scales, from the scale of the individual flames to the larger regional scale. A coupled approach between the Meso-NH (Meso-scale Non-Hydrostatic) atmospheric model running in LES (Large Eddy Simulation) mode and the ForeFire fire spread model is proposed for predicting fine- to large-scale effects of this extreme wildfire, showing that such simulation is possible in a reasonable time using current supercomputers. The coupling involves the surface wind to drive the fire, while heat from combustion and water vapor fluxes are injected into the atmosphere at each atmospheric time step. To be representative of the phenomenon, a sub-meter resolution was used for the simulation of the fire front, while atmospheric simulations were performed with nested grids from 2400-m to 50-m resolution. Simulations were run with or without feedback from the fire to the atmospheric model, or without coupling from the atmosphere to the fire. In the two-way mode, the burnt area was reproduced with a good degree of realism at the local scale, where an acceleration in the valley wind and over sloping terrain pushed the fire line to locations in accordance with fire passing point observations. At the regional scale, the simulated fire plume compares well with the satellite image. The study explores the strong fire-atmosphere interactions leading to intense convective updrafts extending above the boundary layer, significant downdrafts behind the fire line in the upper plume, and horizontal wind speeds feeding strong inflow into the base of the convective updrafts. The fire-induced dynamics is induced by strong near-surface sensible heat fluxes reaching maximum values of 240 kW m 2 . The dynamical production of turbulent kinetic energy in the plume fire is larger in magnitude than the buoyancy contribution, partly due to the sheared initial environment, which promotes larger shear generation and to the shear induced by the updraft itself. The turbulence associated with the fire front is characterized by a quasi-isotropic behavior. The most active part of the Aullene fire lasted 10 h, while 9 h of computation time were required for the 24 million grid points on 900 computer cores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Contemporary Pyrogeography and Wildfire-Climate Relationships of South Dakota, USA
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060207
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
A recent wildland fire history and climate database was compiled for South Dakota, USA (SD). Wildfires are generally a warm season phenomenon across central and western SD while eastern SD exhibits a spring peak in annual wildfire activity. It is hypothesized that regional
[...] Read more.
A recent wildland fire history and climate database was compiled for South Dakota, USA (SD). Wildfires are generally a warm season phenomenon across central and western SD while eastern SD exhibits a spring peak in annual wildfire activity. It is hypothesized that regional climate and land use are the two primary drivers of the spatiotemporal wildfire distribution across the state. To assess the relative impacts of climate to wildfire activity, Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficients were calculated for monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and the Palmer Drought Modified Index (PMDI) as compared to both monthly area burned and numbers of fire starts data for each of the nine climate divisions in South Dakota. Results show statewide variations in significant correlations but positive temperature anomalies, negative precipitation anomalies, and negative values of the PMDI were most frequently associated with months showing substantial area burned and large numbers of wildfire starts. Time-lagged significant correlations were also seen implying month(s)-ahead predictive capabilities. Positive PMDI values were most significantly correlated to warm season wildfire activity suggesting that the influence of drought on wildfires within SD may be limited to the summer months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle A High Resolution Coupled Fire–Atmosphere Forecasting System to Minimize the Impacts of Wildland Fires: Applications to the Chimney Tops II Wildland Event
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050197
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Wildland fires are responsible for large socio-economic impacts. Fires affect the environment, damage structures, threaten lives, cause health issues, and involve large suppression costs. These impacts can be mitigated via accurate fire spread forecast to inform the incident management team. We show that
[...] Read more.
Wildland fires are responsible for large socio-economic impacts. Fires affect the environment, damage structures, threaten lives, cause health issues, and involve large suppression costs. These impacts can be mitigated via accurate fire spread forecast to inform the incident management team. We show that a fire forecast system based on a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model coupled with a wildland fire behavior model can provide this forecast. This was illustrated with the Chimney Tops II wildland fire responsible for large socio-economic impacts. The system was run at high horizontal resolution (111 m) over the region affected by the fire to provide a fine representation of the terrain and fuel heterogeneities and explicitly resolve atmospheric turbulence. Our findings suggest that one can use the high spatial resolution winds, fire spread and smoke forecast to minimize the adverse impacts of wildland fires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Evaluation of the Haines Index’s Ability to Predict Fire Growth Events
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050177
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
The Haines Index is intended to provide information on how midtropospheric conditions could lead to large or erratic wildfires. Only a few studies have evaluated its performance and those are primarily single fire studies. This study looks at 47 fires that burned in
[...] Read more.
