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Inorganics, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Rare Earth and Actinide Complexes
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 31; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040031
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
The rare earth metals (scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and the subsequent 4f elements) and actinides (actinium and the 5f elements) are vital components of our technology-dominated society.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Earth and Actinide Complexes) Printed Edition available
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle The Role of Anisotropic Exchange in Single Molecule Magnets: A CASSCF/NEVPT2 Study of the Fe4 SMM Building Block [Fe2(OCH3)2(dbm)4] Dimer
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 28; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040028
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rationalisation of single molecule magnets’ (SMMs) magnetic properties by quantum mechanical approaches represents a major task in the field of the Molecular Magnetism. The fundamental interpretative key of molecular magnetism is the phenomenological Spin Hamiltonian and the understanding of the role of
[...] Read more.
The rationalisation of single molecule magnets’ (SMMs) magnetic properties by quantum mechanical approaches represents a major task in the field of the Molecular Magnetism. The fundamental interpretative key of molecular magnetism is the phenomenological Spin Hamiltonian and the understanding of the role of its different terms by electronic structure calculations is expected to steer the rational design of new and more performing SMMs. This paper deals with the ab initio calculation of isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions in the Fe(III) dimer [Fe 2 (OCH 3 ) 2 (dbm) 4 ]. This system represents the building block of one of the most studied Single Molecule Magnets ([Fe 4 RC(CH 2 O) 3 ) 2 (dpm) 6 ] where R can be an aliphatic chain or a phenyl group just to name the most common functionalization groups) and its relatively reduced size allows the use of a high computational level of theory. Calculations were performed using CASSCF and NEVPT2 approaches on the X-ray geometry as assessment of the computational protocol, which has then be used to evinced the importance of the outer coordination shell nature through organic ligand modelization. Magneto-structural correlations as function of internal degrees of freedom for isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions are also presented, outlining, for the first time, the extremely rapidly changing nature of the anisotropic exchange coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traversing the Boundaries of Inorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Structure Determination of the Quaternary Zinc Nitride Halides Zn2NX1−yX′y (X, X′ = Cl, Br, I; 0 < y < 1)
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 29; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040029
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
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Abstract
The quaternary series Zn2NCl1−yBry and Zn2NBr1−yIy were synthesized from solid-liquid reactions between zinc nitride and the respective zinc halides in closed ampoules, and the evolution of their crystal structures was investigated
[...] Read more.
The quaternary series Zn2NCl1−yBry and Zn2NBr1−yIy were synthesized from solid-liquid reactions between zinc nitride and the respective zinc halides in closed ampoules, and the evolution of their crystal structures was investigated by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. Zn2NX1−yX′y (X, X′ = Cl, Br, I) adopts the anti-β-NaFeO2 motif in which each nitride ion is tetrahedrally coordinated by four zinc cations, and the halide anions are located in the voids of the skeleton formed by corner-sharing [NZn4] tetrahedra. While Zn2NCl1−yBry crystallizes in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna21 (No. 33), isotypic to Zn2NX (X = Cl, Br), the structure of Zn2NBr1−yIy is a function of the iodide concentration, namely, Zn2NBr (Pna21) for low iodine content and Zn2NI (Pnma) for higher (y ≥ 0.38). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Solid-State Nitride Materials)
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Open AccessArticle η12-P-Pyrazolylphosphaalkene Complexes of Ruthenium(0)
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 30; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040030
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
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Abstract
An extended range of novel ruthenium phosphaalkene complexes of the type [Ru{η1-N2-P,C-P(pz′)=CH(SiMe2R)}(CO)(PPh3)2] (R = Tol, C6H4CF3-p; pz′ = pz
[...] Read more.
An extended range of novel ruthenium phosphaalkene complexes of the type [Ru{η1-N2-P,C-P(pz′)=CH(SiMe2R)}(CO)(PPh3)2] (R = Tol, C6H4CF3-p; pz′ = pzMe2, pzCF3, pzMe,CF3; R = Me, C6H4CF3-p; pz′ = pzPh) have been prepared from the respective ruthenaphosphaalkenyls [Ru{P=CH(SiMe2R)}Cl(CO)(PPh3)2] upon treatment with Lipz′. Where R = C6H4CF3-p and pz′ = pzMe2 the complex is characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, only the second example of such species being structurally characterized. This indicates enhanced pyramidalisation of the alkenic carbon center when compared with precedent data (R = Me, pz′ = pz) implying an enhanced Ru→π*PC contribution, which can be correlated with the greater donor power of pzMe2. This is similarly reflected in spectroscopic data that reveal significant influence of the pyrazolyl substituents upon the phosphaalkene, stronger donors imparting significantly enhanced shielding to phosphorus; in contrast, a much lesser influence if noted for the silyl substituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organophosphorus Chemistry 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Ionic Liquids
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 32; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040032
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cellulose is the single largest component of lignocellulosic biomass and is an attractive feedstock for a wide variety of renewable platform chemicals and biofuels, providing an alternative to petrochemicals and petrofuels. This potential is currently limited by the existing methods of transforming this
[...] Read more.
