E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Atmosphere: From Nowadays Background Sites to Hot Spots"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Javier Castro Jiménez

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: environmental fate and transport (LRT) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related contaminants; trace and ultra-trace POPs environmental analysis; multi-media sampling strategies, screening tools and monitoring programs; biogeochemical cycle of organic contaminants; atmospheric deposition of contaminants and air-water exchanges; environmental exposure, bioaccumulation in food chain and bioavailability of organic contaminants (toxicological implications); contaminant source identification; organophosphorus flame retardants (OPEs) in remote environments; bio-detection of organic contaminants; scientific and technical support to Global/EU Environmental Policies (Stockholm Convention, WFD, MSFD, EQS, CLRTAP, REACH, Dioxin strategy)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of semi-volatile organic chemicals of high concern due to their bio-acumulative properties, persistence and toxicity. Their potential of being transported long distances via atmosphere (i.e., long range atmospheric transport, LRAT) without suffering relevant degradation processes has lead to the ubiquity of many POPs in the earth-system. This, in turn has resulted in extensive research and monitoring efforts in order to acquire knowledge on their ambient levels and potential inputs to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, there is abundant literature produced in the last decades focusing on the presence of POPs in the atmospheric compartment and its implications from an exposure/pollution point of view. In addition, there are ambitious global/regional programs in place with the objective of monitoring and controlling the most harmful POPs, such as the UNEP Stockholm Convention of POPs and the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) with its protocol on POPs.
However, an important harmonization and synthesis effort is still needed in order to better understand which are the nowadays atmospheric background sites and hot spots world-wide in order to optimize resources where need it and to improve and update the monitoring and prevention/control tools. This special issue aims at providing and step forward in this direction. We look for contributions on experimental case studies, global/regional monitoring research studies, critical reviews, past-present comparative studies, modeling estimations and any other type of contribution helping on establishing the nowadays background atmospheric levels and deposition fluxes of the most harmful POPs (especially those for which less information exists) as well as on identifying the most important hot spots world-wide.

Dr. Javier Castro Jiménez
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • POPs
  • PCDD/Fs
  • PCBs
  • pesticides
  • PBDEs
  • atmospheric concentrations
  • atmospheric pollution
  • environmental exposure
  • atmospheric transport
  • deposition fluxes

