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Bioengineering, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Towards Control of a Transhumeral Prosthesis with EEG Signals
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020026
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Robotic prostheses are expected to allow amputees greater freedom and mobility. However, available options to control transhumeral prostheses are reduced with increasing amputation level. In addition, for electromyography-based control of prostheses, the residual muscles alone cannot generate sufficiently different signals for accurate distal
[...] Read more.
Robotic prostheses are expected to allow amputees greater freedom and mobility. However, available options to control transhumeral prostheses are reduced with increasing amputation level. In addition, for electromyography-based control of prostheses, the residual muscles alone cannot generate sufficiently different signals for accurate distal arm function. Thus, controlling a multi-degree of freedom (DoF) transhumeral prosthesis is challenging with currently available techniques. In this paper, an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based hierarchical two-stage approach is proposed to achieve multi-DoF control of a transhumeral prosthesis. In the proposed method, the motion intention for arm reaching or hand lifting is identified using classifiers trained with motion-related EEG features. For this purpose, neural network and k-nearest neighbor classifiers are used. Then, elbow motion and hand endpoint motion is estimated using a different set of neural-network-based classifiers, which are trained with motion information recorded using healthy subjects. The predictions from the classifiers are compared with residual limb motion to generate a final prediction of motion intention. This can then be used to realize multi-DoF control of a prosthesis. The experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method for multi-DoF control of a transhumeral prosthesis. This proof of concept study was performed with healthy subjects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A 3D Microfluidic Model to Recapitulate Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020029
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
We have developed a microfluidic-based culture chip to simulate cancer cell migration and invasion across the basement membrane. In this microfluidic chip, a 3D microenvironment is engineered to culture metastatic breast cancer cells (MX1) in a 3D tumor model. A chemo-attractant was incorporated
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We have developed a microfluidic-based culture chip to simulate cancer cell migration and invasion across the basement membrane. In this microfluidic chip, a 3D microenvironment is engineered to culture metastatic breast cancer cells (MX1) in a 3D tumor model. A chemo-attractant was incorporated to stimulate motility across the membrane. We validated the usefulness of the chip by tracking the motilities of the cancer cells in the system, showing them to be migrating or invading (akin to metastasis). It is shown that our system can monitor cell migration in real time, as compare to Boyden chambers, for example. Thus, the chip will be of interest to the drug-screening community as it can potentially be used to monitor the behavior of cancer cell motility, and, therefore, metastasis, in the presence of anti-cancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies)
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Open AccessArticle Biocatalyst Screening with a Twist: Application of Oxygen Sensors Integrated in Microchannels for Screening Whole Cell Biocatalyst Variants
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020030
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Selective oxidative functionalization of molecules is a highly relevant and often demanding reaction in organic chemistry. The use of biocatalysts allows the stereo- and regioselective introduction of oxygen molecules in organic compounds at milder conditions and avoids the use of complex group-protection schemes
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Selective oxidative functionalization of molecules is a highly relevant and often demanding reaction in organic chemistry. The use of biocatalysts allows the stereo- and regioselective introduction of oxygen molecules in organic compounds at milder conditions and avoids the use of complex group-protection schemes and toxic compounds usually applied in conventional organic chemistry. The identification of enzymes with the adequate properties for the target reaction and/or substrate requires better and faster screening strategies. In this manuscript, a microchannel with integrated oxygen sensors was applied to the screening of wild-type and site-directed mutated variants of naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. NICB 9816-4. The oxygen sensors were used to measure the oxygen consumption rate of several variants during the conversion of styrene to 1-phenylethanediol. The oxygen consumption rate allowed the distinguishing of endogenous respiration of the cell host from the oxygen consumed in the reaction. Furthermore, it was possible to identify the higher activity and different reaction rate of two variants, relative to the wild-type NDO. The meander microchannel with integrated oxygen sensors can therefore be used as a simple and fast screening platform for the selection of dioxygenase mutants, in terms of their ability to convert styrene, and potentially in terms of substrate specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies)
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Open AccessArticle Musculoskeletal Model Development of the Elbow Joint with an Experimental Evaluation
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020031
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
