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C, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2015), Pages 1-111

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial C—Journal of Carbon Research: A New Dawn
C 2015, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/c1010001
Received: 23 December 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
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Abstract
This new open access journal seeks to cover the whole field of Carbon Research under an open access policy that charges minimal fees for authors without compromising either publishing standards or quality. The Editors and MDPI are committed to the development of a
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This new open access journal seeks to cover the whole field of Carbon Research under an open access policy that charges minimal fees for authors without compromising either publishing standards or quality. The Editors and MDPI are committed to the development of a journal that will be at the cutting edge of the subject.[...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers on Large Woven Cloth
C 2015, 1(1), 2-15; doi:10.3390/c1010002
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 8 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This experimental study aims at the in situ growth of carbon nano-fibers (CNFs) on relatively large (25 × 30 cm2) single-layer carbon-fiber fabrics. It is shown that CNFs can be grown with the distribution potentially suitable for a future use in
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This experimental study aims at the in situ growth of carbon nano-fibers (CNFs) on relatively large (25 × 30 cm2) single-layer carbon-fiber fabrics. It is shown that CNFs can be grown with the distribution potentially suitable for a future use in polymer-matrix composite materials. Details of tuning the catalyst deposition method and the CNF growth process are presented and analyzed. In particular, the Ni catalyst deposition method and the type of solvent are shown to strongly influence the uniformity of a CNF growth on carbon fibers, and sometimes even processibility of the whole specimen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pentaethylenehexamine-C60 for Temperature Consistent Carbon Capture
C 2015, 1(1), 16-26; doi:10.3390/c1010016
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fullerene C60 is directly added to and reacted with plain pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) to give PEHA-functionalized C60 powders. The CO2 capture performance of PEHA-C60 appears to be consistent across a range of temperatures wider than that of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified C
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Fullerene C60 is directly added to and reacted with plain pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) to give PEHA-functionalized C60 powders. The CO2 capture performance of PEHA-C60 appears to be consistent across a range of temperatures wider than that of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified C60, whose high CO2 capture performance drops rapidly with decreasing temperature. At about 30 °C, the CO2 capture capacity of PEHA-C60 is six times higher, 65 mg CO2/g sorbent, than that of PEI-C60, 10 mg/g. In contrast to PEI, PEHA reacts with C60 to form products of greater porosity and smaller particles size that allow for a faster contact between CO2 and amine functions. This in turns translates into a lower energy requirement for CO2 sorption and desorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Nanosheets Based Cathodes for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries
C 2015, 1(1), 27-42; doi:10.3390/c1010027
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lithium-oxygen batteries have attracted considerable attention as a promising energy storage system. Although these batteries have many advantages, they face several critical challenges. In this work, we report the use of graphene nanosheets (GNSs), nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (N-GNSs), exfoliated nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (Ex-N-GNSs),
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Lithium-oxygen batteries have attracted considerable attention as a promising energy storage system. Although these batteries have many advantages, they face several critical challenges. In this work, we report the use of graphene nanosheets (GNSs), nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (N-GNSs), exfoliated nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (Ex-N-GNSs), and a blend of Ex-N-GNSs with nitrogen-doped carbon (Hybrid 1) as oxygen cathodes. These cathode materials were characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to mitigate safety issues, all solid-state cells were designed and fabricated using lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) as ceramic electrolyte. The cathodes prepared from GNSs, N-GNSs, Ex-N-GNSs, and Hybrid 1 exhibit remarkable enhancement in cell capacity in comparison to conventional carbon cathodes. This superior cell performance is ascribed to beneficial properties arising from GNSs and nitrogen doped carbon. GNSs have unique morphology, higher oxygen reduction activity, whereas nitrogen-doped carbon has higher surface area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Power Sources)
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Materials from Lignin and Sodium Lignosulfonate via Diisocyanate Cross-Linking and Subsequent Carbonization
C 2015, 1(1), 43-57; doi:10.3390/c1010043
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Applications for lignin and lignosulfonates are limited today due to the undefined structure and varying properties of the substance. However, lignin, as the second most abundant bio-resource besides cellulose and the bio-resource with one of the highest natural carbon contents, has the potential