The Haines Index is intended to provide information on how midtropospheric conditions could lead to large or erratic wildfires. Only a few studies have evaluated its performance and those are primarily single fire studies. This study looks at 47 fires that burned in the United States from 2004 to 2017, with sizes from 9000 ha up to 218,000 ha based on daily fire management reports. Using the 0-h analysis of the North American Model (NAM) 12 km grid, it examines the performance of the start-day Haines Index, as Haines (1988) originally discussed. It then examines performance of daily Haines Index values as an indicator of daily fire growth, using contingency tables and four statistical measures: true positive ratio, miss ratio, Peirce skill score, and bias. In addition to the original Haines Index, the index’s individual stability and moisture components are examined. The use of a positive trend in the index is often cited by operational forecasters, so the study also looks at how positive trend, or positive trend leading to an index of 6, perform. The Continuous Haines Index, a related measure, is also examined. Results show a positive relationship between start day index and peak fire daily growth or number of large growth events, but not final size or duration. The daily evaluation showed that, for a range of specified growth thresholds defining a growth event, the Continuous Haines Index scores were more favorable than the original Haines Index scores, and the latter were more favorable than the use of index trends. The maximum Peirce skill score obtained for these data was 0.22, when a Continuous Haines Index of 8.7 or more was used to indicate a growth event, 1000 ha/day or more would occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Smoke and Plume Rise Modeling Approaches at Local Scales
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050166
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Heating from wildfires adds buoyancy to the overlying air, often producing plumes that vertically distribute fire emissions throughout the atmospheric column over the fire. The height of the rising wildfire plume is a complex function of the size of the wildfire, fire heat
[...] Read more.
Heating from wildfires adds buoyancy to the overlying air, often producing plumes that vertically distribute fire emissions throughout the atmospheric column over the fire. The height of the rising wildfire plume is a complex function of the size of the wildfire, fire heat flux, plume geometry, and atmospheric conditions, which can make simulating plume rises difficult with coarser-scale atmospheric models. To determine the altitude of fire emission injection, several plume rise parameterizations have been developed in an effort estimate the height of the wildfire plume rise. Previous work has indicated the performance of these plume rise parameterizations has generally been mixed when validated against satellite observations. However, it is often difficult to evaluate the performance of plume rise parameterizations due to the significant uncertainties associated with fire input parameters such as fire heat fluxes and area. In order to reduce the uncertainties of fire input parameters, we applied an atmospheric modeling framework with different plume rise parameterizations to a well constrained prescribed burn, as part of the RxCADRE field experiment. Initial results found that the model was unable to reasonably replicate downwind smoke for cases when fire emissions were emitted at the surface and released at the top of the plume. However, when fire emissions were distributed below the plume top following a Gaussian distribution, model results were significantly improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle Air-Pollutant Emissions from Agricultural Burning in Mae Chaem Basin, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040145
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Particulate pollution is a continual problem which is usually caused by the burning of crop residues in highland agricultural systems. The objectives of this study are to investigate crop-residue management and estimate the amount of pollutant emissions from burning crop residues for each
[...] Read more.
Particulate pollution is a continual problem which is usually caused by the burning of crop residues in highland agricultural systems. The objectives of this study are to investigate crop-residue management and estimate the amount of pollutant emissions from burning crop residues for each land-use pattern (grain maize, seed maize and integrated farming), and to estimate the chemical compositions of PM2.5 emissions from agricultural burning in Mae Chaem basin, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The purposive sampling method was used for sample selection. A door-to-door questionnaire survey was used to obtain responses from 149 respondents. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the open burning of crop residues were estimated, using specific emission factors obtained from several literature reviews and from the field by the questionnaire survey. Results revealed that the majority of farmers burned maize residues during April and May and mostly in the afternoon. These burning behaviors are in line with the supportive weather conditions that reflect high values of temperature and wind speed, and less rainfall and relative humidity result in maize residues being burned easily and quickly. The integrated farming system generated the lowest GHG emissions and amount of chemical composition of PM2.5 emissions, followed by the grain maize and seed maize patterns, respectively. This study strongly supports the implementation of the integrated farming system in Mae Chaem basin. Proactive and reactive measures should be taken in a well-organized and systematic fashion and should engage all related parties. More importantly, there is an urgent need for policy makers to include PM2.5 concentrations to upgrade Thailand’s air-quality index (PM2.5 AQI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Community Smoke Exposure from Wildfire Compared to Prescribed Fire in the United States
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050185
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
Prescribed fire, intentionally ignited low-intensity fires, and managed wildfires—wildfires that are allowed to burn for land management benefit—could be used as a land management tool to create forests that are resilient to wildland fire. This could lead to fewer large catastrophic wildfires in
[...] Read more.
Prescribed fire, intentionally ignited low-intensity fires, and managed wildfires—wildfires that are allowed to burn for land management benefit—could be used as a land management tool to create forests that are resilient to wildland fire. This could lead to fewer large catastrophic wildfires in the future. However, we must consider the public health impacts of the smoke that is emitted from wildland and prescribed fire. The objective of this synthesis is to examine the differences in ambient community-level exposures to particulate matter (PM2.5) from smoke in the United States in relation to two smoke exposure scenarios—wildfire fire and prescribed fire. A systematic search was conducted to identify scientific papers to be included in this review. The Web of Science Core Collection and PubMed, for scientific papers, and Google Scholar were used to identify any grey literature or reports to be included in this review. Sixteen studies that examined particulate matter exposure from smoke were identified for this synthesis—nine wildland fire studies and seven prescribed fire studies. PM2.5 concentrations from wildfire smoke were found to be significantly lower than reported PM2.5 concentrations from prescribed fire smoke. Wildfire studies focused on assessing air quality impacts to communities that were nearby fires and urban centers that were far from wildfires. However, the prescribed fire studies used air monitoring methods that focused on characterizing exposures and emissions directly from, and next to, the burns. This review highlights a need for a better understanding of wildfire smoke impact over the landscape. It is essential for properly assessing population exposure to smoke from different fire types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and the Atmosphere)
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