A dynamic musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint in which muscle, ligament, and articular surface contact forces are predicted concurrently would be an ideal tool for patient-specific preoperative planning, computer-aided surgery, and rehabilitation. Existing musculoskeletal elbow joint models have limited clinical applicability because
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A dynamic musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint in which muscle, ligament, and articular surface contact forces are predicted concurrently would be an ideal tool for patient-specific preoperative planning, computer-aided surgery, and rehabilitation. Existing musculoskeletal elbow joint models have limited clinical applicability because of idealizing the elbow as a mechanical hinge joint or ignoring important soft tissue (e.g., cartilage) contributions. The purpose of this study was to develop a subject-specific anatomically correct musculoskeletal elbow joint model and evaluate it based on experimental kinematics and muscle electromyography measurements. The model included three-dimensional bone geometries, a joint constrained by multiple ligament bundles, deformable contacts, and the natural oblique wrapping of ligaments. The musculoskeletal model predicted the bone kinematics reasonably accurately in three different velocity conditions. The model predicted timing and number of muscle excitations, and the normalized muscle forces were also in agreement with the experiment. The model was able to predict important in vivo parameters that are not possible to measure experimentally, such as muscle and ligament forces, and cartilage contact pressure. In addition, the developed musculoskeletal model was computationally efficient for body-level dynamic simulation. The maximum computation time was less than 30 min for our 35 s simulation. As a predictive clinical tool, the potential medical applications for this model and modeling approach are significant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Computational Design of a Scaffold for Cartilage Cell Regeneration
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020033
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Due to the sensitivity of mammalian cell cultures, understanding the influence of operating conditions during a tissue generation procedure is crucial. In this regard, a detailed study of scaffold based cell culture under a perfusion flow is presented with the aid of mathematical
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Due to the sensitivity of mammalian cell cultures, understanding the influence of operating conditions during a tissue generation procedure is crucial. In this regard, a detailed study of scaffold based cell culture under a perfusion flow is presented with the aid of mathematical modelling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). With respect to the complexity of the case study, this work focuses solely on the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations, and the possible influence of fluid-induced shear stress on a targeted cell (cartilage) culture. The simulation set up gives the possibility of predicting the cell culture behavior under various operating conditions and scaffold designs. Thereby, the exploitation of the predictive simulation into a newly developed stochastic routine provides the opportunity of exploring improved scaffold geometry designs. This approach was applied on a common type of fibrous structure in order to increase the process efficiencies compared with the regular used formats. The suggested topology supplies a larger effective surface for cell attachment compared to the reference design while the level of shear stress is kept at the positive range of effect. Moreover, significant improvement of mass transfer is predicted for the suggested topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies)
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Open AccessArticle Kinetic Modeling of Corn Fermentation with S. cerevisiae Using a Variable Temperature Strategy
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020034
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
While fermentation is usually done at a fixed temperature, in this study, the effect of having a controlled variable temperature was analyzed. A nonlinear system was used to model batch ethanol fermentation, using corn as substrate and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at
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While fermentation is usually done at a fixed temperature, in this study, the effect of having a controlled variable temperature was analyzed. A nonlinear system was used to model batch ethanol fermentation, using corn as substrate and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at five different fixed and controlled variable temperatures. The lower temperatures presented higher ethanol yields but took a longer time to reach equilibrium. Higher temperatures had higher initial growth rates, but the decay of yeast cells was faster compared to the lower temperatures. However, in a controlled variable temperature model, the temperature decreased with time with the initial value of 40 C. When analyzing a time window of 60 h, the ethanol production increased 20% compared to the batch with the highest temperature; however, the yield was still 12% lower compared to the 20 C batch. When the 24 h’ simulation was analyzed, the controlled model had a higher ethanol concentration compared to both fixed temperature batches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification by Multi-Layer Perceptron and Convolution Neural Networks
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020035
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The electrocardiogram (ECG) plays an imperative role in the medical field, as it records heart signal over time and is used to discover numerous cardiovascular diseases. If a documented ECG signal has a certain irregularity in its predefined features, this is called arrhythmia,
[...] Read more.
