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Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 156-177; doi:10.3390/atmos5020156
Article

Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models

Received: 30 October 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
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Abstract: The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas exchange (deposition and volatilization), wet deposition and dry deposition. Atmospheric concentrations are interpolated into the model domain from results of the EMEP MSC-East multi-compartmental model (Gusev et al, 2009). The North Sea is net depositional for γ-HCH, and is dominated by gas deposition with notable seasonal variability and a downward trend over the 10 year period. Volatilization rates of γ-HCH are generally a factor of 2–3 less than gas deposition in winter, spring and summer but greater in autumn when the North Sea is net volatilizational. A downward trend in fugacity ratios is found, since gas deposition is decreasing faster than volatilization. The North Sea is net volatilizational for PCB 153, with highest rates of volatilization to deposition found in the areas surrounding polluted British and continental river sources. Large quantities of PCB 153 entering through rivers lead to very high local rates of volatilization.
Keywords: PCB 153; γ-HCH; air-sea gas exchange; gas deposition; dry deposition; wet deposition; volatilization; fugacity ratios; North Sea; modeling PCB 153; γ-HCH; air-sea gas exchange; gas deposition; dry deposition; wet deposition; volatilization; fugacity ratios; North Sea; modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

O'Driscoll, K. Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models. Atmosphere 2014, 5, 156-177.

AMA Style

O'Driscoll K. Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models. Atmosphere. 2014; 5(2):156-177.

Chicago/Turabian Style

O'Driscoll, Kieran. 2014. "Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models." Atmosphere 5, no. 2: 156-177.


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