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Fermentation 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/fermentation3010008

Recent Progress in the Microbial Production of Pyruvic Acid

1
Department of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran
2
School of Chemical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gunnar Lidén
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [475 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Pyruvic acid (pyruvate) is a cellular metabolite found at the biochemical junction of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Pyruvate is used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. Microbial production of pyruvate from either yeast or bacteria relies on restricting the natural catabolism of pyruvate, while also limiting the accumulation of the numerous potential by-products. In this review we describe research to improve pyruvate formation which has targeted both strain development and process development. Strain development requires an understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and the many competing enzymes which use pyruvate as a substrate, and it often combines classical mutation/isolation approaches with modern metabolic engineering strategies. Process development requires an understanding of operational modes and their differing effects on microbial growth and product formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: auxotrophy; Candida glabrata; Escherichia coli; fed-batch; metabolic engineering; pyruvate; pyruvate dehydrogenase auxotrophy; Candida glabrata; Escherichia coli; fed-batch; metabolic engineering; pyruvate; pyruvate dehydrogenase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Maleki, N.; Eiteman, M.A. Recent Progress in the Microbial Production of Pyruvic Acid. Fermentation 2017, 3, 8.

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