Cellulose is the single largest component of lignocellulosic biomass and is an attractive feedstock for a wide variety of renewable platform chemicals and biofuels, providing an alternative to petrochemicals and petrofuels. This potential is currently limited by the existing methods of transforming this poorly soluble polymer into useful chemical building blocks, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Ionic liquids have been used successfully to separate cellulose from the other components of lignocellulosic biomass and so the use of the same medium for the challenging transformation of cellulose into HMF would be highly attractive for the development of the biorefinery concept. In this report, ionic liquids based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations [C4C1im]+ with Lewis basic (X = Cl) and Brønsted acidic (X = HSO4) anions were used to investigate the direct catalytic transformation of cellulose to HMF. Variables probed included the composition of the ionic liquid medium, the metal catalyst, and the reaction conditions (temperature, substrate concentration). Lowering the cellulose loading and optimising the temperature achieved a 58% HMF yield after only one hour at 150 °C using a 7 mol % loading of the CrCl3 catalyst. This compares favourably with current literature procedures requiring much longer reactions times or approaches that are difficult to scale such as microwave irradiation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 33; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040033
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
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Abstract
The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the
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The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the starting solution, hydroxyapatite or brushite precipitates form. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy also show that significant amounts of nitrate ions are incorporated in the precipitates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ca/P ratio varies throughout the samples and resembles that of other bioinspired calcium phosphate hybrid materials. Elemental analysis shows that the carbon (i.e., polymer) contents reach 10% in some samples, clearly illustrating the formation of a true hybrid material. Overall, the data indicate that a higher polymer concentration in the reaction mixture favors the formation of polymer-enriched materials, while lower polymer concentrations or high precursor concentrations favor the formation of products that are closely related to the control samples precipitated in the absence of polymer. The results thus highlight the potential of (water-soluble) cellulose derivatives for the synthesis and design of bioinspired and bio-based hybrid materials. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Metal-Free Reduction of Phosphine Oxides Using Polymethylhydrosiloxane
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 34; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040034
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
A simple protocol is presented here for the use of inexpensive polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS), a waste product of the silicon industry, as stoichiometric reducing agent for phosphine oxides to phosphines, a highly desirable reaction to recover P-based ligands from their spent form. The reactions
[...] Read more.
A simple protocol is presented here for the use of inexpensive polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS), a waste product of the silicon industry, as stoichiometric reducing agent for phosphine oxides to phosphines, a highly desirable reaction to recover P-based ligands from their spent form. The reactions were studied by screening parameters, such as substrate to reductant ratio, temperature and reaction time, achieving good conversions and selectivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organophosphorus Chemistry 2016)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Studies and Magnetic Properties of the Cmcm Polymorph of LiCoPO4 with a Hierarchical Dumbbell-Like Morphology Synthesized by Easy Single-Step Polyol Synthesis
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 35; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040035
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
LiCoPO4 (LCP) exists in three different structural modifications: LCP-Pnma (olivine structure), LCP-Pn21a (KNiPO4 structure type), and LCP-Cmcm (Na2CrO4 structure type). The synthesis of the LCP-Cmcm polymorph has been reported via high
[...] Read more.
LiCoPO4 (LCP) exists in three different structural modifications: LCP-Pnma (olivine structure), LCP-Pn21a (KNiPO4 structure type), and LCP-Cmcm (Na2CrO4 structure type). The synthesis of the LCP-Cmcm polymorph has been reported via high pressure/temperature solid-state methods and by microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis. Phase transitions from both LCP-Pn21a and LCP-Cmcm to LCP-Pnma upon heating indicates a metastable behavior. However, a precise study of the structural changes during the heating process and the magnetic properties of LCP-Cmcm are hitherto unknown. Herein, we present the synthesis and characterization of LCP-Cmcm via a rapid and facile soft-chemistry approach using two different kinetically controlled pathways, solvothermal and polyol syntheses, both of which only require relatively low temperatures (~200 °C). Additionally, by polyol, method a dumbbell-like morphology is obtained without the use of any additional surfactant or template. A temperature-dependent in situ powder XRD shows a transition from LCP-Cmcm at room temperature to LCP-Pnma and finally to LCP-Pn21a at 575 and 725 °C, respectively. In addition to that, the determination of the magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature indicates a long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN = 11 K at 10 kOe and 9.1 K at 25 kOe. The magnetization curves suggests the presence of a metamagnetic transition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle PP-Rotation, P-Inversion and Metathesis in Diphosphines Studied by DFT Calculations: Comments on Some Literature Conflicts
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040036
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
The potential energy surface for internal rotation about the phosphorus–phosphorus bond was calculated at the PCMDCM/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) computational level for a set of eight symmetrical, unsymmetrical and P-stereogenic diphosphines; H4P2, Me4P2, (CF3
[...] Read more.
