Special Issue "Single-Domain Antibody"

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A special issue of Antibodies (ISSN 2073-4468).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Serge Muyldermans

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +32 2 629 1969
Interests: camel heavy chain antibodies and single-domain antibodies; antibody engineering; phage display; high throughput screening; protein structure and conformation

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus
Antibodies 2013, 2(2), 168-192; doi:10.3390/antib2020168
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 10 April 2013
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Abstract
Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase (NA) subtypes (N1–N9). To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to
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Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase (NA) subtypes (N1–N9). To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA) protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6) or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5) in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1) describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2) illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3) describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)
Open AccessArticle Selection and Characterization of Single Domain Antibodies Specific for Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins
Antibodies 2013, 2(1), 152-167; doi:10.3390/antib2010152
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the
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To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to construct a phage display library from which single domain antibodies (sdAbs) targeting each of the proteins were isolated. Unique sdAbs exhibiting nanomolar or better affinities for the recombinant proteins were obtained and most of the isolated sdAbs retained their ability to bind antigen after cycles of heating as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a direct ELISA; the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis spores and not to other Bacillus species. Additionally, SODA1 and p5303 binding sdAbs detected spores in sandwich assays serving as both captures and tracers. Used in combination, sdAbs targeting B. anthracis proteins could be integrated into emerging biosensors to improve specificity in multiplex assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Single Chain Fv Antibody that Reacts with Free Morphine
Antibodies 2013, 2(1), 93-112; doi:10.3390/antib2010093
Received: 10 December 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
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Abstract
An immune phage library derived from mice, hyperimmunized with morphine-conjugated BSA, was used to isolate a single-chain Fv (scFv) clone, M86, with binding activity to morphine-conjugated thyroglobulin (morphine-C-Tg) but not to codeine-, cocaine-, or ketamine-conjugated Tg. Surface plasmon resonance analysis using a morphine-C-Tg-coupled
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An immune phage library derived from mice, hyperimmunized with morphine-conjugated BSA, was used to isolate a single-chain Fv (scFv) clone, M86, with binding activity to morphine-conjugated thyroglobulin (morphine-C-Tg) but not to codeine-, cocaine-, or ketamine-conjugated Tg. Surface plasmon resonance analysis using a morphine-C-Tg-coupled CM5 sensor chip showed that the Kd value was 1.26 × 108 M. To analyze its binding activity to free morphine and related compounds, we performed a competitive ELISA with M86 and morphine-C-Tg in the absence or presence of varying doses of free morphine and related compounds. IC50 values for opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin were 257 ng/mL, 36.4, 7.3, and 7.4 nM, respectively. Ketamine and cocaine exhibited no competitive binding activity to M86. Thus, we established a phage library-derived scFv, M86, which recognized not only free morphine and codeine as opium components but also heroin. This characteristic of M86 may be useful for developing therapeutic reagents for opiate addiction and as a free morphine-specific antibody probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Shark Variable New Antigen Receptor (VNAR) Single Domain Antibody Fragments: Stability and Diagnostic Applications
Antibodies 2013, 2(1), 66-81; doi:10.3390/antib2010066
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The single variable new antigen receptor domain antibody fragments (VNARs) derived from shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor antibodies (IgNARs) represent some of the smallest known immunoglobulin-based protein scaffolds. As single domains, they demonstrate favorable size and cryptic epitope recognition properties, making
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The single variable new antigen receptor domain antibody fragments (VNARs) derived from shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor antibodies (IgNARs) represent some of the smallest known immunoglobulin-based protein scaffolds. As single domains, they demonstrate favorable size and cryptic epitope recognition properties, making them attractive in diagnosis and therapy of numerous disease states. Here, we examine the stability of VNAR domains with a focus on a family of VNARs specific for apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) from Plasmodium falciparum. The VNARs are compared to traditional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in liquid, lyophilized and immobilized nitrocellulose formats. When maintained in various formats at 45 °C, VNARs have improved stability compared to mAbs for periods of up to four weeks. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy we demonstrate that VNAR domains are able to refold following heating to 80 °C. We also demonstrate that VNAR domains are stable during incubation under potential in vivo conditions such as stomach acid, but not to the protease rich environment of murine stomach scrapings. Taken together, our results demonstrate the suitability of shark VNAR domains for various diagnostic platforms and related applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)

Review

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Open AccessReview Single Domain Antibody Fragments as Drug Surrogates Targeting Protein–Protein Interactions inside Cells
Antibodies 2013, 2(2), 306-320; doi:10.3390/antib2020306
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
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Abstract
Many human diseases are caused by mutant or abnormal protein functions that are largely confined to the inside of cells, rather than being displayed on the abnormal cell surface. Furthermore, many of the functional consequences of aberrant proteins, such as in cancer cells,
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Many human diseases are caused by mutant or abnormal protein functions that are largely confined to the inside of cells, rather than being displayed on the abnormal cell surface. Furthermore, many of the functional consequences of aberrant proteins, such as in cancer cells, are due to protein–protein interactions (PPIs). Developing reagents that can specifically interfere with PPI is an important goal for both therapeutic use and as reagents to interrogate the functional importance of PPI. Antibody fragments can be used for inhibiting PPI. Our recent technology development has provided a set of simple protocols that allow development of single antibody variable (V) region domains that can function inside the reducing environment of the cell. The heavy chain variable region (VH) segments mainly used in this technology are based on a designer framework that folds inside cells without the need for the intra-chain disulphide bond and can be used as drug surrogates to determine on-target effects (target validation) and as templates for small molecule drug development. In this review, we discuss our work on single domains as intracellular antibodies and where this work might in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)
Figures

Open AccessReview In Vivo Applications of Single Chain Fv (Variable Domain) (scFv) Fragments
Antibodies 2013, 2(2), 193-208; doi:10.3390/antib2020193
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single chain variable domain (Fv) fragments (scFv) are powerful tools in research and clinical settings, owing to better pharmacokinetic properties compared to the parent monoclonal antibodies and the relative ease of producing them in large quantities, at low cost. Though they offer
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Single chain variable domain (Fv) fragments (scFv) are powerful tools in research and clinical settings, owing to better pharmacokinetic properties compared to the parent monoclonal antibodies and the relative ease of producing them in large quantities, at low cost. Though they offer several advantages, they suffer from lower binding affinity and rapid clearance from circulation, which limits their therapeutic potential. However, these fragments can be genetically modified to enhance desirable properties, such as multivalency, high target retention and slower blood clearance, and as such, a variety of scFv formats have been generated. ScFvs can be administered by systemic injection for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. They can be expressed in vivo through viral vectors in instances where large infection rates and sustenance of high levels of the antibody is required. ScFvs have found applications as tools for in vivo loss-of-function studies and inactivation of specific protein domains, diagnostic imaging, tumor therapy and treatment for neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. This review will focus on their in vivo applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Domain Antibody)

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