The electrocardiogram (ECG) plays an imperative role in the medical field, as it records heart signal over time and is used to discover numerous cardiovascular diseases. If a documented ECG signal has a certain irregularity in its predefined features, this is called arrhythmia, the types of which include tachycardia, bradycardia, supraventricular arrhythmias, and ventricular, etc. This has encouraged us to do research that consists of distinguishing between several arrhythmias by using deep neural network algorithms such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and convolution neural network (CNN). The TensorFlow library that was established by Google for deep learning and machine learning is used in python to acquire the algorithms proposed here. The ECG databases accessible at PhysioBank.com and kaggle.com were used for training, testing, and validation of the MLP and CNN algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of four hidden layers with weights, biases in MLP, and four-layer convolution neural networks which map ECG samples to the different classes of arrhythmia. The accuracy of the algorithm surpasses the performance of the current algorithms that have been developed by other cardiologists in both sensitivity and precision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cardiac Cell Outgrowth Assay for Evaluating Drug Compounds Using a Cardiac Spheroid-on-a-Chip Device
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020036
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) models with cells arranged in clusters or spheroids have emerged as valuable tools to improve physiological relevance in drug screening. One of the challenges with cells cultured in 3D, especially for high-throughput applications, is to quickly and non-invasively assess the cellular
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) models with cells arranged in clusters or spheroids have emerged as valuable tools to improve physiological relevance in drug screening. One of the challenges with cells cultured in 3D, especially for high-throughput applications, is to quickly and non-invasively assess the cellular state in vitro. In this article, we show that the number of cells growing out from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiac spheroids can be quantified to serve as an indicator of a drug’s effect on spheroids captured in a microfluidic device. Combining this spheroid-on-a-chip with confocal high content imaging reveals easily accessible, quantitative outgrowth data. We found that effects on outgrowing cell numbers correlate to the concentrations of relevant pharmacological compounds and could thus serve as a practical readout to monitor drug effects. Here, we demonstrate the potential of this semi-high-throughput “cardiac cell outgrowth assay” with six compounds at three concentrations applied to spheroids for 48 h. The image-based readout complements end-point assays or may be used as a non-invasive assay for quality control during long-term culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-RSV Peptide-Loaded Liposomes for the Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020037
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and adults, effective treatment options remain limited. To circumvent this issue, there is a novel approach, namely, the development of multifunctional liposomes for the delivery
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Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and adults, effective treatment options remain limited. To circumvent this issue, there is a novel approach, namely, the development of multifunctional liposomes for the delivery of anti RSV-peptides. While most of the peptides that are used for loading with the particulate delivery systems are the penetrating peptides, an alternative approach is the development of liposome-peptide systems, which are loaded with an RSV fusion peptide (RF-482), which has been designed to inhibit the RSV fusion and block infection. The results of this work have revealed that the liposomes themselves can serve as potential RSV inhibitors, whilst the anti-RSV-peptide with liposomes can significantly increase the RSV inhibition when compared with the anti-RSV peptide alone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Guiding Device for the Patellar Cut in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Design and Validation
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020038
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
An incorrect cut of the patella (kneecap) during total knee arthroplasty, affects the thickness in different quadrants of the patella, leading to pain and poor function. Because of the disadvantages of existing devices, many surgeons choose to perform the cut freehand. Given this
[...] Read more.