The potential energy surface for internal rotation about the phosphorus–phosphorus bond was calculated at the PCMDCM/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) computational level for a set of eight symmetrical, unsymmetrical and P-stereogenic diphosphines; H4P2, Me4P2, (CF3)4P2, Ph4P2, Me2P–P(CF3)2, Me2P–PPh2, and the meso- and dl-isomers of Me(CF3)P–PMe(CF3) and MePhP–PMePh. Certain trends in the data were elucidated and compared with conflicting data from the literature regarding the relative population of anti and gauche rotational isomers. The pyramidal inversion barriers (stereomutation barriers in P-stereogenic cases) for the same set of diphosphines was estimated through the inversion transition states and also compared to literature values. Finally, the Me4P2 + (CF3)4P2 → 2Me2(CF3)2P2 metathesis reaction was also explored to evaluate its feasibility versus inversion. The finding of larger barriers in the metathesis than in the inversion rules in favour of an inversion mechanism for the stereomutation of P-stereogenic diphosphines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organophosphorus Chemistry 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Steroid-Functionalized Titanocenes: Docking Studies with Estrogen Receptor Alpha
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040038
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a transcription factor that is activated by hormones, with 17β-estradiol being its most active agonist endogenous ligand. ERα is also activated or inactivated by exogenous ligands. ER is overexpressed in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and one of the treatments
[...] Read more.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a transcription factor that is activated by hormones, with 17β-estradiol being its most active agonist endogenous ligand. ERα is also activated or inactivated by exogenous ligands. ER is overexpressed in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and one of the treatments for this type of cancer is the use of an ER antagonist to halt cell proliferation. We have previously reported four steroid-functionalized titanocenes: pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), trans-androsterone, and androsterone. These steroids have hormonal activity as well as moderate antiproliferative activity, thus these steroids could act as vectors for the titanocene dichloride to target hormone-dependent cancers. Also, these steroids could increase the antiproliferative activity of the resulting titanocenes based on synergism. In order to elucidate which factors contribute to the enhanced antiproliferative activity of these steroid-functionalized titanocenes, we performed docking studies between ERα and the titanocenes and the steroids. The binding affinities and type of bonding interactions of the steroid-functionalized titanocenes with ERα are herein discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Inhibiting Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of Bromo- and Iodo-2,6-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)benzene with Magnesium and Calcium
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040039
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Arylmagnesium and -calcium reagents are easily accessible; however, ether degradation processes limit storability, especially of the calcium-based heavy Grignard reagents. Ortho-bound substituents with phosphanyl donor sites usually block available coordination sites and stabilize such complexes. The reaction of bromo-2,6-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)benzene (1a) with
[...] Read more.
Arylmagnesium and -calcium reagents are easily accessible; however, ether degradation processes limit storability, especially of the calcium-based heavy Grignard reagents. Ortho-bound substituents with phosphanyl donor sites usually block available coordination sites and stabilize such complexes. The reaction of bromo-2,6-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)benzene (1a) with magnesium in tetrahydrofuran yields [Mg{C6H3-2,6-(CH2PPh2)2}2] (2) after recrystallization from 1,2-dimethoxyethane. However, the similarly performed reduction of bromo- (1a) and iodo-2,6-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)benzene (1b) with calcium leads to ether cleavage and subsequent degradation products. α-Deprotonation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) yields 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)benzene. Furthermore, the insoluble THF adducts of dimeric calcium diphenylphosphinate halides, [(thf)3Ca(X)(µ-O2PPh2)]2 [X = Br (3a), I (3b)], precipitate verifying ether decomposition and cleavage of P–C bonds. Ether adducts of calcium halides (such as [(dme)2(thf)CaBr2] (4)) form, supporting the initial Grignard reaction and a subsequent Schlenk-type dismutation reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organophosphorus Chemistry 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of a Sulfonyl- and Iminophosphoryl-Functionalized Methanide and Methandiide
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 40; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040040
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
The synthesis of [H2C(PPh2=NSiMe3)(SO2Ph)] (1) and its mono- and dimetalation are reported. Due to the strong anion-stabilizing abilities of the iminophosphoryl and the sulfonyl group monometalation to 1-K and dimetalation to 1-Li2
[...] Read more.
