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Infrastructures, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Novelties in Material Development for Massive Concrete Structures: Reduction in Heat of Hydration Observed in Ternary Replacement Mixtures
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020008
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash
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As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash on the rate and amount of heat generated in concrete mixtures are investigated. Twenty three binary and ternary mixtures with a water-to-cementitious binder ratio of 0.43 are evaluated. Between 15% and 45% cement replacement by weight is considered. Results indicate that binary mixtures containing metakaolin or silica fume offer no advantage in reducing the amount of heat but increase compressive strength by 20%. On contrary, ternary mixtures, including two pozzolanic materials, provide 15% reduction in the amount of heat evolution without compromising strength. This reduction is observed regardless of alumina (Al) or silica (Si) content in pozzolanic materials when 45% cement is replaced with a combination of slag and metakaolin, or slag and silica fume. Furthermore, the effect of increased calcium (Ca) content is investigated. It is concluded that ternary mixtures with decreased Ca/(Al+Si) ratio reduce internal temperature in mass concrete structures and are less likely to be exposed to the threshold temperature for delayed ettringite formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020009
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different
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Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry injected into sand and sandy soil were explored. The investigated parameters were the dry density, wet density, moisture content, internal friction angle, and cohesion force. The results show that the consolidation effect of superfine cement is better than that of Portland cement due to the small size of superfine cement particles. The superfine cement can diffuse into the sand by infiltration, extrusion, and splitting. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is less than 2:1 grouting into loose sand, the dry and wet density decrease with the increase in the water–cement ratio, while the moisture content and cohesive force gradually increase. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is 1:1 grouting into loose sand and sandy soil, the dry density, wet density, and cohesive force of loose sand are larger than those of sandy soil. The results of the experiment may be relevant for engineering applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adaptation Becoming Business as Usual: A Framework for Climate-Change-Ready Transport Infrastructure
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020010
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Extreme weather damages and disrupts transport infrastructure in a multitude of ways. Heavy rainfall and ensuing landslides or flooding may lead to road or rail closures; extreme heat can damage road surfaces, or cause tracks, signalling or electronic equipment to overheat, or thermal
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Extreme weather damages and disrupts transport infrastructure in a multitude of ways. Heavy rainfall and ensuing landslides or flooding may lead to road or rail closures; extreme heat can damage road surfaces, or cause tracks, signalling or electronic equipment to overheat, or thermal discomfort for passengers. As extreme weather is expected to occur more frequently in the future, transport infrastructure owners and operators must increase their preparedness in order to reduce weather-related service disruption and the associated financial costs. This article presents a two-sided framework for use by any organisation to develop climate-change-ready transport infrastructure, regardless of their current level of knowledge or preparedness for climate change. The framework is composed of an adaptation strategy and an implementation plan, and has the overarching ambition to embed climate change adaptation within organisational procedures so it becomes a normal function of business. It advocates adaptation pathways, i.e., sequential adaptive actions that do not compromise future actions. The circular, iterative structure ensures new knowledge, or socio-economic changes may be incorporated, and that previous adaptations are evaluated. Moreover, the framework aligns with existing asset management procedures (e.g., ISO standards) or governmental or organisational approaches to climate change adaptation. By adopting this framework, organisations can self-identify their own level of adaptation readiness and seek to enhance it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Railway Infrastructure Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Dynamical Modeling Perspective for Infrastructure Resilience
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020011
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper considers a dynamical way to connect resilience outcomes and processes by nesting process-based approaches inside a controlled dynamical system under resource constraints. To illustrate this, we use a dynamical model of electric power generation to show the complementary aspects of outcome,
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This paper considers a dynamical way to connect resilience outcomes and processes by nesting process-based approaches inside a controlled dynamical system under resource constraints. To illustrate this, we use a dynamical model of electric power generation to show the complementary aspects of outcome, resources, and process-based approaches for analyzing infrastructure resilience. The results of this stylized model show that adaptation is the most influential process and that for monitoring to be efficient it must account for associated costs. Beyond these specific results, we suggest that nesting outcome- and process-based approaches within a dynamical controlled framework can be very useful and complementary for infrastructure managers and designers tasked with effectively allocating resources for enhancing system resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Infrastructure Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dynamic Amplification Factor of Continuous versus Simply Supported Bridges Due to the Action of a Moving Vehicle
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020012
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Research to date on Dynamic Amplification Factors (DAFs) caused by traffic loading, mostly focused on simply supported bridges, is extended here to multiple-span continuous bridges. Emphasis is placed upon assessing the DAF of hogging bending moments, which has not been sufficiently addressed in
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Research to date on Dynamic Amplification Factors (DAFs) caused by traffic loading, mostly focused on simply supported bridges, is extended here to multiple-span continuous bridges. Emphasis is placed upon assessing the DAF of hogging bending moments, which has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. Vehicle-bridge interaction simulations are employed to analyze the response of a finite element discretized beam subjected to the crossing of two vehicle types: a 2-axle-truck and a 5-axle truck-trailer. Road irregularities are randomly generated for two ISO roughness classes. Noticeable differences appear between DAF of mid-span moment in a simply supported beam, and DAFs of the mid-span sagging moment and of the hogging moment over the internal support in a continuous multiple-span beam. Although the critical location of the maximum static moment over the internal support may indicate that DAF of hogging moment would have to be relatively small, this paper provides evidence that this is not always the case, and that DAFs of hogging moments can be as significant as DAF of sagging moments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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