An incorrect cut of the patella (kneecap) during total knee arthroplasty, affects the thickness in different quadrants of the patella, leading to pain and poor function. Because of the disadvantages of existing devices, many surgeons choose to perform the cut freehand. Given this mistrust of existing devices, a quick, but accurate, method is needed that guides the cut, without constraining the surgeon. A novel device is described that allows the surgeon to mark a line at the desired cutting plane parallel to the front (anterior) surface using a cautery tool, remove the device, and then align the saw guide, reamer, or freehand saw with the marked line to cut the patella. The device was tested on 36 artificial patellae, custom-molded from two shapes considered easier and harder to resect accurately, and eight paired cadaveric specimens, each in comparison to the conventional saw guide technique. The mediolateral angle, superoinferior angle, difference from intended thickness, and time were comparable or better for the new device. Addressing the remaining outliers should be possible through additional design changes. Use of this guidance device has the potential to improve patellar resection accuracy, as well as provide training to residents and a double-check and feedback tool for expert surgeons. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Non-Transfusional Hemocomponents: From Biology to the Clinic—A Literature Review
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020027
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Non-transfusional hemocomponents for surgical use are autogenous products prepared through the centrifugation of a blood sample from a patient. Their potential beneficial outcomes include hard and soft tissue regeneration, local hemostasis, and the acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, they are suitable for application
[...] Read more.
Non-transfusional hemocomponents for surgical use are autogenous products prepared through the centrifugation of a blood sample from a patient. Their potential beneficial outcomes include hard and soft tissue regeneration, local hemostasis, and the acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, they are suitable for application in different medical fields as therapeutic options and in surgical practices that require tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Biomaterials for Regenerative Engineering)
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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Use of Stem Cells for Myocardial Infarction
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020028
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medical and surgical treatments can significantly improve patient outcomes, no treatment currently available is able to generate new contractile tissue or reverse ischemic myocardium. Driven by the recent/novel understanding that regenerative
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Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medical and surgical treatments can significantly improve patient outcomes, no treatment currently available is able to generate new contractile tissue or reverse ischemic myocardium. Driven by the recent/novel understanding that regenerative processes do exist in the myocardium—tissue previously thought not to possess regenerative properties—the use of stem cells has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach with high expectations. The literature describes the use of cells from various sources, categorizing them as either embryonic, induced pluripotent, or adult/tissue stem cells (mesenchymal, hematopoietic, skeletal myoblasts, cardiac stem cells). Many publications show the successful use of these cells to regenerate damaged myocardium in both animal and human models; however, more studies are needed to directly compare cells of various origins in efforts to draw conclusions on the ideal source. Although numerous challenges exist in this developing area of research and clinical practice, prospects are encouraging. The following aims to provide a concise review outlining the different types of stem cells used in patients after myocardial infarction. Full article
Open AccessReview Role of Bioreactor Technology in Tissue Engineering for Clinical Use and Therapeutic Target Design
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020032
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Micro and small bioreactors are well described for use in bioprocess development in pre-production manufacture, using ultra-scale down and microfluidic methodology. However, the use of bioreactors to understand normal and pathophysiology by definition must be very different, and the constraints of the physiological
[...] Read more.
Micro and small bioreactors are well described for use in bioprocess development in pre-production manufacture, using ultra-scale down and microfluidic methodology. However, the use of bioreactors to understand normal and pathophysiology by definition must be very different, and the constraints of the physiological environment influence such bioreactor design. This review considers the key elements necessary to enable bioreactors to address three main areas associated with biological systems. All entail recreation of the in vivo cell niche as faithfully as possible, so that they may be used to study molecular and cellular changes in normal physiology, with a view to creating tissue-engineered grafts for clinical use; understanding the pathophysiology of disease at the molecular level; defining possible therapeutic targets; and enabling appropriate pharmaceutical testing on a truly representative organoid, thus enabling better drug design, and simultaneously creating the potential to reduce the numbers of animals in research. The premise explored is that not only cellular signalling cues, but also mechano-transduction from mechanical cues, play an important role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies)
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