The synthesis of [H2C(PPh2=NSiMe3)(SO2Ph)] (1) and its mono- and dimetalation are reported. Due to the strong anion-stabilizing abilities of the iminophosphoryl and the sulfonyl group monometalation to 1-K and dimetalation to 1-Li2 proceed smoothly with potassium hydride and methyllithium, respectively. Both compounds could be isolated in high yields and were characterized by NMR spectroscopy as well as XRD analysis. The methanide 1-K forms a coordination polymer in the solid state, while in case of the methandiide a tetrameric structure is observed. The latter features an unusual structural motif consisting of two (SO2Li)2 eight-membered rings, which are connected with each other via the methandiide carbon atoms and additional lithium atoms. With increasing metalation a contraction of the P–C–S linkage is observed, which is well in line with the increased charge at the central carbon atom and involved electrostatic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue s-Block Metal Complexes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Ammonothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Diamminetriamidodizinc Chloride [Zn2(NH3)2(NH2)3]Cl and Diamminemonoamidozinc Bromide [Zn(NH3)2(NH2)]Br
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 41; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040041
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
The treatment of excess zinc in the presence of ammonium chloride under ammonothermal conditions of 873 K and 97 MPa leads to diamminetriamidodizinc chloride [Zn2(NH3)2(NH2)3]Cl with a two-dimensionally μ-amido-interconnected substructure. Similar reaction conditions
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The treatment of excess zinc in the presence of ammonium chloride under ammonothermal conditions of 873 K and 97 MPa leads to diamminetriamidodizinc chloride [Zn2(NH3)2(NH2)3]Cl with a two-dimensionally μ-amido-interconnected substructure. Similar reaction conditions using ammonium bromide instead of the chloride (773 K, 230 MPa) result in diamminemonoamidozinc bromide [Zn(NH3)2(NH2)]Br with one-dimensional infinite μ-amido-bridged chains. Both compounds were obtained as colorless, very moisture sensitive crystals. Crystal structures and hydrogen bond schemes are analyzed. Raman spectroscopic data of the chloride are reported. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Single Crystal Growth and Anisotropic Magnetic Properties of Li2Sr[Li1 − xFexN]2
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 42; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040042
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
Up to now, investigation of physical properties of ternary and higher nitridometalates has been severely hampered by challenges concerning phase purity and crystal size. Employing a modified lithium flux technique, we are now able to prepare sufficiently large single crystals of the highly
[...] Read more.
Up to now, investigation of physical properties of ternary and higher nitridometalates has been severely hampered by challenges concerning phase purity and crystal size. Employing a modified lithium flux technique, we are now able to prepare sufficiently large single crystals of the highly air and moisture sensitive nitridoferrate Li 2 Sr[Li 1 x Fe x N] 2 for anisotropic magnetization measurements. The magnetic properties are most remarkable: large anisotropy and coercivity fields of 7 Tesla at T = 2 K indicate a significant orbital contribution to the magnetic moment of iron. Altogether, the novel growth method opens a route towards interesting phases in the comparatively recent research field of nitridometalates and should be applicable to various other materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Solid-State Nitride Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Structural Classification of Quasi-One-Dimensional Ternary Nitrides
Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040037
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
This review focuses on the crystal structural features of ternary (mixed-metal) quasi-one-dimensional nitrides i.e., nitrides containing (cation-N3−) coordination polyhedra sharing either corners, edges, or faces, arranged in linear chains, and intercalated by a counter ion. The current relevance of these nitrides,
[...] Read more.
This review focuses on the crystal structural features of ternary (mixed-metal) quasi-one-dimensional nitrides i.e., nitrides containing (cation-N3−) coordination polyhedra sharing either corners, edges, or faces, arranged in linear chains, and intercalated by a counter ion. The current relevance of these nitrides, and of quasi-one-dimensional compounds in general, lies in the fact that they are closely related to the pure one-dimensional systems (i.e., nanowires), which are vastly researched for their amazing properties closely related to their low dimensionality. A number of these properties were firstly discovered in quasi-one-dimensional compounds, highlighting the importance of expanding knowledge and research in this area. Furthermore, unlike oxides, nitrides and other non-oxide compounds are less developed, hence more difficult to categorise into structural classes that can then be related to other classes of compounds, leading to a fuller picture of structure–properties relationship. Within this context, this review aims to categorise and describe a number of ternary (mixed-metal) quasi-one-dimensional nitrides according to their structural features, specifically, the polyhedra forming the one-dimensional chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Solid-State Nitride Materials)
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