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Applications for lignin and lignosulfonates are limited today due to the undefined structure and varying properties of the substance. However, lignin, as the second most abundant bio-resource besides cellulose and the bio-resource with one of the highest natural carbon contents, has the potential to act as a precursor for carbon materials. In this study we have applied a Kraft lignin and a sodium lignosulfonate with the cross-linker toluene-2,4-diisocyanate. The reaction mixture was molded to form small cylindrical shaped paddings. Cross-linked lignin-polyurethane and lignosulfonate-polyurethane networks were analyzed via elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and finally carbonized. The carbon material was analyzed for its BET surface area and its surface structure via scanning electron microscopy. Surface areas between 70 and 80 m²·g−1 could be reached. Moreover, the material was tested for its adsorption potential of crude oil from water and could take up to twice its own weight. For better understanding of the core chemistry of the cross-linking reaction, we have studied the reaction with model substances to define the reactive groups and the influence of sulfonate groups in the cross-linking reaction of lignin and lignosulfonates with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Superior Performance Nanocomposites from Uniformly Dispersed Octadecylamine Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
C 2015, 1(1), 58-76; doi:10.3390/c1010058
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyetherimide (PEI) is a widely applied as engineering plastic in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries but the disadvantages of extremely low conductivity, atmospheric moisture absorption, and poor fluidity at high temperature limits its application. Herein, commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified
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Polyetherimide (PEI) is a widely applied as engineering plastic in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries but the disadvantages of extremely low conductivity, atmospheric moisture absorption, and poor fluidity at high temperature limits its application. Herein, commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified with a long alkyl chain molecule, octadecylamine (ODA), to produce a uniform dispersion in commercial PEI matrices. Both covalent and noncovalent modification of MWCNTs with ODA, were prepared and compared. Modified MWCNTs were incorporated in PEI matrices to fabricate nanocomposite membranes by a simple casting method. Investigating mechanical properties, thermal stability, and conductivity of the polyetherimide (PEI)/MWCNT composites showed a unique combination of properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high mechanical properties, and high thermal stability at a low content of 1.0 wt % loading of ODA modified MWCNTs. Moreover, electrical resistivity decreased around 10 orders of magnitude with only 0.5 wt % of modified MWCNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Raman Spectra of Carbon-Based Materials (from Graphite to Carbon Black) and of Some Silicone Composites
C 2015, 1(1), 77-94; doi:10.3390/c1010077
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as a subject of enormous scientific attention due to their outstanding mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Incorporated in a polymeric matrix, they are expected to significantly improve physical properties of the host medium at extremely small filler content. In
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Carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as a subject of enormous scientific attention due to their outstanding mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Incorporated in a polymeric matrix, they are expected to significantly improve physical properties of the host medium at extremely small filler content. In this work, we report a characterization of various carbonaceous materials by Raman spectroscopy that has become a key technique for the analysis of different types of sp2 nanostructures, including one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene and the effect of disorder in their structures. The dispersion behavior of the D and G’ Raman bands, that is, their shift to higher frequencies with increasing laser excitation energy, is used to assess the interfacial properties between the filler and the surrounding polymer in the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Nanocomposite for Advanced Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Using Vegetation near CO2 Mediated Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) Activities for Monitoring Potential Emissions and Ecological Effects
C 2015, 1(1), 95-111; doi:10.3390/c1010095
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CO2 mediated enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) may lead to methods of CO2 reduction in the atmosphere through carbon capture and storage (CCS); therefore, monitoring and verification methods are needed to ensure that CO2-EOR and CCS activities are
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CO2 mediated enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) may lead to methods of CO2 reduction in the atmosphere through carbon capture and storage (CCS); therefore, monitoring and verification methods are needed to ensure that CO2-EOR and CCS activities are environmentally safe and effective. This study explored vegetation growth rate to determine potential ecological effects of emissions from CO2-EOR activities. Plant relative growth rates (RGR) from plots within an oilfield and reference areas, before and after CO2 breakthrough were used to assess CO2-EOR activities impact surrounding vegetation. The trend for both areas was the decrease in RGR ratio during the study time; however, the decrease in RGR ratio was significantly less in the oilfield area compared to the reference area overall and by subcategories of pine, tree and shrub. Based on data from plant plots, RGR decreased in the reference and oilfield areas except one plot, which increased in RGR. Within the oilfield and reference areas, several species decreased significantly in RGR, but American olive increased in RGR. Vegetation monitoring could provide parameters related to the modeling potential effects of emissions on local ecosystems (species, groups and community) and serve as a necessary component to the monitoring and verification of CO2-EOR and CCS projects. The challenge and limitations of vegetation monitoring were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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