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Use of a Simple GIS-Based Model in Mapping the Atmospheric Concentration of γ-HCH in Europe
Atmosphere 2014, 5(4), 720-736; doi:10.3390/atmos5040720
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The state-of-the-art of atmospheric contaminant transport modeling provides accurate estimation of chemical concentrations. However, existing complex models, sophisticated in terms of process description and potentially highly accurate, may entail expensive setups and require very detailed input data. In contexts where detailed predictions are
[...] Read more.
The state-of-the-art of atmospheric contaminant transport modeling provides accurate estimation of chemical concentrations. However, existing complex models, sophisticated in terms of process description and potentially highly accurate, may entail expensive setups and require very detailed input data. In contexts where detailed predictions are not needed (e.g., for regulatory risk assessment or life cycle impact assessment of chemicals), simple models allowing quick evaluation of contaminants may be preferable. The goal of this paper is to illustrate and critically discuss the use of a simple equation proposed by Pistocchi and Galmarini (2010), which can be implemented through basic GIS functions, to predict atmospheric concentrations of lindane (γ-HCH) in Europe from both local and remote sources. Concentrations were computed for 1995 and 2005 assuming different modes of use of lindane and consequently different spatial patterns of emissions. Results were compared with those from the well-established MSCE-POP model (2005) developed within EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme), and with available monitoring data, showing acceptable correspondence in terms of the orders of magnitude and spatial distribution of concentrations, especially when the background effect of emissions from extracontinental sources, estimated using the same equation, is added to European emissions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Diurnal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere over the Remote Southern Atlantic Ocean
Atmosphere 2014, 5(3), 622-634; doi:10.3390/atmos5030622
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A diel (24-h) cycle with daytime atmospheric concentrations higher than nighttime concentrations by a factor of 1.5–3 was observed for several low molecular weight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote areas of the tropical South Atlantic during a cruise
[...] Read more.
A diel (24-h) cycle with daytime atmospheric concentrations higher than nighttime concentrations by a factor of 1.5–3 was observed for several low molecular weight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote areas of the tropical South Atlantic during a cruise in October–November 2005. In contrast, high molecular weight PCBs and PAHs did not display diurnal variability. A model which has successfully explained diel variability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over land could not reproduce the observed diel cycle by considering variability in temperature, atmospheric OH radical concentrations, atmospheric boundary layer height and wind speed as causal factors. We used the model to conduct two bounding scenarios to explore the possibility that phytoplankton biomass turn-over in the surface ocean drives the observed variability in air concentrations. The model could only qualitatively reproduce the field observations of diel variability for low chlorinated PCB congeners when the ocean acts as a source of pollutants to the atmosphere, and when variability in biomass drives variability in the capacity of the surface ocean. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS) with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 324-341; doi:10.3390/atmos5020324
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP) of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD). We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals using two models: the OECD
[...] Read more.
Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP) of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD). We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool), and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs). ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of a Remote Alpine System to the Stockholm and LRTAP Regulations in POP Emissions
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 198-210; doi:10.3390/atmos5020198
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) have been restricted and prohibited at national level for several decades now and since the 21st century at international level under the Stockholm Convention and the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). A high mountain lake sediment core
[...] Read more.
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) have been restricted and prohibited at national level for several decades now and since the 21st century at international level under the Stockholm Convention and the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). A high mountain lake sediment core was sampled in the Alps (Gossenköllesee) in summer 2010 and analyzed on POPs to examine whether the expected decreasing trends due to the implementation of the international Conventions could be observed. Higher POPs concentrations were observed in the sections corresponding to the period of large scale production and usage. p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD showed maximum concentrations in the core sections corresponding to the 1970s. These concentrations decreased to more or less constant levels in the top sediments, which is in agreement with the timing of past usage and banning of this pesticide. On the other hand, PCBs and HCB peaked in 1980s and the concentrations fluctuated afterwards. These observed profiles suggest that the studied site is still under influence of primary or secondary emissions and that the regulations of the international Conventions have still not been noticed in this site. Full article
Open AccessArticle Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 156-177; doi:10.3390/atmos5020156
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas
[...] Read more.
The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas exchange (deposition and volatilization), wet deposition and dry deposition. Atmospheric concentrations are interpolated into the model domain from results of the EMEP MSC-East multi-compartmental model (Gusev et al, 2009). The North Sea is net depositional for γ-HCH, and is dominated by gas deposition with notable seasonal variability and a downward trend over the 10 year period. Volatilization rates of γ-HCH are generally a factor of 2–3 less than gas deposition in winter, spring and summer but greater in autumn when the North Sea is net volatilizational. A downward trend in fugacity ratios is found, since gas deposition is decreasing faster than volatilization. The North Sea is net volatilizational for PCB 153, with highest rates of volatilization to deposition found in the areas surrounding polluted British and continental river sources. Large quantities of PCB 153 entering through rivers lead to very high local rates of volatilization. Full article
Open AccessArticle How Enhancing Atmospheric Monitoring and Modelling can be Effective for the Stockholm Convention on POPs
Atmosphere 2013, 4(4), 445-471; doi:10.3390/atmos4040445
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The presence of toxic substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment, and in organisms including humans, is a serious public health and environmental problem, even at low levels and poses a challenging scientific problem. The Stockholm Convention on POPs (SC)
[...] Read more.
The presence of toxic substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment, and in organisms including humans, is a serious public health and environmental problem, even at low levels and poses a challenging scientific problem. The Stockholm Convention on POPs (SC) entered into force in 2004 and is a large international effort under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to facilitate cooperation in monitoring, modeling and the design of effective and fair ways to deal with POPs globally. This paper is a contribution to the ongoing effectiveness evaluation (EE) work aimed at the assessment and enhancement of the effectiveness of the actions undertaken under the SC. First we consider some aspects related to the monitoring of POPs in the environment and then briefly review modeling frameworks that have been used to simulate long range transport (LRT) of POPs. In the final sections we describe the institutional arrangements providing the conditions for this work to unfold now and some suggestions for it in the future. A more effective use of existing monitoring data could be made if scientists who deposited them in publicly available and supervised sites were rewarded in academic and professional terms. We also suggest the development of multi-media, nested, Lagrangian models to improve the understanding of changes over time in the environment and individual organisms. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Atmosphere Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
atmosphere@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Atmosphere
Back to Top